ABSTRACT: Accumulation and infiltration of microglia/brain macrophages around and into glioma tissue promote tumor invasion and expansion. One tumor-promoting mechanism of microglia/brain macrophages is upregulation of membrane type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP), which promotes the degradation of extracellular matrix. MT1-MMP upregulation is induced by soluble factors released by glioma cells activating microglial Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2).Versican identified by proteomics was silenced in glioma cells by short interference RNA and short hairpin RNA approaches and studied in vitro and after injection into mouse brains or organotypic brain slices.The splice variants V0/V1 of the endogenous TLR2 ligand versican are highly expressed in mouse and human glioma tissue. Versican-silenced gliomas induced less MT1-MMP expression in microglia both in vitro and in vivo, which resulted in smaller tumors and longer survival rates as compared with controls. Recombinant versican V1 induced significantly higher levels of MT1-MMP in wild-type microglia compared with untreated and treated TLR2 knockout microglial cells. Using glioma-injected organotypic brain slices, we found that the impact of versican signaling on glioma growth depended on the presence of microglia. Moreover, we found that TLR2 expression is upregulated in glioma-associated microglia but not in astrocytes. Additionally, an established TLR2 neutralizing antibody reduced glioma-induced microglial MT1-MMP expression as well as glioma growth ex vivo.Our results show that versican released from glioma promotes tumor expansion through glioma-associated microglial/macrophage TLR2 signaling and subsequent expression of MT1-MMP. This signaling cascade might be a novel target for glioma therapies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors in humans. Microglia/brain macrophage accumulation in and around the tumor correlates with malignancy and poor clinical prognosis of these tumors. We have previously shown that microglia promote glioma expansion through upregulation of membrane type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP). This upregulation depends on signaling via the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). METHODS: Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo techniques, we identified TLR2 as the main TLR controlling microglial MT1-MMP expression and promoting microglia-assisted glioma expansion. RESULTS: The implantation of mouse GL261 glioma cells into TLR2 knockout mice resulted in significantly smaller tumors, reduced MT1-MMP expression, and enhanced survival rates compared with wild-type control mice. Tumor expansion studied in organotypic brain slices depended on both parenchymal TLR2 expression and the presence of microglia. Glioma-derived soluble factors and synthetic TLR2 specific ligands induced MT1-MMP expression in microglia from wild-type mice, but no such change in MT1-MMP gene expression was observed in microglia from TLR2 knockout mice. We also found evidence that TLR1 and TLR6 cofunction with TLR2 as heterodimers in regulating MT1-MMP expression in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Our results thus show that activation of TLR2 along with TLRs 1 and/or 6 converts microglia into a glioma supportive phenotype.
Project description:Diffuse infiltration of glioma cells into normal brain tissue is considered to be a main reason for the unfavorable outcomes of patients with malignant gliomas. Invasion of glioma cells into the brain parenchyma is facilitated by metalloprotease-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix. Metalloproteases are released as inactive pro-forms and get activated upon cleavage by membrane bound metalloproteases. Here, we show that membrane type 1 metalloprotease (MT1-MMP) is up-regulated in glioma-associated microglia, but not in the glioma cells. Overexpression of MT1-MMP is even lethal for glioma cells. Glioma-released factors trigger the expression and activity of MT1-MMP via microglial toll-like receptors and the p38 MAPK pathway, as deletion of the toll-like receptor adapter protein MyD88 or p38 inhibition prevented MT1-MMP expression and activity in cultured microglial cells. Microglial MT1-MMP in turn activates glioma-derived pro-MMP-2 and promotes glioma expansion, as shown in an ex vivo model using MT1-MMP-deficient brain tissue and a microglia depletion paradigm. Finally, MyD88 deficiency or microglia depletion largely attenuated glioma expansion in 2 independent in vivo models.
Project description:Microglia play important roles in extracellular matrix remodeling, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and suppression of adaptive immunity in glioma. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) regulates microglial activation and migration. However, little is known about the roles of NHE1 in intratumoral microglial activation and microglia-glioma interactions. Our study revealed up-regulation of NHE1 protein expression in both glioma cells and tumor-associated Iba1(+) microglia in glioma xenografts and glioblastoma multiforme microarrays. Moreover, we observed positive correlation of NHE1 expression with Iba1 intensity in microglia/macrophages. Glioma cells, via conditioned medium or non-contact glioma-microglia co-cultures, concurrently upregulated microglial expression of NHE1 protein and other microglial activation markers (iNOS, arginase-1, TGF-?, IL-6, IL-10 and the matrix metalloproteinases MT1-MMP and MMP9). Interestingly, glioma-stimulated microglia reciprocally enhanced glioma proliferation and migration. Most importantly, inhibition of microglial NHE1 activity via small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or the potent NHE1-specific inhibitor HOE642 significantly attenuated microglial activation and abolished microglia-stimulated glioma migration and proliferation. Taken together, our findings provide the first evidence that NHE1 function plays an important role in glioma-microglia interactions, enhancing glioma proliferation and invasion by stimulating microglial release of soluble factors. NHE1 upregulation is a novel marker of the glioma-associated microglial activation phenotype. Inhibition of NHE1 represents a novel glioma therapeutic strategy by targeting tumor-induced microglial activation.
Project description:Malignant gliomas are primary brain tumors with poor prognoses. These tumors are infiltrated by brain intrinsic microglia and peripheral monocytes which promote glioma cell invasion. In our previous studies, we discovered that the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on microglia/brain macrophages converts them into a protumorigenic phenotype through the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 9 and 14. In the present study, we used in vitro and in situ microglia-glioma interaction experimental models to test the impact of a novel inhibitor of TLR 2, ortho vanillin (O-Vanillin) to block TLR2 mediated microglia protumorigenic phenotype. We demonstrate that O-Vanillin inhibits the TLR2 mediated upregulation of MMP 9, MMP 14, IL 6 and iNOS expression. Similarly, the glioma supernatant induced MMP 9 and MMP 14 expression in murine and human microglia is abrogated by O-Vanillin treatment. O-Vanillin is not toxic for microglia, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. Glioma growth in murine brain slice cultures is significantly reduced after treatment with O-Vanillin, and this reduced glioma growth depends on the presence of microglia. In addition, we also found that O-Vanillin inhibited the glioma induced proliferation of murine primary microglia. In summary, O-Vanillin attenuates the pro-tumorigenic phenotype of microglia/brain macrophages and thus qualifies as a candidate for glioma therapy.
Project description:The invasiveness of malignant gliomas is one of the major obstacles in glioma therapy and the reason for the poor survival of patients. Glioma cells infiltrate into the brain parenchyma and thereby escape surgical resection. Glioma associated microglia/macrophages support glioma infiltration into the brain parenchyma by increased expression and activation of extracellular matrix degrading proteases such as matrix metalloprotease (MMP) 2, MMP9 and membrane-type 1 MMP. In this work we demonstrate that, MMP9 is predominantly expressed by glioma associated microglia/macrophages in mouse and human glioma tissue but not by the glioma cells. Supernatant from glioma cells induced the expression of MMP9 in cultured microglial cells. Using mice deficient for different Toll-like receptors we identified Toll-like receptor 2/6 as the signaling pathway for the glioma induced upregulation of microglial MMP9. Also in an experimental mouse glioma model, Toll-like receptor 2 deficiency attenuated the upregulation of microglial MMP9. Moreover, glioma supernatant triggered an upregulation of Toll-like receptor 2 expression in microglia. Both, the upregulation of MMP9 and Toll-like receptor 2 were attenuated by the antibiotic minocycline and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase antagonist in vitro. Minocycline also extended the survival rate of glioma bearing mice when given to the drinking water. Thus glioma cells change the phenotype of glioma associated microglia/macrophages in a complex fashion using Toll-like receptor 2 as an important signaling pathway and minocycline further proved to be a potential candidate for adjuvant glioma therapy.
Project description:Microglia, the resident macrophages in the central nervous system, can rapidly respond to pathological insults. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a pattern recognition receptor that plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. Although many previous studies have suggested that TLR2 contributes to microglial activation and subsequent pathogenesis following brain tissue injury, it is still unclear whether TLR2 has a role in microglia dynamics in the resting state or in immediate-early reaction to the injury in vivo. By using in vivo two-photon microscopy imaging and Cx3cr1 (GFP/+) mouse line, we first monitored the motility of microglial processes (i.e. the rate of extension and retraction) in the somatosensory cortex of living TLR2-KO and WT mice; Microglial processes in TLR2-KO mice show the similar motility to that of WT mice. We further found that microglia rapidly extend their processes to the site of local tissue injury induced by a two-photon laser ablation and that such microglial response to the brain injury was similar between WT and TLR2-KO mice. These results indicate that there are no differences in the behavior of microglial processes between TLR2-KO mice and WT mice when microglia is in the resting state or encounters local injury. Thus, TLR2 might not be essential for immediate-early microglial response to brain tissue injury in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The CD133(+) stem cell population in recurrent gliomas is associated with clinical features such as therapy resistance, blood-brain barrier disruption and, hence, tumor infiltration. Screening of a large panel of glioma samples increasing histological grade demonstrated frequencies of CD133(+) cells which correlated with high expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). METHODS: We used qRT-PCR and immunoblotting to examine the molecular interplay between MT1-MMP and COX-2 gene and protein expression in parental, CD133(+), and neurospheres U87 glioma cell cultures. RESULTS: We found that CD133, COX-2 and MT1-MMP expression were enhanced when glioma cells were cultured in neurosphere conditions. A CD133(+)-enriched U87 glioma cell population, isolated from parental U87 cells with magnetic cell sorting technology, also grew as neurospheres and showed enhanced COX-2 expression. MT1-MMP gene silencing antagonized COX-2 expression in neurospheres, while overexpression of recombinant MT1-MMP directly triggered COX-2 expression in U87 cells independent from MT1-MMP's catalytic function. COX-2 induction by MT1-MMP was also validated in wild-type and in NF-kappaB p65-/- mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts, but was abrogated in NF-kappaB 1 (p50-/-) mutant cells. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence for enhanced COX-2 expression in CD133(+) glioma cells, and direct cell-based evidence of NF-kappaB-mediated COX-2 regulation by MT1-MMP. The biological significance of such checkpoint control may account for COX-2-dependent mechanisms of inflammatory balance responsible of therapy resistance phenotype of cancer stem cells.
Project description:Tumor-cell infiltration is a major obstacle to successful therapy for brain tumors. Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs), a metzincin subfamily of six proteases, are important mediators of infiltration. The cellular source of MT-MMPs and their role in glioma biology, however, remain controversial. Thus, we comprehensively analyzed the expression of MT-MMPs in primary brain tumors. All MT-MMPs were differentially expressed in primary brain tumors. In diffuse gliomas, MT-MMP1, -3, and -4 were predominantly expressed by IDH1mutated tumor cells, while macrophages/microglia contributed significantly less to MT-MMP expression. For functional analyses, individual MT-MMPs were expressed in primary mouse p53-/- astrocytes. Invasion and migration potential of MT-MMP-transduced astrocytes was determined via scratch, matrigel invasion, and novel organotypic porcine spinal slice migration (OPoSSM) and invasion assays. Overall, MT-MMP-transduced astrocytes showed enhanced migration compared to controls. MMP14 was the strongest mediator of migration in scratch assays. However, in the OPoSSM assays, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored MT-MMPs MMP17 and MMP25, not MMP14, mediated the highest infiltration rates of astrocytes. Our data unequivocally demonstrate for the first time that glioma cells, not microglia, are the predominant producers of MT-MMPs in glioma and can act as potent mediators of tumor-cell infiltration into CNS tissue. These proteases are therefore promising targets for therapeutic interventions.
Project description:In murine glioma models, TLR2 is selectively upregulated in glioma-associated microglia. We found that TLR2 activation led to down-regulation of MHC-II in microglia. Therefore, we examined the effect of TLR2 activation on IFN-gamma-induced microglial transcriptome by in vitro culture of murine adult microglia. In the study, we confirmed that TLR2 activation led to Ciita shutdown and inhibition of MHC-II related genes, which also revealed the role of TLR2 in inducing APC disability and tumor immune escape. In addition, this work can be used to reveal the transcriptional characteristics of murine microglia during IFN-gamma and TLR2 activation. Overall design: Examination of transcriptional characteristics in murine adult microglia under TLR2 agonist and IFN-gamma treatments.
Project description:Invasive glioma cells migrate preferentially along central nervous system (CNS) white matter fiber tracts irrespective of the fact that CNS myelin contains proteins that inhibit cell migration and neurite outgrowth. Previous work has demonstrated that to migrate on a myelin substrate and to overcome its inhibitory effect, rat C6 and human glioblastoma cells require a membrane-bound metalloproteolytic activity (C6-MP) which shares several biochemical and pharmacological characteristics with MT1-MMP. We show now that MT1-MMP is expressed on the surface of rat C6 glioblastoma cells and is coenriched with C6-MP activity. Immunodepletion of C6-MP activity is achieved with an anti-MT1-MMP antibody. These data suggest that MT1-MMP and the C6-MP are closely related or identical. When mouse 3T3 fibroblasts were transfected with MT1-MMP they acquired the ability to spread and migrate on the nonpermissive myelin substrate and to infiltrate into adult rat optic nerve explants. MT1-MMP-transfected fibroblasts and C6 glioma cells were able to digest bNI-220, one of the most potent CNS myelin inhibitory proteins. Plasma membranes of both MT1-MMP-transfected fibroblasts and C6 glioma cells inactivated inhibitory myelin extracts, and this activity was sensitive to the same protease inhibitors. Interestingly, pretreatment of CNS myelin with gelatinase A/MMP-2 could not inactivate its inhibitory property. These data imply an important role of MT1-MMP in spreading and migration of glioma cells on white matter constituents in vitro and point to a function of MT1-MMP in the invasive behavior of malignant gliomas in the CNS in vivo.