Herpes zoster and tofacitinib therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
ABSTRACT: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ) (i.e., shingles). The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with tofacitinib increases the risk of HZ in patients with RA.HZ cases were identified as those reported by trial investigators from the databases of the phase II, phase III, and long-term extension (LTE) clinical trials in the Tofacitinib RA Development Program. Crude incidence rates (IRs) of HZ per 100 patient-years (with 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) were calculated by exposure group. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate potential risk factors for HZ (e.g., age, prednisone use).Among 4,789 participants, 239 were identified as having tofacitinib-associated HZ during the phase II, phase III, and LTE trials, of whom 208 (87%) were female and whose median age was 57 years (range 21-75 years). One HZ case (0.4%) was multidermatomal; none of the cases involved visceral dissemination or death. Twenty-four patients with HZ (10%) permanently discontinued treatment with tofacitinib, and 16 (7%) were either hospitalized or received intravenous antiviral drugs. The crude HZ IR across the development program was 4.4 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 3.8-4.9), but the IR was substantially higher within Asia (7.7 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 6.4-9.3). Older age was associated with HZ (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.6), and IRs for HZ were similar between patients receiving 5 mg tofacitinib twice daily (4.4 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.2-6.0) and those receiving 10 mg twice daily (4.2 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.1-5.8). In the phase III trials among placebo recipients, the incidence of HZ was 1.5 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5-4.6).In the Tofacitinib RA Development Program, increased rates of HZ were observed in patients treated with tofacitinib compared with those receiving placebo, particularly among patients within Asia. Complicated HZ among tofacitinib-treated patients was rare.
Project description:Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of herpes zoster (HZ), and the risk appears to be increased in patients treated with tofacitinib. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether concomitant treatment with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) or glucocorticoids (GCs) contributes to the increased risk of HZ in RA patients treated with tofacitinib.HZ cases were identified from the databases of 2 phase I, 9 phase II, 6 phase III, and 2 long-term extension studies of tofacitinib in RA patients. Crude incidence rates (IRs) of all HZ events (serious and nonserious) per 100 patient-years (with 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) were calculated for unique patients. Within phase III studies, we described HZ rates according to concomitant csDMARD treatment and baseline GC use. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate HZ risk factors across studies.Across all studies (6,192 patients; 16,839 patient-years), HZ was reported in 636 tofacitinib-treated patients (IR 4.0, 95% CI 3.7-4.4). In most cases (93%), HZ was classified as nonserious, and the majority of patients (94%) had involvement of only 1 dermatome. HZ IRs varied across regions, from 2.4 (95% CI 2.0-2.9) in Eastern Europe to 8.0 (95% CI 6.6-9.6) in Japan and 8.4 (95% CI 6.4-10.9) in Korea. Within phase III studies, HZ IRs varied according to tofacitinib dose, background csDMARD treatment, and baseline use of GCs. The IRs were numerically lowest for monotherapy with tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily without GCs (IR 0.56 [95% CI 0.07-2.01]) and highest for tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily with csDMARDs and GCs (IR 5.44 [95% CI 3.72-7.68]). Age, GC use, tofacitinib dose, and enrollment within Asia were independent risk factors for HZ.Patients receiving treatment with tofacitinib and GCs appear to have a greater risk of developing HZ compared with patients receiving tofacitinib monotherapy without GCs.
Project description:Background:Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor that is being investigated for ulcerative colitis (UC). Tofacitinib is approved for rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, where it has been shown to increase herpes zoster (HZ) risk. We evaluated HZ risk among UC patients using tofacitinib. Methods:HZ cases were identified in tofacitinib phase II/III/ongoing, open-label, long-term extension (OLE) UC trials. We calculated HZ incidence rates (IRs) per 100 patient-years of tofacitinib exposure within phase III maintenance (Maintenance Cohort) and phase II/III/OLE (Overall Cohort) studies, stratified by baseline demographics and other factors. HZ risk factors were evaluated in the Overall Cohort using Cox proportional hazard models. Results:Overall, 65 (5.6%) patients developed HZ. Eleven patients had multidermatomal involvement (2 nonadjacent or 3-6 adjacent dermatomes), and 1 developed encephalitis (resolved upon standard treatment). Five (7.7%) events led to treatment discontinuation. HZ IR (95% confidence interval [CI]) in the Overall Cohort was 4.07 (3.14-5.19) over a mean (range) of 509.1 (1-1606) days, with no increased risk observed with increasing tofacitinib exposure. IRs (95% CI) were highest in patients age ?65 years, 9.55 (4.77-17.08); Asian patients, 6.49 (3.55-10.89); patients with prior tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) failure, 5.38 (3.86-7.29); and patients using tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily, 4.25 (3.18-5.56). Multivariate analysis identified older age and prior TNFi failure as independent risk factors. Conclusions:In tofacitinib-treated UC patients, there was an elevated risk of HZ, although complicated HZ was infrequent. Increased HZ rates occurred in patients who were older, Asian, or had prior TNFi failure (NCT00787202, NCT01465763, NCT01458951, NCT01458574, NCT01470612).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To explore herpes zoster (HZ) rates and live zoster vaccine (LZV) safety in a subset of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who received LZV before tofacitinib ± methotrexate (MTX), or adalimumab (ADA) plus MTX in the ORAL Strategy. METHODS:ORAL Strategy was a 1-year, phase IIIb/IV, randomized, triple-dummy, active-comparator-controlled study. MTX-inadequate responder patients received tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily (BID), tofacitinib 5 mg BID plus MTX, or ADA 40 mg every other week plus MTX (1:1:1 randomization). Eligible patients age ?50 years could opt to receive LZV 28 days before initiating study treatment. HZ incidence rates (IRs; patients with events per 100 patient-years) were calculated. Opportunistic HZ infections (multidermatomal/disseminated), serious HZ events, and LZV-related adverse events were monitored. RESULTS:In ORAL Strategy, 216 of 1,146 patients (18.8%) received LZV. Overall, 18 patients (1.6%) developed HZ (vaccinated: n = 3; nonvaccinated: n = 15). HZ IRs were 1.1 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.3-2.9), 2.3 (95% CI 1.0-4.6), and 1.7 (95% CI 0.6-3.7) for tofacitinib monotherapy, tofacitinib plus MTX, and ADA plus MTX, respectively, and were generally similar between vaccinated and nonvaccinated patients. Three multidermatomal, 1 disseminated, and 2 serious HZ events occurred. No vaccinated patients had zoster-like lesions within 42 days of vaccination; 1 patient had vaccination-site erythema. CONCLUSION:LZV was well tolerated, and HZ IRs were generally similar between treatment groups and vaccinated versus nonvaccinated patients. However, ORAL Strategy was not powered for comparisons between vaccinated and nonvaccinated patients because <20% of all patients were vaccinated. Furthermore, LZV has been shown to be effective only in ~50% of individuals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Final data are presented for the ORAL Sequel long-term extension (LTE) study evaluating the safety and efficacy of tofacitinib 5?mg and 10?mg twice daily (BID) for up to 9.5?years in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS:Eligible patients had previously completed a phase 1, 2, or 3 qualifying index study of tofacitinib and received open-label tofacitinib 5?mg or 10?mg BID. Stable background therapy, including csDMARDs, was continued; adjustments to tofacitinib or background therapy were permitted at investigators' discretion. Assignment to dose groups (5?mg or 10?mg BID) was based on patients' average total daily dose. The primary objective was to determine the long-term safety and tolerability of tofacitinib 5?mg and 10?mg BID; the key secondary objective was to evaluate the long-term persistence of efficacy. RESULTS:Between February 5, 2007, and November 30, 2016, 4481 patients were enrolled. Total tofacitinib exposure was 16,291 patient-years. Safety data are reported up to month 114 for all tofacitinib; efficacy data are reported up to month 96 for tofacitinib 5?mg BID and month 72 for 10?mg BID (with low patient numbers limiting interpretation beyond these time points). Overall, 52% of patients discontinued (24% due to adverse events [AEs] and 4% due to insufficient clinical response); the safety profile remained consistent with that observed in prior phase 1, 2, 3, or LTE studies. The incidence rate (IR; number of patients with events per 100 patient-years) for AEs leading to discontinuation was 6.8. For all-cause AEs of special interest, IRs were 3.4 for herpes zoster, 2.4 for serious infections, 0.8 for malignancies excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, 0.4 for major adverse cardiovascular events, and 0.3 for all-cause mortality. Clinically meaningful improvements in the signs and symptoms of RA and physical functioning, which were observed in the index studies, were maintained. CONCLUSIONS:Tofacitinib 5?mg and 10?mg BID demonstrated a consistent safety profile (as monotherapy or combination therapy) and sustained efficacy in this open-label LTE study of patients with RA. Safety data are reported up to 9.5?years, and efficacy data up to 8?years, based on adequate patient numbers to support conclusions. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT00413699 , funded by Pfizer Inc (date of trial registration: December 20, 2006).
Project description:To evaluate the risks of herpes zoster (HZ) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection associated with tofacitinib compared with biologic agents among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Using health plan data from 2010 to 2014, patients with RA initiating tofacitinib or biologics with no history of HZ or HSV were identified, as were incident cases of HZ or HSV. Crude incidence rates were calculated by drug exposure. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the adjusted association between tofacitinib and HZ, and a composite outcome of HZ or HSV.A total of 2526 patients initiating tofacitinib were compared with initiations of other biologics: anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) (n=42 850), abatacept (n=12 305), rituximab (n=5078) and tocilizumab (n=6967). Patients receiving tofacitinib were somewhat younger (mean age 55?years) versus those on other biologics, and somewhat less likely to use concomitant methotrexate (MTX) (39% vs 43%-56%, depending on drug). Crude incidence of HZ associated with tofacitinib was 3.87/100?patient-years (py). After multivariable adjustment, HZ risk was significantly elevated, HR 2.01 (95% CI 1.40 to 2.88) compared with abatacept. Rates and adjusted HRs for all other RA biologics were comparable with each other and abatacept. Older age, female sex, prednisone >7.5?mg/day, prior outpatient infection and greater number of hospitalisations were also associated with increased HZ risk. Incidence rates for the combined outcome were greatest for tofacitinib (7.61/100?py) and also significantly elevated after adjustment (HR=1.40, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.81).The rate of zoster associated with tofacitinib was approximately double that observed in patients using biologics.
Project description:AIM:We report tofacitinib efficacy and safety in Asia-Pacific patients who participated in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) clinical development program. METHOD:This post-hoc analysis included pooled data from patients with RA in the Asia-Pacific region treated with tofacitinib with/without conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in Phase (P)1, 2, 3, and long-term extension (LTE) studies (one LTE ongoing; January 2016 data-cut). Efficacy was assessed over 24 months in patients who received tofacitinib 5 (N = 397) or 10 (N = 382) mg twice daily or placebo (N = 243) in three P2 and five P3 studies. Endpoints included American College of Rheumatology (ACR)20/50/70 responses, Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-4[ESR]) and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) remission rates, and change from baseline in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (?HAQ-DI). Safety data pooled over 92 months from one P1, four P2, six P3, and two LTE studies for all tofacitinib doses (N = 1464) included incidence rates (IRs) (patients with events/100 patient-years) for adverse events (AEs) of special interest. RESULTS:At month 3, patients receiving tofacitinib 5/10 mg twice daily improved vs placebo in ACR20 (69.2%/77.9% vs 27.5%), ACR50 (36.9%/44.4% vs 9.5%), and ACR70 (15.1%/22.4% vs 2.7%) responses, remission rates for DAS28-4(ESR) (8.5%/18.5% vs 2.6%) and CDAI (6.1%/12.3% vs 0.5%), and ?HAQ-DI (-0.5/-0.6 vs -0.1); improvements were sustained through 24 months. IRs (95% CI) were 9.4 (8.5, 10.3) for serious AEs, 9.1 (8.3, 10.1) for discontinuations due to AEs, 3.7 (3.2, 4.3) for serious infections, 5.9 (5.2, 6.7) for herpes zoster, and 0.8 (0.6, 1.1) for malignancies (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer). CONCLUSION:In Asia-Pacific patients, tofacitinib improved signs/symptoms over 24 months. Safety over 92 months was generally consistent with global tofacitinib studies; however, infection IRs were higher in Asia-Pacific patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the risk of opportunistic infections (OIs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with tofacitinib. METHODS:Phase II, III and long-term extension clinical trial data (April 2013 data-cut) from the tofacitinib RA programme were reviewed. OIs defined a priori included mycobacterial and fungal infections, multidermatomal herpes zoster and other viral infections associated with immunosuppression. For OIs, we calculated crude incidence rates (IRs; per 100 patient-years (95% CI)); for tuberculosis (TB) specifically, we calculated rates stratified by patient enrolment region according to background TB IR (per 100 patient-years): low (?0.01), medium (>0.01 to ?0.05) and high (>0.05). RESULTS:We identified 60 OIs among 5671 subjects; all occurred among tofacitinib-treated patients. TB (crude IR 0.21, 95% CI of (0.14 to 0.30)) was the most common OI (n=26); median time between drug start and diagnosis was 64?weeks (range 15-161?weeks). Twenty-one cases (81%) occurred in countries with high background TB IR, and the rate varied with regional background TB IR: low 0.02 (0.003 to 0.15), medium 0.08 (0.03 to 0.21) and high 0.75 (0.49 to 1.15). In Phase III studies, 263 patients diagnosed with latent TB infection were treated with isoniazid and tofacitinib concurrently; none developed TB. For OIs other than TB, 34 events were reported (crude IR 0.25 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.36)). CONCLUSIONS:Within the global tofacitinib RA development programme, TB was the most common OI reported but was rare in regions of low and medium TB incidence. Patients who screen positive for latent TB can be treated with isoniazid during tofacitinib therapy.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We characterized tofacitinib efficacy/safety in Indian vs rest of the world (ROW; excluding India) RA patients. METHODS:Efficacy data were pooled for disease-modified antirheumatic drug (DMARD) inadequate responders from Phase (P)3 studies. For Indian patients, ORAL Solo and ORAL Scan; ROW (excluding India), these studies plus ORAL Step, ORAL Sync, and ORAL Standard. Safety data also included ORAL Start (P3; methotrexate-naïve) and ORAL Sequel (long-term extension [LTE] study; data cut-off March 2017) for Indian patients, and these studies plus A3921041 (LTE study; Japanese study) for ROW. Efficacy outcomes at months 3/6: American College of Rheumatology (ACR)20/50/70; Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate remission/low disease activity; change from baseline in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index. Incidence rates (IRs; patients with events/100 patient-years) for adverse events of special interest (AESIs) were assessed throughout. Descriptive data underwent no formal comparison. RESULTS:One-hundred-and-ninety-seven Indian and 3879 ROW patients were included. Compared with ROW patients, Indian patients were younger, had lower body mass index, shorter RA duration, and higher baseline disease activity; most Indian patients were non-smokers and all were biologic DMARD (bDMARD)-naïve. Month 3 ACR20 rates with tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily/10 mg twice daily/placebo were 67.4%/82.1%/40.9% (India) and 59.0%/66.1%/28.2% (ROW), and month 6 rates were 76.2%/92.1%/88.9% (India) and 69.0%/74.2%/66.5% (ROW). Month 3/6 improvements in other outcomes were generally numerically greater with tofacitinib vs placebo, and similar in both populations. Compared with ROW, Indian patients had numerically fewer AEs/serious AEs, and similar IRs for discontinuations due to AEs and AESIs, except that tuberculosis (TB) IR was higher in Indian (IR = 1.21; 95% CI 0.49, 2.49) vs ROW patients (IR = 0.17; 95% CI 0.11, 0.25). CONCLUSIONS:Tofacitinib efficacy/safety were similar in both populations, except TB IR, which was higher in Indian patients but in line with those in bDMARD-treated RA patients from high-risk countries (IR = 0.00-2.56; TB IR >0.05 [World Health Organization]). Limitations included the small Indian population and baseline differences between populations.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In Australia, there is an unmet need for improved treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of RA. To provide an overview of key study outcomes for tofacitinib in Australian patients, we analyzed the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in the Australian subpopulation of global RA phase III and long-term extension (LTE) studies. METHODS:Data were pooled from the Australian subpopulation of four phase III studies and one LTE study (database not locked at cut-off date: January 2016). Patients in the phase III studies received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID), placebo (advancing to tofacitinib at months 3 or 6), or adalimumab, with background methotrexate or conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Patients in the LTE study received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID. Efficacy endpoints were American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20/50/70 response rates, and change from baseline in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [DAS28-4(ESR)] and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) scores. Safety endpoints included incidence of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and discontinuations due to AEs. AEs of special interest and laboratory parameters were analyzed in the LTE study. RESULTS:Across phase III studies (N?=?100), ACR response rates and improvements in DAS28-4(ESR) and HAQ-DI scores were numerically greater with tofacitinib vs. placebo at month 3, and increased until month 12. The results were sustained in the LTE study (N?=?99) after 60 months' observation. In general, the efficacy and safety profiles of tofacitinib were similar to those of the global RA population. CONCLUSIONS:In Australian patients with RA, tofacitinib therapy demonstrated sustained efficacy and consistent safety over???60 months' treatment. FUNDING:Pfizer Inc. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS (ALL CLINICALTRIALS.GOV): NCT00960440; NCT00847613; NCT00856544; NCT00853385; NCT00413699.
Project description:Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor. This open-label, long-term extension (LTE) study (NCT00658359) evaluated long-term tofacitinib treatment in stable kidney transplant recipients (n = 178) posttransplant.Patients who completed 12 months of cyclosporine (CsA) or tofacitinib treatment in the phase IIb parent study (NCT00483756) were enrolled into this LTE study, evaluating long-term tofacitinib treatment over months 12 to 72 posttransplant. Patients were analyzed by tofacitinib less-intensive (LI) or more-intensive (MI) regimens received in the parent study. For both groups, tofacitinib dose was reduced from 10 to 5 mg twice daily by 6 months into the LTE. Patients were followed up through month 72 posttransplant, with a focus on month 36 results.Tofacitinib demonstrated similar 36-month patient and graft survival rates to CsA. Biopsy-proven acute rejection rates at month 36 were 11.2% for CsA, versus 10.0% and 7.4% (both P > 0.05) for tofacitinib LI and MI, respectively. Least squares mean estimated glomerular filtration rates were 9 to 15 mL/min per 1.73 m2 higher for tofacitinib versus CsA at month 36. The proportions of patients with grade 2/3 interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy in month 36 protocol biopsies were 20.0% for LI and 18.2% for MI (both P > 0.05) versus 33.3% for CsA. Kaplan-Meier cumulative serious infection rates at month 36 were numerically higher for tofacitinib LI (43.9%; P = 0.45) and significantly higher for MI (55.9%; P < 0.05) versus CsA (37.1%).Long-term tofacitinib continued to be effective in preventing renal allograft acute rejection and preserving renal function. However, long-term tofacitinib and mycophenolic acid product combination was associated with persistent serious infection risk.