Functional interplay between the 53BP1-ortholog Rad9 and the Mre11 complex regulates resection, end-tethering and repair of a double-strand break.
ABSTRACT: The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 nuclease complex, together with Sae2, initiates the 5'-to-3' resection of Double-Strand DNA Breaks (DSBs). Extended 3' single stranded DNA filaments can be exposed from a DSB through the redundant activities of the Exo1 nuclease and the Dna2 nuclease with the Sgs1 helicase. In the absence of Sae2, Mre11 binding to a DSB is prolonged, the two DNA ends cannot be kept tethered, and the DSB is not efficiently repaired. Here we show that deletion of the yeast 53BP1-ortholog RAD9 reduces Mre11 binding to a DSB, leading to Rad52 recruitment and efficient DSB end-tethering, through an Sgs1-dependent mechanism. As a consequence, deletion of RAD9 restores DSB repair either in absence of Sae2 or in presence of a nuclease defective MRX complex. We propose that, in cells lacking Sae2, Rad9/53BP1 contributes to keep Mre11 bound to a persistent DSB, protecting it from extensive DNA end resection, which may lead to potentially deleterious DNA deletions and genome rearrangements.
Project description:The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2<sup>NBS1</sup> complex plays important roles in the DNA damage response by activating the Tel1<sup>ATM</sup> kinase and catalyzing 5'-3' resection at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). To initiate resection, Mre11 endonuclease nicks the 5' strands at DSB ends in a reaction stimulated by Sae2<sup>CtIP</sup> Accordingly, Mre11-nuclease deficient (<i>mre11-nd</i>) and <i>sae2Δ</i> mutants are expected to exhibit similar phenotypes; however, we found several notable differences. First, <i>sae2Δ</i> cells exhibit greater sensitivity to genotoxins than <i>mre11-nd</i> cells. Second, <i>sae2Δ</i> is synthetic lethal with <i>sgs1Δ</i>, whereas the <i>mre11-nd sgs1Δ</i> mutant is viable. Third, Sae2 attenuates the Tel1-Rad53<sup>CHK2</sup> checkpoint and antagonizes Rad9<sup>53BP1</sup> accumulation at DSBs independent of Mre11 nuclease. We show that Sae2 competes with other Tel1 substrates, thus reducing Rad9 binding to chromatin and to Rad53. We suggest that persistent Sae2 binding at DSBs in the <i>mre11-nd</i> mutant counteracts the inhibitory effects of Rad9 and Rad53 on Exo1 and Dna2-Sgs1-mediated resection, accounting for the different phenotypes conferred by <i>mre11-nd</i> and <i>sae2Δ</i> mutations. Collectively, these data show a resection initiation independent role for Sae2 at DSBs by modulating the DNA damage checkpoint.
Project description:Homologous recombination requires nucleolytic degradation (resection) of DNA double-strand break (DSB) ends. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MRX complex and Sae2 are involved in the onset of DSB resection, whereas extensive resection requires Exo1 and the concerted action of Dna2 and Sgs1. Here, we show that the checkpoint protein Rad9 limits the action of Sgs1/Dna2 in DSB resection by inhibiting Sgs1 binding/persistence at the DSB ends. When inhibition by Rad9 is abolished by the Sgs1-ss mutant variant or by deletion of RAD9, the requirement for Sae2 and functional MRX in DSB resection is reduced. These results provide new insights into how early and long-range resection is coordinated.
Project description:Sae2 cooperates with the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex to initiate resection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and to maintain the DSB ends in close proximity to allow their repair. How these diverse MRX-Sae2 functions contribute to DNA damage resistance is not known. Here, we describe mre11 alleles that suppress the hypersensitivity of sae2? cells to genotoxic agents. By assessing the impact of these mutations at the cellular and structural levels, we found that all the mre11 alleles that restore sae2? resistance to both camptothecin and phleomycin affect the Mre11 N-terminus and suppress the resection defect of sae2? cells by lowering MRX and Tel1 association to DSBs. As a consequence, the diminished Tel1 persistence potentiates Sgs1-Dna2 resection activity by decreasing Rad9 association to DSBs. By contrast, the mre11 mutations restoring sae2? resistance only to phleomycin are located in Mre11 C-terminus and bypass Sae2 function in end-tethering but not in DSB resection, possibly by destabilizing the Mre11-Rad50 open conformation. These findings unmask the existence of structurally distinct Mre11 domains that support resistance to genotoxic agents by mediating different processes.
Project description:Single-stranded DNA constitutes an important early intermediate for homologous recombination and damage-induced cell cycle checkpoint activation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficient double-strand break (DSB) end resection requires several enzymes; Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (MRX) and Sae2 are implicated in the onset of 5'-strand resection, whereas Sgs1/Top3/Rmi1 with Dna2 and Exo1 are involved in extensive resection. However, the molecular events leading to a switch from the MRX/Sae2-dependent initiation to the Exo1- and Dna2-dependent resection remain unclear. Here, we show that MRX recruits Dna2 nuclease to DSB ends. MRX also stimulates recruitment of Exo1 and antagonizes excess binding of the Ku complex to DSB ends. Using resection assay with purified enzymes in vitro, we found that Ku and MRX regulate the nuclease activity of Exo1 in an opposite way. Efficient loading of Dna2 and Exo1 requires neither Sae2 nor Mre11 nuclease activities. However, Mre11 nuclease activity is essential for resection in the absence of extensive resection enzymes. The results provide new insights into how MRX catalyses end resection and recombination initiation.
Project description:In this study, we investigate the interplay between Ku, a central non-homologous end-joining component, and the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex and Sae2, end-processing factors crucial for initiating 5'-3' resection of double-strand break (DSB) ends. We show that in the absence of end protection by Ku, the requirement for the MRX complex is bypassed and resection is executed by Exo1. In contrast, both the Exo1 and Sgs1 resection pathways contribute to DSB processing in the absence of Ku and Sae2 or when the MRX complex is intact, but functionally compromised by elimination of the Mre11 nuclease activity. The ionizing radiation sensitivity of a mutant defective for extensive resection (exo1? sgs1?) cannot be suppressed by the yku70? mutation, indicating that Ku suppression is specific to the initiation of resection. We provide evidence that replication-associated DSBs need to be processed by Sae2 for repair by homologous recombination unless Ku is absent. Finally, we show that the presence of Ku exacerbates DNA end-processing defects established in the sae2? sgs1? mutant, leading to its lethality.
Project description:The MRX complex together with Sae2 initiates resection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to generate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that triggers homologous recombination. The absence of Sae2 not only impairs DSB resection, but also causes prolonged MRX binding at the DSBs that leads to persistent Tel1- and Rad53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint activation and cell cycle arrest. Whether this enhanced checkpoint signaling contributes to the DNA damage sensitivity and/or the resection defect of sae2? cells is not known. By performing a genetic screen, we identify rad53 and tel1 mutant alleles that suppress both the DNA damage hypersensitivity and the resection defect of sae2? cells through an Sgs1-Dna2-dependent mechanism. These suppression events do not involve escaping the checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest. Rather, defective Rad53 or Tel1 signaling bypasses Sae2 function at DSBs by decreasing the amount of Rad9 bound at DSBs. As a consequence, reduced Rad9 association to DNA ends relieves inhibition of Sgs1-Dna2 activity, which can then compensate for the lack of Sae2 in DSB resection and DNA damage resistance. We propose that persistent Tel1 and Rad53 checkpoint signaling in cells lacking Sae2 increases the association of Rad9 at DSBs, which in turn inhibits DSB resection by limiting the activity of the Sgs1-Dna2 resection machinery.
Project description:The multifunctional Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) protein complex recruits ATM/Tel1 checkpoint kinase and CtIP/Ctp1 homologous recombination (HR) repair factor to double-strand breaks (DSBs). HR repair commences with the 5'-to-3' resection of DNA ends, generating 3' single-strand DNA (ssDNA) overhangs that bind Replication Protein A (RPA) complex, followed by Rad51 recombinase. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex is critical for DSB resection, although the enigmatic ssDNA endonuclease activity of Mre11 and the DNA-end processing factor Sae2 (CtIP/Ctp1 ortholog) are largely unnecessary unless the resection activities of Exo1 and Sgs1-Dna2 are also eliminated. Mre11 nuclease activity and Ctp1/CtIP are essential for DSB repair in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammals. To investigate DNA end resection in Schizo. pombe, we adapted an assay that directly measures ssDNA formation at a defined DSB. We found that Mre11 and Ctp1 are essential for the efficient initiation of resection, consistent with their equally crucial roles in DSB repair. Exo1 is largely responsible for extended resection up to 3.1 kb from a DSB, with an activity dependent on Rqh1 (Sgs1) DNA helicase having a minor role. Despite its critical function in DSB repair, Mre11 nuclease activity is not required for resection in fission yeast. However, Mre11 nuclease and Ctp1 are required to disassociate the MRN complex and the Ku70-Ku80 nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) complex from DSBs, which is required for efficient RPA localization. Eliminating Ku makes Mre11 nuclease activity dispensable for MRN disassociation and RPA localization, while improving repair of a one-ended DSB formed by replication fork collapse. From these data we propose that release of the MRN complex and Ku from DNA ends by Mre11 nuclease activity and Ctp1 is a critical step required to expose ssDNA for RPA localization and ensuing HR repair.
Project description:DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR) requires 3' single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) generation by 5' DNA-end resection. During meiosis, yeast Sae2 cooperates with the nuclease Mre11 to remove covalently bound Spo11 from DSB termini, allowing resection and HR to ensue. Mitotic roles of Sae2 and Mre11 nuclease have remained enigmatic, however, since cells lacking these display modest resection defects but marked DNA damage hypersensitivities. By combining classic genetic suppressor screening with high-throughput DNA sequencing, we identify Mre11 mutations that strongly suppress DNA damage sensitivities of sae2? cells. By assessing the impacts of these mutations at the cellular, biochemical and structural levels, we propose that, in addition to promoting resection, a crucial role for Sae2 and Mre11 nuclease activity in mitotic DSB repair is to facilitate the removal of Mre11 from ssDNA associated with DSB ends. Thus, without Sae2 or Mre11 nuclease activity, Mre11 bound to partly processed DSBs impairs strand invasion and HR.
Project description:The RecQ helicase family is critical during DNA damage repair, and mutations in these proteins are associated with Bloom, Werner, or Rothmund-Thompson syndromes in humans, leading to cancer predisposition and/or premature aging. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutations in the RecQ homolog, SGS1, phenocopy many of the defects observed in the human syndromes. One challenge to studying RecQ helicases is that their disruption leads to a pleiotropic phenotype. Using yeast, we show that the separation-of-function allele of SGS1, sgs1-D664?, has impaired activity at DNA ends, resulting in a resection processivity defect. Compromising Sgs1 resection function in the absence of the Sae2 nuclease causes slow growth, which is alleviated by making the DNA ends accessible to Exo1 nuclease. Furthermore, fluorescent microscopy studies reveal that, when Sgs1 resection activity is compromised in sae2? cells, Mre11 repair foci persist. We suggest a model where the role of Sgs1 in end resection along with Sae2 is important for removing Mre11 from DNA ends during repair.
Project description:Sae2 functions in the DNA damage response by controlling Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX)-catalyzed end resection, an essential step for homology-dependent repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs), and by attenuating DNA damage checkpoint signaling. Phosphorylation of Sae2 by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1/Cdc28) activates the Mre11 endonuclease, while the physiological role of Sae2 phosphorylation by Mec1 and Tel1 checkpoint kinases is not fully understood. Here, we compare the phenotype of sae2 mutants lacking the main CDK (sae2-S267A) or Mec1 and Tel1 phosphorylation sites (sae2-5A) with sae2? and Mre11 nuclease defective (mre11-nd) mutants. The phosphorylation-site mutations confer DNA damage sensitivity, but not to the same extent as sae2?. The sae2-S267A mutation is epistatic to mre11-nd for camptothecin (CPT) sensitivity and synergizes with sgs1?, whereas sae2-5A synergizes with mre11-nd and exhibits epistasis with sgs1?. We find that attenuation of checkpoint signaling by Sae2 is mostly independent of Mre11 endonuclease activation but requires Mec1 and Tel1-dependent phosphorylation of Sae2. These results support a model whereby CDK-catalyzed phosphorylation of Sae2 activates resection via Mre11 endonuclease, whereas Sae2 phosphorylation by Mec1 and Tel1 promotes resection by the Dna2-Sgs1 and Exo1 pathways indirectly by dampening the DNA damage response.