Aberrant histone acetylation promotes mitochondrial respiratory suppression in the brain of alcoholic rats.
ABSTRACT: The acetylation of histone proteins in the core of DNA regulates gene expression, including those affecting mitochondria. Both histone acetylation and mitochondrial deficit have been implicated in neuronal damage associated with drinking problems. Many alcoholics will repeat unsuccessful attempts at abstaining, developing a pattern of repeated drinking and withdrawal. We investigated whether aberrant histone acetylation contributes to mitochondrial and cellular damage induced by repeated ethanol withdrawal (EW). We also investigated whether this effect of histone acetylation involves let-7f, a small noncoding RNA (microRNA). Male rats received two cycles of an ethanol/control diet (7.5%, 4 weeks) and withdrawal. Their prefrontal cortex was collected to measure the mitochondrial respiration and histone acetylation using extracellular flux (XF) real-time respirometry and gold immunostaining, respectively. Separately, HT22 (mouse hippocampal) cells received two cycles of ethanol exposure (100 mM, 20 hours) and withdrawal. Trichostatin A (TSA) as a histone acetylation promoter and let-7f antagomir were applied during withdrawal. The mitochondrial respiration, let-7f level, and cell viability were assessed using XF respirometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, TaqMan let-7f primers, and a calcein-acetoxymethyl assay, respectively. Repeated ethanol withdrawn rats showed a more than 2-fold increase in histone acetylation, accompanied by mitochondrial respiratory suppression. EW-induced mitochondrial respiratory suppression was exacerbated by TSA treatment in a manner that was attenuated by let-7f antagomir cotreatment. TSA treatment did not alter the increasing effect of EW on the let-7f level but dramatically exacerbated the cell death induced by EW. These data suggest that the multiple episodes of withdrawal from chronic ethanol impede mitochondrial and cellular integrity through upregulating histone acetylation, independent of or additively with let-7f.
Project description:We investigated whether protein kinase p38 plays a role in the brain-aging changes associated with repeated ethanol withdrawal (EW). Ovariectomized young, middle-age and older rats, with or without 17?-estradiol (E2) implantation, received a 90-day ethanol with repeated withdrawal. They were tested for active pP38 expression in cerebellar Purkinje neurons and whole-cerebellar lysates using immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. They were also tested for the Rotarod task to determine the behavioral manifestation of cerebellar neuronal stress and for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial protein carbonyls to determine oxidative mechanisms. Middle-age EW rats showed higher levels of pP38-positive Purkinje neurons/cerebellar lysates, which coincided with increased mitochondrial protein oxidation than other diet/age groups. Exacerbated motor deficit due to age-EW combination also began at the middle-age. In comparison, ROS contents peaked in older EW rats. E2 treatment mitigated each of the EW effects to a different extent. Collectively, pP38 may mediate the brain-aging changes associated with pro-oxidant EW at vulnerable ages and in vulnerable neurons in a manner protected by estrogen.
Project description:Alcohol use disorders are chronic debilitating diseases characterized by severe withdrawal symptoms that contribute to morbidity and relapse. GABAA receptor (GABAAR) adaptations have long been implicated in the chronic effects of alcohol and contribute to many withdrawal symptoms associated with alcohol dependence. In rodents, GABAAR hypofunction results from decreases in Gabra1 expression, although the underlying mechanism controlling Gabra1 expression after chronic ethanol exposure is still unknown. We found that chronic ethanol exposure using either ethanol gavage or two-bottle choice voluntary access paradigms decreased Gabra1 expression and increased Hdac2 and Hdac3 expression. Administration of the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) after chronic ethanol exposure prevents the decrease in Gabra1 expression and function as well as the increase in Hdac2 and Hdac3 expression in both the cortex and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal, but not acute ethanol exposure or acute withdrawal, cause a selective upregulation of HDAC2 and HDAC3 associated with the Gabra1 promoter that accompanies a decrease in H3 acetylation of the Gabra1 promoter and the reduction in GABAAR α1 subunit expression. TSA administration prevented each of these molecular events as well as behavioral manifestations of ethanol dependence, including tolerance to zolpidem-induced loss of righting reflex, reduced open-arm time in the elevated plus maze, reduced center-time and locomotor activity in the open-field assay, and TSA reduced voluntary ethanol consumption. The results show how chronic ethanol exposure regulates the highly prominent GABAAR α1 subunit by an epigenetic mechanism that represents a potential treatment modality for alcohol dependence.
Project description:Alcoholism may result in severe neurological deficits and cognitive impairments. Many of the central effects of ethanol (EtOH) can be explained by upregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and downregulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors (GABAA) in response to long-term EtOH consumption. Abrupt ethanol withdrawal (EW) may result in neuronal hyperexcitability leading to hallucinations, seizures, neurodegeneration, and sometimes death.Using a multidisciplinary approach in wild-type and genetically modified mice, we examined the contribution of the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen, and laminin to EW-induced cell death.Here we show that EW-induced neurodegeneration is mediated by the tPA/plasmin system. During EW, tPA is upregulated in the hippocampus and converts plasminogen to plasmin, which in turn degrades an extracellular matrix component laminin, leading to caspase-3-dependent cell death. Consequently, mice in which the tPA or plasminogen genes have been deleted do not show EW-induced laminin degradation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurodegeneration. Finally, we demonstrated that disruption of the hippocampal laminin gamma-1 renders the mice resistant to neurotoxic effects of EW.Our data identify laminin gamma-1 as a novel target to combat neurodegeneration.
Project description:A growing body of literature suggests that epigenetic mechanisms, including histone acetylation, may play key roles in drug abuse and the development of addiction. Experiments in this study were designed to investigate the role of histone acetylation in ethanol (EtOH)-induced locomotor sensitization.Immunohistochemical, Western blotting, and site-directed pharmacological techniques were used to explore the roles of histone acetylation at histone H3 (acH3K9) in both the expression of and acquisition of EtOH-induced locomotor sensitization. A commonly used sensitization protocol, in which animals were exposed to repeated injections of a low dose of EtOH while in their home cage, was used to examine this behavioral phenomenon. Additionally, site-directed administration of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) Trichostatin A (TSA), in the absence of repeated EtOH injections, was used to examine the role of hyperacetylation in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) shell in EtOH-induced locomotor sensitization.Sensitized mice displayed elevated acH3K9 immunoreactivity (IR) localized to the shell of the NAC. This augmentation in acH3K9 IR was confirmed, in a separate experiment, using Western blot analyses. Next, repeated intra-accumbal infusions of TSA, in the absence of repeated EtOH injections, were sufficient to induce an augmented locomotor response to a later injection of a low dose (2.0 g/kg, intraperitoneally) of EtOH, indicative of cross-sensitization to this locomotor stimulation between TSA and EtOH. Finally, a local infusion of TSA into the shell of the accumbens was also associated with a significant increase in acH3K9 IR within this region.Together, the present observations suggest that histone acetylation, particularly within the shell of the NAC, is important for the development and expression of EtOH-induced locomotor sensitization.
Project description:Association studies implicate multiple PDZ domain protein (MPDZ/MUPP1) sequence and/or expression in risk for alcoholism in humans and ethanol withdrawal (EW) in mice, but confirmation has been hindered by the dearth of targeted genetic models. We report the creation of transgenic (MPDZ-TG) and knockout heterozygote (Mpdz(+/-) ) mice, with increased (2.9-fold) and decreased (53%) target expression, respectively. Both models differ in EW compared with wild-type littermates (P???0.03), providing compelling evidence for an inverse relationship between Mpdz expression and EW severity. Additionally, ethanol consumption is reduced up to 18% (P?=?0.006) in Mpdz(+/-) , providing the first evidence implicating Mpdz in ethanol self-administration.
Project description:Alcohol-use disorder (AUD) is a relapsing disorder associated with excessive ethanol consumption. Recent studies support the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the development of AUD. Studies carried out so far have focused on a few specific epigenetic modifications. The goal of this project was to investigate gene expression changes of epigenetic regulators that mediate a broad array of chromatin modifications after chronic alcohol exposure, chronic alcohol exposure followed by 8 h withdrawal, and chronic alcohol exposure followed by 21 days of abstinence in Withdrawal-Resistant (WSR) and Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP) selected mouse lines. We found that chronic vapor exposure to highly intoxicating levels of ethanol alters the expression of several chromatin remodeling genes measured by quantitative PCR array analyses. The identified effects were independent of selected lines, which, however, displayed baseline differences in epigenetic gene expression. We reported dysregulation in the expression of genes involved in histone acetylation, deacetylation, lysine and arginine methylation and ubiquitinationhylation during chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal, but not after 21 days of abstinence. Ethanol-induced changes are consistent with decreased histone acetylation and with decreased deposition of the permissive ubiquitination mark H2BK120ub, associated with reduced transcription. On the other hand, ethanol-induced changes in the expression of genes involved in histone lysine methylation are consistent with increased transcription. The net result of these modifications on gene expression is likely to depend on the combination of the specific histone tail modifications present at a given time on a given promoter. Since alcohol does not modulate gene expression unidirectionally, it is not surprising that alcohol does not unidirectionally alter chromatin structure toward a closed or open state, as suggested by the results of this study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is widespread and contributes to pediatric neurological defects, including hippocampal and neocortex dysfunction, causing cognitive deficits termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. However, the critical mechanisms underlying these brain abnormalities remain poorly described. METHODS:Using a postnatal ethanol exposure (PEE) animal model and pharmacological, epigenetic, synaptic plasticity-related and behavioral approaches, we discovered a novel persistent epigenetic mechanism of neurodegeneration in neonatal hippocampus and neocortex brain regions and of cognitive decline in adult animals. RESULTS:PEE, which activates caspase-3 (CC3, a neurodegeneration marker), enhanced histone deacetylase (HDAC1-HDAC3) levels and reduced histone 3 (H3) and 4 (H4) acetylation (ac) in mature neurons. PEE repressed the expression of several synaptic plasticity genes, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, C-Fos, early growth response 1 (Egr1), and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc). Detailed studies on Egr1 and Arc expression revealed HDAC enrichment at their promoter regions. HDAC inhibition with trichostatin A (TSA) before PEE rescued H3ac/H4ac levels and prevented CC3 formation. Antagonism/null mutation of cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1R) before PEE to inhibit CC3 production prevented Egr1 and Arc loss via epigenetic events. TSA administration before PEE prevented postnatal ethanol-induced loss of Egr1 and Arc expression and neurobehavioral defects in adult mice via epigenetic remodeling. In adult mice, 3-day TSA administration attenuated PEE-induced behavioral defects. CONCLUSIONS:These findings demonstrate that CB1R/HDAC-mediated epigenetic remodeling disrupts gene expression and is a critical step in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder-associated cognitive decline but is reversed by restoration of histone acetylation in the brain.
Project description:Expression of the NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) gene is upregulated following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment and withdrawal, which underlies behavioral alterations in addiction. The goal of this study was to characterize the changes of histone modifications induced by CIE treatment and its subsequent removal associated to the upregulation of NR2B gene transcription. To investigate the involvement of histone acetylation in the effect of ethanol on the NR2B gene, we examined the influence of CIE on histone acetylation in the 5' regulatory region of NR2B using a qChIP assay. CIE treatment and its subsequent removal produced a remarkable and selected increase in histone H3K9 acetylation. Interestingly, the majority of the increased H3K9 acetylation occurred after ethanol removal, which was coincident with a decrease in H3K9 methylation in the same time duration. Further examination of the mechanisms of ethanol-induced alterations on the histone modifications revealed that CIE-induced acetylation of H3K9 was not due to the changes in global enzyme activities or the expression of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylase (HDACs). Instead, we found a significant downregulation in some histone methyltransferases (HMTs) at both the global level and the local chromatin of the NR2B gene following CIE treatment. Moreover, our experiments also indicated a decrease of G9a, Suv39 h1 and HDAC1-3 in the chromatin of the NR2B gene promoter, which may be responsible for the altered H3K9 modifications. Taken together, the findings suggest a mechanism where the changes in H3K9 modifications in the local chromatin of the NR2B gene underlie alcohol-induced neuroadaptation.
Project description:Histone modification regulates chromatin structure and influences gene expression associated with diverse biological functions including cellular differentiation, cancer, maintenance of genome architecture, and pathogen virulence. In Entamoeba, a deep-branching eukaryote, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) affect histone acetylation and parasite development. Additionally, a number of active histone modifying enzymes have been identified in the parasite genome. However, the overall extent of gene regulation tied to histone acetylation is not known.In order to identify the genome-wide effects of histone acetylation in regulating E. histolytica gene expression, we used whole-genome expression profiling of parasites treated with SCFA and Trichostatin A (TSA). Despite significant changes in histone acetylation patterns, exposure of parasites to SCFA resulted in minimal transcriptional changes (11 out of 9,435 genes transcriptionally regulated). In contrast, exposure to TSA, a more specific inhibitor of histone deacetylases, significantly affected transcription of 163 genes (122 genes upregulated and 41 genes downregulated). Genes modulated by TSA were not regulated by treatment with 5-Azacytidine, an inhibitor of DNA-methyltransferase, indicating that in E. histolytica the crosstalk between DNA methylation and histone modification is not substantial. However, the set of genes regulated by TSA overlapped substantially with genes regulated during parasite development: 73/122 genes upregulated by TSA exposure were upregulated in E. histolytica cysts (p-value = 6 x 10(-53)) and 15/41 genes downregulated by TSA exposure were downregulated in E. histolytica cysts (p-value = 3 x 10(-7)).This work represents the first genome-wide analysis of histone acetylation and its effects on gene expression in E. histolytica. The data indicate that SCFAs, despite their ability to influence histone acetylation, have minimal effects on gene transcription in cultured parasites. In contrast, the effect of TSA on E. histolytica gene expression is more substantial and includes genes involved in the encystation pathway. These observations will allow further dissection of the effects of histone acetylation and the genetic pathways regulating stage conversion in this pathogenic parasite.
Project description:Bromate (BrO3-) is a water disinfection byproduct (DBP) previously shown to induce nephrotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. We recently showed that inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) and histone deacetylase trichostatin A (TSA) increased BrO3- nephrotoxicity whereas altering the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and normal rat kidney (NRK) cells were sub-chronically exposed to BrO3- or epigenetic inhibitors for 18 days, followed by 9 days of withdrawal. DNA methylation was studied using a modification of bisulfite amplicon sequencing called targeted gene bisulfite sequencing. Basal promoter methylation in the human p21 promoter region was substantially lower than that of the rat DNA. Furthermore, 5-Aza decreased DNA methylation in HEK293 cells at the sis-inducible element at 3 distinct CpG sites located at 691, 855, and 895 bp upstream of transcription start site (TSS). 5-Aza also decreased methylation at the rat p21 promoter about 250 bp upstream of the p21 TSS. In contrast, sub-chronic BrO3- exposure failed to alter methylation in human or rat renal cells. BrO3- exposure altered histone acetylation in NRK cells at the p21 TSS, but not in HEK293 cells. Interestingly, changes in DNA methylation induced by 5-Aza persisted after its removal; however, TSA- and BrO3--induced histone hyperacetylation returned to basal levels after 3 days of withdrawal. These data demonstrate novel sites within the p21 gene that are epigenetically regulated and further show that significant differences exist in the epigenetic landscape between rat and human p21, especially with regards to toxicant-induced changes in histone acetylation.