Molecular characterization and identification of target protein of an important vesicle trafficking gene AlRab7 from a salt excreting halophyte Aeluropus lagopoides.
ABSTRACT: The endomembrane system plays an important role during cellular adaptation of the plants with the extracellular environment. The small GTP-binding protein Rab7 located at the vacuolar membrane regulates the vesicle fusion with the vacuole and thereby helps in recycling of the molecules. This is the first report on isolation and characterization of AlRab7 gene from the halophyte plant, Aeluropus that extrudes NaCl through salt glands and grows luxuriantly throughout the year at the Gujarat coast, India. The AlRab7 encodes a protein with 206 amino acids, and a highly conserved effector-binding domain and four nucleotide-binding domains. The in silico analysis predicts the presence of the prenylation site for Rab geranylgeranyltransferase 2 and the Rab escort protein site. The C-terminal two cysteine residues in -XCC sequence are present for membrane attachment. Transcript expression of the AlRab7 gene was differentially regulated by different environmental stimuli such as dehydration, salinity, and hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The recombinant Escherichia coli cells showed improved growth in Luria Bertani medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, mannitol, ABA, and indole-3-acetic acid. A novel Rab7 interacting partner AlRabring7 was identified by yeast two-hybrid screening.
Project description:The study of salt tolerance mechanisms in halophyte plants can provide valuable information for crop breeding and plant engineering programs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whole transcriptome analysis of Aeluropus littoralis in response to salinity stress (200 and 400?mM NaCl) by de novo RNA-sequencing. To assemble the transcriptome, Trinity v2.4.0 and Bridger tools, were comparatively used with two k-mer sizes (25 and 32?bp). The de novo assembled transcriptome by Bridger (k-mer 32) was chosen as final assembly for subsequent analysis. In general, 103290 transcripts were obtained. The differential expression analysis (log2FC?>?1 and FDR?<?0.01) showed that 1861 transcripts expressed differentially, including169 up and 316 down-regulated transcripts in 200?mM NaCl treatment and 1035 up and 430 down-regulated transcripts in 400?mM NaCl treatment compared to control. In addition, 89 transcripts were common in both treatments. The most important over-represented terms in the GO analysis of differentially expressed genes (FDR?<?0.05) were chitin response, response to abscisic acid, and regulation of jasmonic acid mediated signaling pathway under 400?mM NaCl treatment and cell cycle, cell division, and mitotic cell cycle process under 200?mM treatment. In addition, the phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic process term was common in both salt treatments. Interestingly, under 400?mM salt treatment, the PRC1 complex that contributes to chromatin remodeling was also enriched along with vacuole as a general salinity stress responsive cell component. Among enriched pathways, the MAPK signaling pathway (ko04016) and phytohormone signal transduction (ko04075) were significantly enriched in 400?mM NaCl treatment, whereas DNA replication (ko03032) was the only pathway that significantly enriched in 200?mM NaCl treatment. Finally, our findings indicate the salt-concentration depended responses of A. littoralis, which well-known salinity stress-related pathways are induced in 400?mM NaCl, while less considered pathways, e.g. cell cycle and DNA replication, are highlighted under 200?mM NaCl treatment.
Project description:NAC proteins are a large family of plant-specific transcription factors which regulate both ABA-dependent and -independent gene expression. These transcription factors participate in biotic and abiotic stress-response through intricate regulation at transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. In the present study, AlNAC4 transcription factor was isolated from a salt excreting halophyte Aeluropus lagopoides. The AlNAC4 has an open reading frame of 936 bp, encoding a protein of 312 amino acid, with an estimated molecular mass of 34.9 kDa. The AlNAC4 showed close homology to monocot NACs in the phylogenetic tree. In silico analysis revealed that AlNAC4 possess the characteristic A-E subdomains within the NAC domain. The AlNAC4 showed sixteen post-translational phosphorylation sites. The AlNAC4 transcript was significantly upregulated with dehydration and H2O2 treatments, showing its role in osmotic and oxidative stress, respectively. The recombinant protein showed binding to mono as well as tandem repeats of NAC recognition sequence (NACRS) of the erd1 promoter. This is the first report mentioning that overexpression of AlNAC4 improved oxidative stress tolerance in tobacco transgenics. The transgenics maintained ROS homeostasis during H2O2 treatment. The transgenics showed regulation of stress-responsive genes including CAT, SOD, LEA5, PLC3, ERD10B, THT1 and transcription factors like AP2, ZFP during oxidative stress. Key Message: The AlNAC4 transcription factor from recretohalophyte Aeluropus showed regulation with abiotic stresses and binding to NACRS elements of erd1 promoter. The AlNAC4 tobacco transgenics showed improved growth with oxidative stress.
Project description:Background:Salinity as a most significant environmental challenges affects the growth and productivity of plants worldwide. In this study, the ionic and iso-osmotic effects of salt stress were investigated in Aeluropus littoralis L., a halophyte grass species from Poaceae family, by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique. To dissect the two different effects (ionic and osmotic) exerted by salt stress, various ionic agents including 200 and 400?mM sodium chloride (NaCl), 200 and 400?mM potassium chloride (KCl) as well as 280 and 406 gl-?1 (-?0.9 and?-?1.4?MPa) polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) as their iso-osmotic concentrations were applied. Results:Application of KCl and PEG significantly reduced the fresh weight (FW) of A. littoralis seedlings compared to control while NaCl treatment markedly enhanced the FW. At the transcriptome level, different observations of changes in gene expression have been made in response of A. littoralis to ionic and osmotic stresses. Out of 69 transcript derived fragments (TDFs), 42 TDFs belong to 9 different groups of genes involved in metabolism (11.6%), transcription (10.2%), ribosomal protein (8.7%), protein binding (8.7%) transporter (5.8%), translation (5.8%), signal transduction (4.3%), nucleosome assembly protein (2.9%) and catabolism (2.9%). The 44 and 28 percent of transcripts were expressed under ionic stress (NaCl-specific and KCl-specific) and osmotic stress (common with NaCl, KCl and PEG), respectively which indicating a greater response of plants to ionic stress than osmotic stress. Expression pattern of eight candidate TDFs including; SYP81, CAND1, KATN, ISB1, SAMDC, GLY1, HAK18 and ZF30 was evaluated by RT-qPCR at high salinity levels and recovery condition. Conclusion:Differential regulation of these TDFs was observed in root and shoot which confirm their role in salt stress tolerance and provide initial insights into the transcriptome of A. littoralis. Expression pattern of ionic and osmotic-related TDFs at A. littoralis can be taken as an indication of their functional relevance at different salt and drought stresses.
Project description:The combination of traits that makes a plant successful under saline conditions varies with the type of plant and its interaction with the environmental conditions. Knowledge about the contribution of these traits towards salt resistance in grasses has great potential for improving the salt resistance of conventional crops. We attempted to identify differential adaptive response patterns of salt-excreting versus non-excreting grasses. More specifically, we studied the growth, osmotic, ionic and nutrient (carbon/nitrogen) relations of two salt-excreting (Aeluropus lagopoides and Sporobolus tremulus) and two non-excreting (Paspalum paspalodes and Paspalidium geminatum) perennial C4 grasses under non-saline and saline (0, 200 and 400 mM NaCl) conditions. Growth and relative growth rate decreased under saline conditions in the order P. geminatum > S. tremulus = A. lagopoides > P. paspalodes. The root-to-shoot biomass allocation was unaffected in salt-excreting grasses, increased in P. paspalodes but decreased in P. geminatum. Salt-excreting grasses had a higher shoot/root Na(+) ratio than non-excreting grasses. K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) homoeostasis remained undisturbed among test grasses possibly through improved ion selectivity with rising substrate salinity. Salt-excreting grasses increased leaf succulence, decreased ?s and xylem pressure potential, and accumulated proline and glycinebetaine with increasing salinity. Higher salt resistance of P. paspalodes could be attributed to lower Na(+) uptake, higher nitrogen-use efficiency and higher water-use efficiency among the test species. However, P. geminatum was unable to cope with salt-induced physiological drought. More information is required to adequately document the differential strategies of salt resistance in salt-excreting and non-excreting grasses.
Project description:Most plants encounter stress such as drought and salinity that adversely affect growth, development and crop productivity. The expression of the gene glutathione-s-transferases (GST) extends throughout various protective mechanisms in plants and allows them to adapt to unfavorable environmental conditions. GSTF1 (the first phi GSTFs class) gene expression patterns in the wheat cultivars Mahuti and Alamut were studied under salt and ABA treatments using a qRT-PCR technique. Results showed that gene expression patterns were significantly different in these two cultivars. Data showed that in Mahuti, there was an increase of transcript accumulation under salt and ABA treatments at 3h, 10h and 72h respectively. In Alamut, however, the pattern of transcript accumulation was different; the maximum was at 3h. In contrast, there were no significant differences observed between the cultivars for GSTF1 gene expression profiles at three levels of NaCl concentration (50, 100, and 200 mM) or in ABA (Abscisic Acid) treatment. It is likely that difference of gene expression patterns between the cultivars (Mahuti as a salt tolerant cultivar and Alamut as a salt sensitive cultivar) is due to distinct signaling pathways which activate GSTF1 expression. Lack of a significant difference between the GSTF1 gene expression profile under salt and ABA treatments suggests that the GSTF1 gene is not induced by stress stimuli. Of course it is possible that other levels of NaCl and ABA treatments cause a change in the GSTF1 gene.
Project description:Prenylated Rab GTPases regulate intracellular vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic cells by associating with specific membranes and recruiting a multitude of Rab-specific effector proteins. Prenylation, membrane delivery, and recycling of all 60 members of the Rab GTPase family are regulated by two related molecules, Rab escort protein (REP) and GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI). Biophysical analysis of the interaction of prenylated proteins is complicated by their low solubility in aqueous solutions. Here, we used expressed protein ligation to construct a semisynthetic fluorescent analogue of prenylated Rab7, Rab7-NBD-farnesyl. This molecule is soluble in the absence of detergent but is otherwise similar in its behavior to naturally prenylated Rab7 GTPase. To obtain information on the interaction of natively mono- and diprenylated Rab7 GTPases with REP and GDI molecules, we stabilized the former molecules in solution by using the beta-subunit of Rab geranylgeranyl transferase, which we demonstrate to function as an unspecific chaperone of prenylated proteins. Using competitive titrations of mixtures of natively prenylated and fluorescent Rab, we demonstrate that monogeranylgeranylated Rab7 binds to the REP protein with a K(d) value of approximately 70 pM. The affinity of doubly prenylated Rab7 is approximately 20-fold weaker. In contrast, GDI binds both prenylated forms of Rab7 with comparable affinities (K(d) = 1-5 nM) but has extremely low affinity to unprenylated Rab molecules. The obtained data allow us to formulate a thermodynamic model for the interaction of RabGTPases with their regulators and membranes and to explain the need for both REP and GDI in Rab function.
Project description:An important role in the evolution of intracellular trafficking machinery in eukaryotes played small GTPases belonging to the Rab family known as pivotal regulators of vesicle docking, fusion and transport. The Rab family is very diversified and divided into several specialized subfamilies. We focused on the VII functional group comprising Rab7 and Rab9, two related subfamilies, and analysed 210 sequences of these proteins. Rab7 regulates traffic from early to late endosomes and from late endosome to vacuole/lysosome, whereas Rab9 participates in transport from late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network.Although Rab7 and Rab9 proteins are quite small and show heterogeneous rates of substitution in different lineages, we found a phylogenetic signal and inferred evolutionary relationships between them. Rab7 proteins evolved before radiation of main eukaryotic supergroups while Rab9 GTPases diverged from Rab7 before split of choanoflagellates and metazoans. Additional duplication of Rab9 and Rab7 proteins resulting in several isoforms occurred in the early evolution of vertebrates and next in teleost fishes and tetrapods. Three Rab7 lineages emerged before divergence of monocots and eudicots and subsequent duplications of Rab7 genes occurred in particular angiosperm clades. Interestingly, several Rab7 copies were identified in some representatives of excavates, ciliates and amoebozoans. The presence of many Rab copies is correlated with significant differences in their expression level. The diversification of analysed Rab subfamilies is also manifested by non-conserved sequences and structural features, many of which are involved in the interaction with regulators and effectors. Individual sites discriminating different subgroups of Rab7 and Rab9 GTPases have been identified.Phylogenetic reconstructions of Rab7 and Rab9 proteins were performed by a variety of methods. These Rab GTPases show diversification both at the phylogenetic, expression and structural levels. The presence of many Rab7 and Rab9 isoforms suggests their functional specialization and complexity of subcellular trafficking even in unicellular eukaryotes. The identified less conserved regions in analysed Rab sequences may directly contribute to such a differentiation.
Project description:We report here the isolation and functional analysis of AlTMP1 gene encoding a member of the PMP3 protein family. In Aeluropus littoralis, AlTMP1 is highly induced by abscisic acid (ABA), cold, salt, and osmotic stresses. Transgenic tobacco expressing AlTMP1 exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, osmotic, H?O?, heat and freezing stresses at the seedling stage. Under greenhouse conditions, the transgenic plants showed a higher level of tolerance to drought than to salinity. Noteworthy, AlTMP1 plants yielded two- and five-fold more seeds than non-transgenic plants (NT) under salt and drought stresses, respectively. The leaves of AlTMP1 plants accumulated lower Na? but higher K? and Ca2+ than those of NT plants. Tolerance to osmotic and salt stresses was associated with higher membrane stability, low electrolyte leakage, and improved water status. Finally, accumulation of AlTMP1 in tobacco altered the regulation of some stress-related genes in either a positive (NHX1, CAT1, APX1, and DREB1A) or negative (HKT1 and KT1) manner that could be related to the observed tolerance. These results suggest that AlTMP1 confers stress tolerance in tobacco through maintenance of ion homeostasis, increased membrane integrity, and water status. The observed tolerance may be due to a direct or indirect effect of AlTMP1 on the expression of stress-related genes which could stimulate an adaptive potential not present in NT plants.