Effect of IAA on in vitro growth and colonization of Nostoc in plant roots.
ABSTRACT: Nostoc is widely known for its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and the establishment of symbiotic relationship with a wide range of plants from various taxonomic groups. Several strains of Nostoc produce phytohormones that promote growth of its plant partners. Nostoc OS-1 was therefore selected for study because of the presence of putative ipdC gene that encodes a key enzyme to produce Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The results indicated that both cellular and released IAA was found high with increasing incubation time and reached to a peak value (i.e., 21 pmol mg(-1)ch-a) on the third week as determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Also the Nostoc OS-1 strain efficiently colonized the roots and promoted the growth of rice as well as wheat under axenic conditions and induced ipdC gene that suggested the possible involvement of IAA in these phenotypes. To confirm the impact of IAA on root colonization efficiency and plant promoting phenotypes of Nostoc OS-1, an ipdC knockout mutant was generated by homologous recombinant method. The amount of releasing IAA, in vitro growth, root colonization, and plant promoting efficiency of the ipdC knockout mutant was observed significantly lower than wild type strain under axenic conditions. Importantly, these phenotypes were restored to wild-type levels when the ipdC knockout mutant was complemented with wild type ipdC gene. These results together suggested that ipdC and/or synthesized IAA of Nostoc OS-1 is required for its efficient root colonization and plant promoting activity.
Project description:The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Enterobacter cloacae UW5 synthesizes the plant growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via the indole-3-pyruvate pathway utilizing the enzyme indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase that is encoded by ipdC. In this bacterium, ipdC expression and IAA production occur in stationary phase and are induced by an exogenous source of tryptophan, conditions that are present in the rhizosphere. The aim of this study was to identify the regulatory protein that controls the expression of ipdC. We identified a sequence in the promoter region of ipdC that is highly similar to the recognition sequence for the Escherichia coli regulatory protein TyrR that regulates genes involved in aromatic amino acid transport and metabolism. Using a tyrR insertional mutant, we demonstrate that TyrR is required for IAA production and for induction of ipdC transcription. TyrR directly induces ipdC expression, as was determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, by ipdC promoter-driven reporter gene activity, and by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Expression increases in response to tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. This suggests that, in addition to its function in plant growth promotion, indolepyruvate decarboxylase may be important for aromatic amino acid uptake and/or metabolism.
Project description:Aims:Dianthus caryophyllus is a commercially important ornamental flower. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-fertilisers and bio-fortifiers. We studied the effect of a rhizospheric isolate Klebsiella SGM 81 strain to promote D. caryophyllus growth under sterile and non-sterile conditions, to colonise its root system endophytically and its impact on the cultivatable microbial community. We identified the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production of Klebsiella SGM 81 as major bacterial trait most likely to enhance growth of D. caryophyllus. Methods:ipdC dependent IAA production of SGM 81 was quantified using LC-MS/MS and localised proximal to D. caryophyllus roots and correlated to root growth promotion and characteristic morphological changes. SGM 81 cells were localised on and within the plant root using 3D rendering confocal microscopy of gfp expressing SGM 81. Using Salkowski reagent IAA production was quantified and localised proximal to roots in situ. The effect of different bacterial titres on rhizosphere bacterial population was CFU enumerated on nutrient agar. The genome sequence of Klebsiella SGM 81 (accession number PRJEB21197) was determined to validate PGP traits and phylogenic relationships. Results:Inoculation of D. caryophyllus roots with Klebsiella SGM 81 drastically promoted plant growth when grown in agar and soil, concomitant with a burst in root hair formation, suggesting an increase in root auxin activity. We sequenced the Klebsiella SGM 81 genome, identified the presence of a canonical ipdC gene in Klebsiella SGM 81, confirmed bacterial production and secretion of IAA in batch culture using LC-MS/MS and localised plant dependent IAA production by SGM 81 proximal to roots. We found Klebsiella SGM 81 to be a rhizoplane and endophytic coloniser of D. caryophyllus roots in a dose dependent manner. We found no adverse effects of SGM 81 on the overall rhizospheric microbial population unless supplied to soil in very high titres. Conclusion:Klebsiella SGM 81 effectively improves root traits of D. caryophyllus in a dose dependent manner, likely through tryptophan dependent IAA production in the rhizoplane and potentially within the intercellular spaces of root tissue. Under optimal plant growth promoting conditions in non-sterile soil, the high total microbial titre in the rhizosphere supports a mutualistic relationship between Klebsiella SGM 81 and carnation that potentially extends to the wider rhizosphere microbiota.
Project description:Azospirillum is a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with ability to produce several phytohormones such as auxins, mainly indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The positive interaction of Azospirillum with plants has been simplified and explained through the bacterial capacity to produce IAA. Typical changes on root architecture by promoting the number of lateral roots and hair formation, and reducing the primary root length were established in inoculated plants. These changes increase the root surface improving the water and nutrients acquisition, and thus the growth of the whole plant. The mechanisms by which Azospirillum induces such changes fails to be explained only by the bacterial capacity to produce IAA. In this work, we have evaluated the root architecture and gene expression changes occurred in Arabidopsis thaliana inoculated with A. brasilense Az39 and the IAA-deficient mutant (Az39 ipdC-), or treated with exogenous IAA solution to confirm both, the IAA-dependent and IAA-independent Azospirillum´s pathways to promote the root growth. Our results demonstrate the ability of Az39 to modify the primary root development through IAA biosynthesis, while other IAA-independent mechanisms were related to an increase in the lateral roots development and the root hairs number. Jasmonates, ethylene and salicylic acid were increased in the IAA-deficient bacterial treatments, as the ipdC mutant significantly up-regulated transcription of genes enriched of these phytohormones signaling after 7 days. Further, the physical presence of the inactive bacteria (Az39φ) seems to mediate the development of root hairs, a mechanism common to other non-PGPR as E. coli DH5α. Our results suggest that Az39 inoculation induces morphological changes in root architecture through both IAA-dependent and independent mechanism. The IAA biosynthesis by Az39 reduces the primary root length; while the cells contact with the roots increases the root hairs production. Both the synthesis of active IAA and the presence of metabolically active Az39 cells increase the growth and development of lateral roots. Overall design: 2 strains of Azospirillum rhizobacteria (Az39 and -ipdc mutant) and an NaCl control were applied to the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings for transcriptomic analysis at 24 hours and 7 days post treatment; 2 replicates each, of at least 50 root systems per rep
Project description:Many plant-associated bacteria synthesize the phytohormone indoleacetic acid (IAA). While IAA produced by phytopathogenic bacteria, mainly by the indoleacetamide pathway, has been implicated in the induction of plant tumors, it is not clear whether IAA synthesized by beneficial bacteria, usually via the indolepyruvic acid pathway, is involved in plant growth promotion. To determine whether bacterial IAA enhances root development in host plants, the ipdc gene that encodes indolepyruvate decarboxylase, a key enzyme in the indolepyruvic acid pathway, was isolated from the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida GR12-2 and an IAA-deficient mutant constructed by insertional mutagenesis. The canola seedling primary roots from seeds treated with wild-type P. putida GR12-2 were on average 35 to 50% longer than the roots from seeds treated with the IAA-deficient mutant and the roots from uninoculated seeds. In addition, exposing mung bean cuttings to high levels of IAA by soaking them in a suspension of the wild-type strain stimulated the formation of many, very small, adventitious roots. Formation of fewer roots was stimulated by treatment with the IAA-deficient mutant. These results suggest that bacterial IAA plays a major role in the development of the host plant root system.
Project description:The species Pantoea agglomerans includes strains that are agronomically relevant for their growth-promoting or biocontrol traits. Molecular analysis demonstrated that the IPDC pathway involved in the conversion of tryptophan (Trp) to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is highly conserved among P. agglomerans strains at both gene and protein levels. Results also indicated that the promoter region controlling the inducible expression of ipdC gene differs from the model system Enterobacter cloacae, which is in accordance with the observation that P. agglomerans accumulates higher levels of IAA when cells are collected in the exponential phase of growth. To assess the potential applications of these microorganisms for IAA production, P. agglomerans C1, an efficient auxin-producer strain, was cultivated in 5 L fermenter so as to evaluate the effect of the medium formulation, the physiological state of the cells, and the induction timing on the volumetric productivity. Results demonstrated that higher IAA levels were obtained by using a saline medium amended with yeast extract and saccharose and by providing Trp, which acts both as a precursor and an inducer, to a culture in the exponential phase of growth. Untargeted metabolomic analysis revealed a significant effect of the carbon source on the exometabolome profile relative to IAA-related compounds and other plant bioactive signaling molecules. The IAA-enriched metabolites secreted in the culture medium by P. agglomerans C1 were used as plant biostimulants to run a series of trials at a large-scale nursery farm. Tests were carried out with in vitro and ex vitro systems following the regular protocols used for large-scale plant tree agamic propagation. Results obtained with 4,540 microcuttings of Prunus rootstock GF/677 and 1,080 plantlets of Corylus avellana L. showed that metabolites from strain C1 improved percentage of rooted-explant, number of adventitious root formation, plant survival, and quality of plant as vigor, with an increase in the leaf area between 17.5 and 42.7% compared to IBA-K (indole-3-butyric acid potassium salt)-treated plants.
Project description:Erwinia herbicola 299R synthesizes indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) primarily by the indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway. A gene involved in the biosynthesis of IAA was cloned from strain 299R. This gene (ipdC) conferred the synthesis of indole-3-acetaldehyde and tryptophol upon Escherichia coli DH5 alpha in cultures supplemented with L-tryptophan. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene product has high similarity to that of the indolepyruvate decarboxylase of Enterobacter cloacae. Regions within pyruvate decarboxylases of various fungal and plant species also exhibited considerable homology to portions of this gene. This gene therefore presumably encodes an indolepyruvate decarboxylase (IpdC) which catalyzes the conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid to indole-3-acetaldehyde. Insertions of Tn3-spice within ipdC abolished the ability of strain 299R to synthesize indole-3-acetaldehyde and tryptophol and reduced its IAA production in tryptophan-supplemented minimal medium by approximately 10-fold, thus providing genetic evidence for the role of the indolepyruvate pathway in IAA synthesis in this strain. An ipdC probe hybridized strongly with the genomic DNA of all E. herbicola strains tested in Southern hybridization studies, suggesting that the indolepyruvate pathway is common in this species. Maximum parsimony analysis revealed that the ipdC gene is highly conserved within this group and that strains of diverse geographic origin were very similar with respect to ipdC.
Project description:Rhizosphere engineering with beneficial plant growth promoting bacteria offers great promise for sustainable crop yield. Potato is an important food commodity that needs large inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. To overcome high fertilizer demand (especially nitrogen), five bacteria, i.e., Azospirillum sp. TN10, Agrobacterium sp. TN14, Pseudomonas sp. TN36, Enterobacter sp. TN38 and Rhizobium sp. TN42 were isolated from the potato rhizosphere on nitrogen-free malate medium and identified based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Three strains, i.e., TN10, TN38, and TN42 showed nitrogen fixation (92.67-134.54 nmol h(-1)mg(-1) protein), while all showed the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which was significantly increased by the addition of L-tryptophan. Azospirillum sp. TN10 produced the highest amount of IAA, as measured by spectrophotometry (312.14 μg mL(-1)) and HPLC (18.3 μg mL(-1)). Inoculation with these bacteria under axenic conditions resulted in differential growth responses of potato. Azospirillum sp. TN10 incited the highest increase in potato fresh and dry weight over control plants, along with increased N contents of shoot and roots. All strains were able to colonize and maintain their population densities in the potato rhizosphere for up to 60 days, with Azospirillum sp. and Rhizobium sp. showing the highest survival. Plant root colonization potential was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy of root sections inoculated with Azospirillum sp. TN10. Of the five test strains, Azospirillum sp. TN10 has the greatest potential to increase the growth and nitrogen uptake of potato. Hence, it is suggested as a good candidate for the production of potato biofertilizer for integrated nutrient management.
Project description:The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9, isolated from the cucumber rhizosphere, protects the host plant from pathogen invasion and promotes plant growth through efficient root colonization. The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been suggested to contribute to the plant-growth-promoting effect of Bacillus strains. The possible IAA synthetic pathways in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 were investigated in this study, using a combination of chemical and genetic analysis.Gene candidates involved in tryptophan-dependent IAA synthesis were identified through tryptophan response transcriptional analysis, and inactivation of genes ysnE, dhaS, yclC, and yhcX in SQR9 led to 86, 77, 55, and 24 % reductions of the IAA production, respectively. The genes patB (encoding a conserved hypothetical protein predicted to be an aminotransferase), yclC (encoding a UbiD family decarboxylase), and dhaS (encoding indole 3-acetaldehyde dehydrogenase), which were proposed to constitute the indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway for IAA biosynthesis, were separately expressed in SQR9 or co-expressed as an entire IAA synthesis pathway cluster in SQR9 and B. subtilis 168, all these recombinants showed increased IAA production. These results suggested that gene products of dhaS, patB, yclB, yclC, yhcX and ysnE were involved in IAA biosynthesis. Genes patB, yclC and dhaS constitute a potential complete IPyA pathway of IAA biosynthesis in SQR9.In conclusion, biosynthesis of IAA in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 occurs through multiple pathways.
Project description:BACKGROUND: All plants in nature harbor a diverse community of endophytic bacteria which can positively affect host plant growth. Changes in plant growth frequently reflect alterations in phytohormone homoeostasis by plant-growth-promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria which can decrease ethylene (ET) levels enzymatically by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase or produce indole acetic acid (IAA). Whether these common PGP mechanisms work similarly for different plant species has not been rigorously tested. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated bacterial endophytes from field-grown Solanum nigrum; characterized PGP traits (ACC deaminase activity, IAA production, phosphate solubilization and seedling colonization); and determined their effects on their host, S. nigrum, as well as on another Solanaceous native plant, Nicotiana attenuata. In S. nigrum, a majority of isolates that promoted root growth were associated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. However, in N. attenuata, IAA but not ACC deaminase activity was associated with root growth. Inoculating N. attenuata and S. nigrum with known PGP bacteria from a culture collection (DSMZ) reinforced the conclusion that the PGP effects are not highly conserved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that natural endophytic bacteria with PGP traits do not have general and predictable effects on the growth and fitness of all host plants, although the underlying mechanisms are conserved.
Project description:We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA-like molecule biosynthesis, siderophore and lytic enzyme secretion. Many of the isolates were able to mobilize phosphate (33%), release ammonium (39%), secrete siderophores (38%) and a limited part of them synthetized IAA and IAA-like molecules (5%). Effects of each of the 377 grapevine beneficial bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana root development were also analyzed to discern plant growth-promoting abilities (PGP) of the different strains, that often exhibit more than one PGP trait. A supervised model-based clustering analysis highlighted six different classes of PGP effects on root architecture. A. thaliana DR5::GUS plantlets, inoculated with IAA-producing endophytes, resulted in altered root growth and enhanced auxin response. Overall, the results indicate that the Glera PGP endospheric culturable microbiome could contribute, by structural root changes, to obtain water and nutrients increasing plant adaptation and survival. From the complete cultivable collection, twelve promising endophytes mainly belonging to the Bacillus but also to Micrococcus and Pantoea genera, were selected for further investigations in the grapevine host plants towards future application in sustainable management of vineyards.