T-cell-restricted T-bet overexpression induces aberrant hematopoiesis of myeloid cells and impairs function of macrophages in the lung.
ABSTRACT: Although overexpression of T-bet, a master transcription factor in type-1 helper T lymphocytes, has been reported in several hematologic and immune diseases, its role in their pathogenesis is not fully understood. In the present study, we used transgenic model mice (T-bet(tg/wt) and T-bet(tg/tg)) to investigate the effects of T-bet overexpression selectively in T lymphocytes on the development of hematologic and immune diseases. The results showed that T-bet overexpression in T cells spontaneously induced maturation arrest in the mononuclear phagocyte lineage, as well as spontaneous dermatitis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP)-like disease in T-bet(tg/wt) and T-bet(tg/tg) mice, respectively. T-bet(tg/tg) alveoli with the PAP phenotype showed remarkable reorganization of alveolar mononuclear phagocyte subpopulations and impaired function, in addition to augmented T-cell infiltration. In addition, PAP development in T-bet(tg/tg) mice was found to be associated with increased migration of myeloid cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood. These findings reveal an unexpected link between T-bet overexpression in T lymphocytes and the development of PAP caused by reorganization of mononuclear phagocytes in the lung, and provide new insight into the molecular pathogenesis of secondary PAP accompanied by hematologic disorders.
Project description:The majority of cases with severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) are caused by auto-antibodies against GM-CSF. A multitude of genetic and exogenous causes are responsible for few other cases. Goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of GATA2 deficiency in children and adults with PAP and hematologic disorders.Of 21 patients with GM-CSF-autoantibody negative PAP, 13 had no other organ involvement and 8 had some form of hematologic disorder. The latter were sequenced for GATA2.Age at start of PAP ranged from 0.3 to 64 years, 4 patients were children. In half of the subjects GATA2-sequence variations were found, two of which were considered disease causing. Those two patients had the typical phenotype of GATA2 deficiency, one of whom additionally showed a previously undescribed feature - a cholesterol pneumonia. Hematologic disorders included chronic myeloic leukemia, juvenile myelo-monocytic leukemia, lymphoblastic leukemia, sideroblastic anemia and two cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). A 4 year old child with MDS and DiGeorge Syndrome Type 2 was rescued with repetitive whole lung lavages and her PAP was cured with heterologous stem cell transplant.In children and adults with severe GM-CSF negative PAP a close cooperation between pneumologists and hemato-oncologists is needed to diagnose the underlying diseases, some of which are caused by mutations of transcription factor GATA2. Treatment with whole lung lavages as well as stem cell transplant may be successful.
Project description:Intracerebral Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection in mice induces inflammatory demyelination in the central nervous system. Although C57BL/6 mice normally resistant to TMEV infection with viral clearance, we have previously demonstrated that ROR?t-transgenic (tg) C57BL/6 mice, which have Th17-biased responses due to ROR?t overexpression in T cells, became susceptible to TMEV infection with viral persistence. Here, using T-bet-tg C57BL/6 mice and Gata3-tg C57BL/6 mice, we demonstrated that overexpression of T-bet, but not Gata3, in T cells was detrimental in TMEV infection. Unexpectedly, T-bet-tg mice died 2 to 3 weeks after infection due to failure of viral clearance. Here, TMEV infection induced splenic T cell depletion, which was associated with lower anti-viral antibody and T cell responses. In contrast, Gata3-tg mice remained resistant, while Gata3-tg mice had lower IFN-? and higher IL-4 production with increased anti-viral IgG1 responses. Thus, our data identify how overexpression of T-bet and Gata3 in T cells alters anti-viral immunity and confers susceptibility to TMEV infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood monocytes (PBMo) originate from the bone marrow, circulate in the blood and emigrate into various organs where they differentiate into tissue resident cellular phenotypes of the mononuclear phagocyte system, including macrophages (Mphi) and dendritic cells (DC). Like in other organs, this emigration and differentiation process is essential to replenish the mononuclear phagocyte pool in the lung under both inflammatory and non-inflammatory steady-state conditions. While many studies have addressed inflammation-driven monocyte trafficking to the lung, the emigration and pulmonary differentiation of PBMo under non-inflammatory conditions is much less understood. METHODS: In order to assess the transcriptional profile of circulating and lung resident mononuclear phagocyte phenotypes, PBMo, lung Mphi and lung DC from naïve mice were flow-sorted to high purity, and their gene expression was compared by DNA microarrays on a genome-wide scale. Differential regulation of selected genes was validated by quantitative PCR and on protein level by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Differentially-expressed genes related to cell traffic were selected and grouped into the clusters (i) matrix metallopeptidases, (ii) chemokines/chemokine receptors, and (iii) integrins. Expression profiles of clustered genes were further assessed at the mRNA and protein levels in subsets of circulating PBMo (GR1- vs GR1+) and lung resident macrophages (alveolar vs interstitial Mphi). Our data identify differentially activated genetic programs in circulating monocytes and their lung descendents. Lung DC activate an extremely diverse set of gene families but largely preserve a mobile cell profile with high expression levels of integrin and chemokine/chemokine receptors. In contrast, interstitial and even more pronounced alveolar Mphi, stepwise downregulate gene expression of these traffic relevant communication molecules, but strongly upregulate a distinct set of matrix metallopetidases potentially involved in tissue invasion and remodeling. CONCLUSION: Our data provide new insight in the changes of the genetic profiles of PBMo and their lung descendents, namely DC and Mphi under non-inflammatory, steady-state conditions. These findings will help to better understand the complex relations within the mononuclear phagocyte pool of the lung.
Project description:Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disease in which the abnormalities in alveolar surfactant accumulation are caused by impairments of GM-CSF pathway attributing to defects in a variety of genes. However, hereditary PAP is extremely uncommon and a detailed understanding in the genetic inheritance of PAP in a family may provide timely diagnosis, treatment and proper intervention including genetic consultation. Here, we described a comprehensive analysis of genome and gene expression for a family containing one affected child with a diagnosis of PAP and two other healthy siblings. Family-based whole-genome analysis revealed a homozygous deletion that disrupts CSF2RA, CRLF2, and IL3RA gene in the pseudoautosomal region of the X chromosome in the affected child and one of asymptomatic siblings. Further functional pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes in IL-1?-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells highlighted the insufficiency of immune response in the child with PAP, especially the protection against bacterial infection. Collectively, our results reveal a novel allele as the genetic determinant of a family with PAP and provide insights into variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance of this rare disease, which will be helpful for proper genetic consultation and prompt treatment to avoid mortality and morbidity.
Project description:To uncover potential mechanisms underlying the observed Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis-like phenotype, we performed a microarray analysis using lung mRNAs from T-bet transgenic mice. Gene expression signatures associated with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis induced by T-bet overexpression in T cells were measured.
Project description:Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a syndrome of reduced GM-CSF-dependent, macrophage-mediated surfactant clearance, dysfunctional foamy alveolar macrophages, alveolar surfactant accumulation, and hypoxemic respiratory failure for which the pathogenetic mechanism is unknown. Here, we examine the lipids accumulating in alveolar macrophages and surfactant to define the pathogenesis of PAP and evaluate a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach. In PAP patients, alveolar macrophages have a marked increase in cholesterol but only a minor increase in phospholipids, and pulmonary surfactant has an increase in the ratio of cholesterol to phospholipids. Oral statin therapy is associated with clinical, physiological, and radiological improvement in autoimmune PAP patients, and ex vivo statin treatment reduces cholesterol levels in explanted alveolar macrophages. In Csf2rb-/- mice, statin therapy reduces cholesterol accumulation in alveolar macrophages and ameliorates PAP, and ex vivo statin treatment increases cholesterol efflux from macrophages. These results support the feasibility of statin as a novel pathogenesis-based pharmacotherapy of PAP.
Project description:Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) comprises a heterogenous group of diseases characterized by abnormal surfactant accumulation resulting in respiratory insufficiency, and defects in alveolar macrophage- and neutrophil-mediated host defense. Basic, clinical and translational research over the past two decades have raised PAP from obscurity, identifying the molecular pathogenesis in over 90% of cases as a spectrum of diseases involving the disruption of GM-CSF signaling. Autoimmune PAP represents the vast majority of cases and is caused by neutralizing GM-CSF autoantibodies. Genetic mutations that disrupt GM-CSF receptor signaling comprise a rare form of hereditary PAP. In both autoimmune and hereditary PAP, loss of GM-CSF signaling blocks the terminal differentiation of alveolar macrophages in the lungs impairing the ability of alveolar macrophages to catabolize surfactant and to perform many host defense functions. Secondary PAP occurs in a variety of clinical diseases that presumedly cause the syndrome by reducing the numbers or functions of alveolar macrophages, thereby impairing alveolar macrophage-mediated pulmonary surfactant clearance. A similar phenotype occurs in mice deficient in the production of GM-CSF or GM-CSF receptors. PAP and related research has uncovered a critical and emerging role for GM-CSF in the regulation of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis, lung host defense, and systemic immunity.
Project description:Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) promotes mononuclear phagocyte survival and proliferation. The transcription factor Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-?B) is a key regulator of genes involved in M-CSF-induced mononuclear phagocyte survival and this study focused at identifying the mechanism of NF-?B transcriptional activation. Here, we demonstrate that M-CSF stimulated NF-?B transcriptional activity in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The general protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro-31-8220, the conventional PKC?/? inhibitor Gö-6976, overexpression of dominant negative PKC? constructs and PKC? siRNA reduced NF-?B activity in response to M-CSF. Interestingly, Ro-31-8220 reduced Ser276 phosphorylation of NF-?Bp65 leading to decreased M-CSF-induced monocyte survival. In this report, we identify conventional PKCs, including PKC? as important upstream kinases for M-CSF-induced NF-?B transcriptional activation, NF-?B-regulated gene expression, NF-?B p65 Ser276 phosphorylation, and macrophage survival. Lastly, we find that NF-?B p65 Ser276 plays an important role in basal and M-CSF-stimulated NF-?B activation in human mononuclear phagocytes.
Project description:Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the B-lymphocyte antigen CD20, has shown promise in several autoimmune disorders. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is an autoimmune disorder characterised by autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). An open-label, proof-of-concept phase II clinical trial was conducted in 10 PAP patients. The intervention consisted of two intravenous infusions of rituximab (1,000 mg) 15 days apart. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and peripheral blood samples were collected. The primary outcome was improvement in arterial blood oxygenation. Both arterial oxygen tension and alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference in room air improved in seven out of the nine patients completing the study. Lung function and high-resolution computed tomography scans, which were secondary outcomes, also improved. Peripheral blood CD19+ B-lymphocytes decreased from mean ± sem 15 ± 2% to <0.05% (n = 10) 15 days post-therapy. This decrease persisted for 3 months in all patients; at 6 months, CD19+ B-cells were detected in four out of seven patients (5 ± 2%). Total anti-GM-CSF immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels from baseline to 6 months were decreased in BAL fluids (n = 8) but unchanged in sera (n = 9). In this PAP cohort: 1) rituximab was well-tolerated and effectively ameliorated lung disease; and 2) reduction in anti-GM-CSF IgG levels in the lung correlated with disease changes, suggesting that disease pathogenesis is related to autoantibody levels in the target organ.
Project description:In this study we demonstrate that the lung mononuclear phagocyte system comprises three interstitial macrophages (IMs), as well as alveolar macrophages (AMs), dendritic cells and few extravascular monocytes. Through cell sorting and RNAseq analysis we were able to identify transcriptional similarities and differences between the three pulmonary IM subtypes, with reference to the more well-characterized alveolar macrophage Overall design: Pulmonary Interstitial and Alveolar macrophages were FACS sorted from the lungs of steady state 8-10 week old B6 mice, in triplicate. Extracted RNA was examined by RNAsequencing.