Reduction of infarct size by the therapeutic protein TAT-Ndi1 in vivo.
ABSTRACT: Lethal myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury has been attributed in part to mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction (including damage to complex I) and the resultant excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Recent evidence has shown that reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-quinone internal oxidoreductase (Ndi1; the single-subunit protein that in yeast serves the analogous function as complex I), transduced by addition of the TAT-conjugated protein to culture media and perfusion buffer, can preserve mitochondrial function and attenuate I/R injury in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. However, this novel metabolic strategy to salvage ischemic-reperfused myocardium has not been tested in vivo. In this study, TAT-conjugated Ndi1 and placebo-control protein were synthesized using a cell-free system. Mitochondrial uptake and functionality of TAT-Ndi1 were demonstrated in mitochondrial preparations from rat hearts after intraperitoneal administration of the protein. Rats were randomized to receive either TAT-Ndi1 or placebo protein, and 2 hours later all animals underwent 45-minute coronary artery occlusion followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. Infarct size was delineated by tetrazolium staining and normalized to the volume of at-risk myocardium, with all analysis conducted in a blinded manner. Risk region was comparable in the 2 cohorts. Preischemic administration of TAT-Ndi1 was profoundly cardioprotective. These results demonstrate that it is possible to target therapeutic proteins to the mitochondrial matrix and that yeast Ndi1 can substitute for complex I to ameliorate I/R injury in the heart. Moreover, these data suggest that cell-permeable delivery of mitochondrial proteins may provide a novel molecular strategy to treat mitochondrial dysfunction in patients.
Project description:Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of the heart becomes injurious when duration of the ischemic insult exceeds a certain threshold (approximately ≥20 min). Mitochondrial bound hexokinase II (mtHKII) protects against I/R injury, with the amount of mtHKII correlating with injury. Here, we examine whether mtHKII can induce the transition from non-injurious to injurious I/R, by detaching HKII from mitochondria during a non-injurious I/R interval. Additionally, we examine possible underlying mechanisms (increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased oxygen consumption (MVO2) and decreased cardiac energetics) associated with this transition. Langendorff perfused rat hearts were treated for 20 min with saline, TAT-only or 200 nM TAT-HKII, a peptide that translocates HKII from mitochondria. Then, hearts were exposed to non-injurious 15-min ischemia, followed by 30-min reperfusion. I/R injury was determined by necrosis (LDH release) and cardiac mechanical recovery. ROS were measured by DHE fluorescence. Changes in cardiac respiratory activity (cardiac MVO2 and efficiency and mitochondrial oxygen tension (mitoPO2) using protoporphyrin IX) and cardiac energetics (ATP, PCr, ∆GATP) were determined following peptide treatment. When exposed to 15-min ischemia, control hearts had no necrosis and 85% recovery of function. Conversely, TAT-HKII treatment resulted in significant LDH release and reduced cardiac recovery (25%), indicating injurious I/R. This was associated with increased ROS during ischemia and reperfusion. TAT-HKII treatment reduced MVO2 and improved energetics (increased PCr) before ischemia, without affecting MVO2/RPP ratio or mitoPO2. In conclusion, a reduction in mtHKII turns non-injurious I/R into injurious I/R. Loss of mtHKII was associated with increased ROS during ischemia and reperfusion, but not with increased MVO2 or decreased cardiac energetics before damage occurs.
Project description:AIMS:Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) is critical for cardiac protection from ischaemia and reperfusion (IR) injury. PKCepsilon substrates that mediate cytoprotection reside in the mitochondria. However, the mechanism enabling mitochondrial translocation and import of PKCepsilon to enable phosphorylation of these substrates is not known. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a cytoprotective protein chaperone that participates in mitochondrial import of a number of proteins. Here, we investigated the role of HSP90 in mitochondrial import of PKCepsilon. METHODS AND RESULTS:Using an ex vivo perfused rat heart model of IR, we found that PKCepsilon translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondrial fraction following IR. Immunogold electron microscopy and mitochondrial fractionation demonstrated that following IR, mitochondrial PKCepsilon is localized within the mitochondria, on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 prevented IR-induced interaction between PKCepsilon and the translocase of the outer membrane (Tom20), reduced mitochondrial import of PKCepsilon, and increased necrotic cell death by approximately 70%. Using a rational approach, we designed a 7-amino acid peptide activator of PKCepsilon, derived from an HSP90 homologous sequence located in the C2 domain of PKCepsilon (termed psiepsilonHSP90). Treatment with this peptide (conjugated to the cell permeating TAT protein-derived peptide, TAT(47-57)) increased PKCepsilon-HSP90 protein-protein interaction, enhanced mitochondrial translocation of PKCepsilon, increased phosphorylation and activity of an intra-mitochondrial PKCepsilon substrate, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, and reduced cardiac injury in ex vivo and in vivo models of myocardial infarction. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that HSP90-mediated mitochondrial import of PKCepsilon plays an important role in the protection of the myocardium from IR injury.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disorder with point mutations in mitochondrial DNA which result in loss of vision in young adults. The majority of mutations reported to date are within the genes encoding the subunits of the mitochondrial NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, complex I. Establishment of animal models of LHON should help elucidate mechanism of the disease and could be utilized for possible development of therapeutic strategies.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>We established a rat model which involves injection of rotenone-loaded microspheres into the optic layer of the rat superior colliculus. The animals exhibited the most common features of LHON. Visual loss was observed within 2 weeks of rotenone administration with no apparent effect on retinal ganglion cells. Death of retinal ganglion cells occurred at a later stage. Using our rat model, we investigated the effect of the yeast alternative NADH dehydrogenase, Ndi1. We were able to achieve efficient expression of the Ndi1 protein in the mitochondria of all regions of retinal ganglion cells and axons by delivering the NDI1 gene into the optical layer of the superior colliculus. Remarkably, even after the vision of the rats was severely impaired, treatment of the animals with the NDI1 gene led to a complete restoration of the vision to the normal level. Control groups that received either empty vector or the GFP gene had no effects.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>The present study reports successful manifestation of LHON-like symptoms in rats and demonstrates the potential of the NDI1 gene therapy on mitochondrial optic neuropathies. Our results indicate a window of opportunity for the gene therapy to be applied successfully after the onset of the disease symptoms.
Project description:It is widely recognized that mitochondrial dysfunction, most notably defects in the NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (complex I), is closely related to the etiology of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). In fact, rotenone, a complex I inhibitor, has been used for establishing PD models both in vitro and in vivo. A rat model with chronic rotenone exposure seems to reproduce pathophysiological conditions of PD more closely than acute mouse models as manifested by neuronal cell death in the substantia nigra and Lewy body-like cytosolic aggregations. Using the rotenone rat model, we investigated the protective effects of alternative NADH dehydrogenase (Ndi1) which we previously demonstrated to act as a replacement for complex I both in vitro and in vivo. A single, unilateral injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus carrying the NDI1 gene into the vicinity of the substantia nigra resulted in expression of the Ndi1 protein in the entire substantia nigra of that side. It was clear that the introduction of the Ndi1 protein in the substantia nigra rendered resistance to the deleterious effects caused by rotenone exposure as assessed by the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine. The presence of the Ndi1 protein also prevented cell death and oxidative damage to DNA in dopaminergic neurons observed in rotenone-treated rats. Unilateral protection also led to uni-directional rotation of the rotenone-exposed rats in the behavioral test. The present study shows, for the first time, the powerful neuroprotective effect offered by the Ndi1 enzyme in a rotenone rat model of PD.
Project description:Myocardial Ca(2+) overload induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a major element of myocardial dysfunction in heart failure. Phospholipase C (PLC) plays important roles in the regulation of the phosphoinositol pathway and Ca(2+) homeostasis in various types of cells. Here, we investigated the protective role of PLC?1 against myocardial I/R injury through the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis. To investigate its role, PLC?1 was fused to Hph1, a cell-permeable protein transduction domain (PTD), and treated into rat neonatal cardiomyocytes and rat hearts under respective hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) and ischemia-reperfusion conditions. Treatment with Hph1-PLC?1 significantly inhibited intracellular Ca(2+) overload, reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, and mitochondrial membrane potential elevation in H/R neonatal cardiomyocytes, resulting in the inhibition of apoptosis. Intravenous injections of Hph1-PLC?1 in rats with I/R-injured myocardium caused significant reductions in infarct size and apoptosis and also improved systolic and diastolic cardiac functioning. Furthermore, a small ions profile obtained using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that treatment with Hph1-PLC?1 leads to significant recovery of calcium-related ions toward normal levels in I/R-injured myocardium. These results suggest that Hph1-PLC?1 may manifest as a promising cardioprotective drug due to its inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in cells suffering from I/R injury.
Project description:Mutations in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complex I are associated with multiple pathologies, and complex I has been proposed as a crucial regulator of animal longevity. In yeast, the single-subunit NADH dehydrogenase Ndi1 serves as a non-proton-translocating alternative enzyme that replaces complex I, bringing about the reoxidation of intramitochondrial NADH. We have created transgenic strains of Drosophila that express yeast NDI1 ubiquitously. Mitochondrial extracts from NDI1-expressing flies displayed a rotenone-insensitive NADH dehydrogenase activity, and functionality of the enzyme in vivo was confirmed by the rescue of lethality resulting from RNAi knockdown of complex I. NDI1 expression increased median, mean, and maximum lifespan independently of dietary restriction, and with no change in sirtuin activity. NDI1 expression mitigated the aging associated decline in respiratory capacity and the accompanying increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, and resulted in decreased accumulation of markers of oxidative damage in aged flies. Our results support a central role of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complex I in influencing longevity via oxidative stress, independently of pathways connected to nutrition and growth signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Icariin, a major active ingredient in traditional Chinese medicines, is attracting increasing attention because of its unique pharmacological effects against ischaemic heart disease. The histone deacetylase, sirtuin-1, plays a protective role in ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and this study was designed to investigate the protective role of icariin in models of cardiac I/R injury and to elucidate the potential involvement of sirtuin-1. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:I/R injury was simulated in vivo (mouse hearts), ex vivo (isolated rat hearts) and in vitro (neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cells). Prior to I/R injury, animals or cells were exposed to icariin, with or without inhibitors of sirtuin-1 (sirtinol and SIRT1 siRNA). KEY RESULTS:In vivo and in vitro, icariin given before I/R significantly improved post-I/R heart contraction and limited the infarct size and leakage of creatine kinase-MB and LDH from the damaged myocardium. Icariin also attenuated I/R-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage, decreasing malondialdehyde content and increasing superoxide dismutase activity and expression of Mn-superoxide dismutase. Icariin significantly improved mitochondrial membrane homeostasis by increasing mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome C stabilization, which further inhibited cell apoptosis. Sirtuin-1 was significantly up-regulated in hearts treated with icariin, whereas Ac-FOXO1 was simultaneously down-regulated. Importantly, sirtinol and SIRT1 siRNA either blocked icariin-induced cardioprotection or disrupted icariin-mediated mitochondrial homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Pretreatment with icariin protected cardiomyocytes from I/R-induced oxidative stress through activation of sirtuin-1 /FOXO1 signalling.
Project description:Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited form of visual dysfunction caused by mutations in several genes encoding subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex (complex I). Development of gene therapies for LHON has been impeded by genetic heterogeneity and the need to deliver therapies to the mitochondria of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the cells primarily affected in LHON. The therapy under development entails intraocular injection of a nuclear yeast gene NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (NDI1) that encodes a single subunit complex I equivalent and as such is mutation independent. NDI1 is imported into mitochondria due to an endogenous mitochondrial localisation signal. Intravitreal injection represents a clinically relevant route of delivery to RGCs not previously used for NDI1. In this study, recombinant adenoassociated virus (AAV) serotype 2 expressing NDI1 (AAV-NDI1) was shown to protect RGCs in a rotenone-induced murine model of LHON. AAV-NDI1 significantly reduced RGC death by 1.5-fold and optic nerve atrophy by 1.4-fold. This led to a significant preservation of retinal function as assessed by manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and optokinetic responses. Intraocular injection of AAV-NDI1 overcomes many barriers previously associated with developing therapies for LHON and holds great therapeutic promise for a mitochondrial disorder for which there are no effective therapies.
Project description:The 'rate of living' theory predicts that longevity should be inversely correlated with the rate of mitochondrial respiration. However, recent studies in a number of model organisms, including mice, have reported that interventions that retard the aging process are, in fact, associated with an increase in mitochondrial activity. To better understand the relationship between energy metabolism and longevity, we supplemented the endogenous respiratory chain machinery of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with the alternative single-subunit NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Ndi1) of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report that expression of Ndi1 in fly mitochondria leads to an increase in NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity, oxygen consumption, and ATP levels. In addition, exogenous Ndi1 expression results in increased CO2 production in living flies. Using an inducible gene-expression system, we expressed Ndi1 in different cells and tissues and examined the impact on longevity. In doing so, we discovered that targeted expression of Ndi1 in fly neurons significantly increases lifespan without compromising fertility or physical activity. These findings are consistent with the idea that enhanced respiratory chain activity in neuronal tissue can prolong fly lifespan.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myocardial reperfusion injury prevents optimal salvage of the ischaemic myocardium, and adjunct therapy that would significantly reduce reperfusion injury is still lacking. We investigated whether (1) the heart could be pre- and/or post-conditioned using levosimendan (levosimendan pre-conditioning (LPC) and levosimendan post-conditioning (LPostC)) and (2) the prosurvival kinases and/or the sarcolemmal or mitochondrial K(ATP) channels are involved. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Isolated guinea pig hearts were treated with two 5 min cycles of levosimendan (0.1 microM) interspersed with vehicle perfusion, or two 5 min cycles of ischaemia/reperfusion, before coronary artery ligation (CAL) for 40 min at 36.5 degrees C. Hearts were treated with mitochondrial or sarcolemmal K(ATP) channel blockers before LPC or LPostC. For post-conditioning, hearts received three 30 s cycles of ischaemia/reperfusion or levosimendan/vehicle. Hearts were pretreated with levosimendan immediately before CAL (without washout). Cardiac function, infarct size and reperfusion injury salvage kinase activity was assessed. KEY RESULTS: LPC and LPostC halved the infarct size compared with controls (P<0.05). Treatment with K(ATP) channel blockers before LPC or LPostC reversed this decrease. Pretreating hearts with levosimendan increased activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 42/44 on reperfusion and had the most marked infarct-lowering effect (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: (1) Hearts could be pharmacologically pre- and post-conditioned with levosimendan; (2) levosimendan pretreatment is the most effective way to reduce infarct size, possibly by increasing ERK 42/44 activity; (3) benefits of LPC and LPostC were abolished by both K(ATP) channel blockers and (4) LPC may be useful before elective cardiac surgery, whereas LPostC may be used after acute coronary artery events.