Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of pluronic-based ?-cyclodextrin polyrotaxanes for mobilization of accumulated cholesterol from Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT: Several lines of evidence suggest that ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) derivatives initiate the efflux of accumulated, unesterified cholesterol from the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment in Niemann Pick C (NPC) disease models. Unfortunately, repeated injections or continuous infusions of current ?-CD therapies are required to sustain suppression of symptoms and prolong life. In an effort to make CD treatment a more viable option by boosting efficacy and improving pharmacokinetics, a library of Pluronic surfactant-based ?-CD polyrotaxanes has been developed using biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-polypropylene glycol (PPG)-PEG triblock copolymers. These compounds carry multiple copies of ?-CD as shown by (1)H NMR, 2D nuclear Overhouser effect spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography/multiangle light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation analysis, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, and diffusion-ordered spectroscopy. Analyses of free ?-cyclodextrin contamination in the compounds were made by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. Dethreading kinetics were studied by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography, UV/vis, and (1)H NMR analysis. Filipin staining studies using npc2(-/-) fibroblasts show significant reversal of cholesterol accumulation after treatment with polyrotaxane compounds. The rate and efficacy of reversal is similar to that achieved by equivalent amounts of monomeric ?-CD alone.
Project description:Cyclodextrin (CD)-threaded polyrotaxanes (PRXs) with reactive functional groups at the terminals of the axle polymers are attractive candidates for the design of supramolecular materials. Herein, we describe a novel and simple synthetic method for end-reactive PRXs using bis(2-amino-3-phenylpropyl) poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-Ph-NH2) as an axle polymer and commercially available 4-substituted benzoic acids as capping reagents. The terminal 2-amino-3-phenylpropyl groups of PEG-Ph-NH2 block the dethreading of the ?-CDs after capping with 4-substituted benzoic acids. By this method, two series of azide group-terminated polyrotaxanes (benzylazide: PRX-Bn-N3, phenylazide: PRX-Ph-N3,) were synthesized for functionalization via click reactions. The PRX-Bn-N3 and PRX-Ph-N3 reacted quickly and efficiently with p-(tert-butyl)phenylacetylene via copper-catalyzed click reactions. Additionally, the terminal azide groups of the PRX-Bn-N3 could be modified with dibenzylcyclooctyne (DBCO)-conjugated fluorescent molecules via a copper-free click reaction; this fluorescently labeled PRX was utilized for intracellular fluorescence imaging. The method of synthesizing end-reactive PRXs described herein is simple and versatile for the design of diverse functional PRXs and can be applied to the fabrication of PRX-based supramolecular biomaterials.
Project description:Polyrotaxane (PRX) is a promising supramolecular carrier for gene delivery. Classic PRX exhibits a linear structure in which the amine-functionalized ?-cyclodextrin (CD) is threaded along the entire polyethylene glycol (PEG) backbone. While promising in vitro, the absence of free PEG moieties after CD threading compromised the in vivo implementation, due to the unfavorable pharmacokinetics (PK) and biodistribution profile. Herein, we developed a multi-arm PRX nanocarrier platform, which has been designed for protective nucleic acid encapsulation, augmented biodistribution and PK, and suitable for intravenous (IV) administration. A key design was to introduce cationic CD rings onto a multi-arm PEG backbone in a spatially selective fashion. The optimal structural design was obtained through iterative rounds of experimentation to determine the appropriate type and density of cationic charge on CD ring, the degree of PEGylation, the size and structure of polymer backbone, etc. This allowed us to effectively deliver large size reporter and therapeutic plasmids in cancer mouse models. Post IV injection, we demonstrated that our multi-arm polymer design significantly enhanced circulatory half-life and PK profile compared to the linear PRX. We continued to use the multi-arm PRX to formulate a therapeutic plasmid encoding an immunomodulatory cytokine, IL-12. When tested in a colon cancer syngeneic mouse model with same background, the IL-12 plasmid was protected by the multi-arm PRX and delivered through the tail vein to the tumor site, leading to a significant tumor inhibition effect. Moreover, our delivery system was devoid of major systemic toxicity.
Project description:Pectin is an anionic, water-soluble polymer predominantly consisting of covalently 1,4-linked ?-d-galacturonic acid units. This naturally occurring, renewable and biodegradable polymer is underutilized in polymer science due to its insolubility in organic solvents, which renders conventional polymerization methods impractical. To circumvent this problem, cerium-initiated radical polymerization was utilized to graft methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (mPEGMA) onto pectin in water. The copolymers were characterized by ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and used in the formation of supramolecular hydrogels through the addition of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) to induce crosslinking. These hydrogels possessed thixotropic properties; shear-thinning to liquid upon agitation but settling into gels at rest. In contrast to most of the other hydrogels produced through the use of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-grafted polymers, the pectin-PEGMA/?-CD hydrogels were unaffected by temperature changes.
Project description:Combination of doxorubicin with sorafenib (SF) was reported to be a promising strategy for treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we designed a reduction-responsive supramolecular nanosystem based on poly (ethylene glycol)-β-cyclodextrin (PEG-CD) and a disulfide-containing adamantine-terminated doxorubicin prodrug (AD) for efficient co-delivery of doxorubicin and sorafenib. PEG-CD/AD supramolecular amphiphiles were formed through host-guest interaction between cyclodextrin and adamantine moieties, and then self-assembled into regular spherical nanoparticles with a uniform size of 166.4 nm. Flow cytometry analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy images showed that PEG-CD/AD nanoparticles could be successfully taken up by HepG2 cells and then released doxorubicin into the cell nuclei. Moreover, sorafenib could be facilely encapsulated into the hydrophobic cores to form PEG-CD/AD/SF nanoparticles with a slightly larger size of 186.2 nm. PEG-CD/AD/SF nanoparticles sequentially released sorafenib and doxorubicin in a reduction-response manner. <i>In vitro</i> cytotoxicity assay showed that PEG-CD/AD/SF nanoparticles had an approximately 4.7-fold decrease in the IC<sub>50</sub> value compared to that of PEG-CD/AD and SF physical mixtures, indicating stronger inhibitory effect against HepG2 cells by co-loading these two drugs. In summary, this novel supramolecular nanosystem provided a simple strategy to co-deliver doxorubicin and sorafenib toward hepatoma cells, which showed promising potential for treatment of HCC.
Project description:Two alternating polyfluorene polyrotaxanes (3·TM-?CD and 3·TM-?CD) have been synthesized by the coupling of 2,7-dibromofluorene encapsulated into 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-?- or ?-cyclodextrin (TM-?CD, TM-?CD) cavities with 9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diboronic acid bis(1,3-propanediol) ester. Their optical, electrochemical and morphological properties have been evaluated and compared to those of the non-rotaxane counterpart 3. The influence of TM-?CD or TM-?CD encapsulation on the thermal stability, solubility in common organic solvents, film forming ability was also investigated. Polyrotaxane 3·TM-?CD exhibits a hypsochromic shift, while 3·TM-?CD displays a bathochromic with respect to the non-rotaxane 3 counterpart. For the diluted CHCl3 solutions the fluorescence lifetimes of all compounds follow a mono-exponential decay with a time constant of ?0.6 ns. At higher concentration the fluorescence decay remains mono-exponential for 3·TM-?CD and polymers 3, with a lifetime ? = 0.7 ns and 0.8 ns, whereas the 3·TM-?CD polyrotaxane shows a bi-exponential decay consisting of a main component (with a weight of 98% of the total luminescence) with a relatively short decay constant of ?1 = 0.7 ns and a minor component with a longer lifetime of ?2 = 5.4 ns (2%). The electrochemical band gap (?E g ) of 3·TM-?CD polyrotaxane is smaller than that of 3·TM-?CD and 3, respectively. The lower ?E g value for 3·TM-?CD suggests that the encapsulation has a greater effect on the reduction process, which affects the LUMO energy level value. Based on AFM analysis, 3·TM-?CD and 3·TM-?CD polyrotaxane compounds exhibit a granular morphology with lower dispersity and smaller roughness exponent of the film surfaces in comparison with those of the neat copolymer 3.
Project description:Supramolecular hydrogels play a prominent role in contemporary research of hydrophilic polymers. Especially, hydrogels based on ?-cyclodextrin/poly(ethylene glycol) (?-CD/PEG) complexation and crystal formation are studied frequently. Here, the effect of double hydrophilic block copolymers (DHBCs) on ?-CD/PEG hydrogel properties is investigated. Therefore, a novel DHBC, namely poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-b-poly(oligo ethylene glycol methacrylate) (PVP-b-POEGMA), was synthesized via a combination of reversible deactivation radical polymerization and modular conjugation methods. In the next step, hydrogel formation was studied after ?-CD addition. Interestingly, DHBC-based hydrogels showed a significant response to thermal history. Heating of the gels to different temperatures led to different mechanical properties after cooling to ambient temperature, i.e., gels with mechanical properties similar to the initial gels or weak flowing gels were obtained. Thus, the hydrogels showed thermoadaptive behavior, which might be an interesting property for future applications in sensing.
Project description:A novel synthetic methodology, employing a combination of the strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition and maleimide-thiol reactions, for the preparation of permethylated ?-cyclodextrin-linker-peptidyl conjugates is reported. Two different bifunctional maleimide cross-linking probes, the polyethylene glycol containing hydrophilic linker bicyclo[6.1.0] nonyne-maleimide and the hydrophobic 5'-dibenzoazacyclooctyne-maleimide, were attached to azide-appended permethylated ?-cyclodextrin. The successfully introduced maleimide function was exploited to covalently graft a cysteine-containing peptide (Ac-Tyr-Arg-Cys-Amide) to produce the target conjugates. The final target compounds were isolated in high purity after purification by isocratic preparative reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. This novel synthetic approach is expected to give access to many different cyclodextrin-linker peptides.
Project description:pH-magnetic dual-responsive nanocomposites have been widely used in drug delivery and gene therapy. Recently, a polypseudorotaxane functionalized magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) was developed by synthesizing the magnetic nanoparticles with cyclodextrin (CD) molecules (CDMNP) via polyethylene glycol (PEG) (CDMNP-PEG-CD). The purpose of this study was to explore the antigenicity and immunogenicity of the nanoparticles in vivo prior to their further application explorations. Here, nanoparticles were assessed in vivo for retention, bio-distribution and immuno-reactivity. The results showed that, once administered intravenously, CDMNP-PEG-CD induced a temporary blood monocyte response and was cleared effectively from the body through the urine system in mice. The introduction of ?-CD and PEG/?-CD polypseudorotaxane on SiO<sub>2</sub> magnetic nanoparticles (SOMNP) limited particle intramuscular dispersion after being injected into mouse gastrocnemius muscle (GN), which led to the prolonged local inflammation and muscle toxicity by CDMNP and CDMNP-PEG-CD. In addition, T cells were found to be more susceptible for ?-CD-modified CDMNP; however, polypseudorotaxane modification partially attenuated ?-CD-induced T cell response in the implanted muscle. Our results suggested that CDMNP-PEG-CD nanoparticles or the decomposition components have potential to prime antigen-presenting cells and to break the muscle autoimmune tolerance.
Project description:Polymers or hydrogels containing modified cyclodextrin (CD) are highly useful in drug delivery applications, as CD is a cytocompatible amphiphilic molecule that can complex with a variety of hydrophobic drugs. Here, we designed modular photoclick thiol-ene hydrogels from derivatives of ?CD and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), including ?CD-allylether (?CD-AE), ?CD-thiol (?CD-SH), PEG-thiol (PEGSH), and PEG-norbornene (PEGNB). Two types of CD-PEG hybrid hydrogels were prepared using radical-mediated thiol-ene photoclick reactions. Specifically, thiol-allylether hydrogels were formed by reacting multiarm PEGSH and ?CD-AE, and thiol-norbornene hydrogels were formed by cross-linking ?CD-SH and multiarm PEGNB. We characterized the properties of these two types of thiol-ene hydrogels, including gelation kinetics, gel fractions, hydrolytic stability, and cytocompatibility. Compared with thiol-allylether hydrogels, thiol-norbornene photoclick reaction formed hydrogels with faster gelation kinetics at equivalent macromer contents. Using curcumin, an anti-inflammatory and anticancer hydrophobic molecule, we demonstrated that CD-cross-linked PEG-based hydrogels, when compared with pure PEG-based hydrogels, afforded higher drug loading efficiency and prolonged delivery in vitro. Cytocompatibility of these CD-cross-linked hydrogels were evaluated by in situ encapsulation of radical sensitive pancreatic MIN6 ?-cells. All formulations and cross-linking conditions tested were cytocompatible for cell encapsulation. Furthermore, hydrogels cross-linked by ?CD-SH showed enhanced cell proliferation and insulin secretion as compared to gels cross-linked by either dithiothreitol (DTT) or ?CD-AE, suggesting the profound impact of both macromer compositions and gelation chemistry on cell fate in chemically cross-linked hydrogels.
Project description:In this study, we developed ?-cyclodextrin-based multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) for tumor-targeted therapy. The NPs were self-assembled using a ?-cyclodextrin (?CD) coupled with phenylacetic acid (PA), 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (DMA), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and transferrin (Tf), termed ?CDP-(DMA/PEG-Tf) NPs. These ?CDP-(DMA/PEG-Tf) NPs are effective in entrapping topotecan (TPT, as a model antitumor drug) resulting from the ionic interaction between pH-responsive DMA and TPT or the host-guest interaction between ?CDP and TPT. More importantly, the ?CDP-(DMA/PEG-Tf) NPs can induce ionic repulsion at an endosomal pH (~6.0) resulting from the chemical detachment of DMA from ?CDP, which is followed by extensive TPT release. We demonstrated that ?CDP-(DMA/PEG-Tf) NPs led to a significant increase in cellular uptake and MDA-MB-231 tumor cell death. In vivo animal studies using an MDA-MB-231 tumor xenografted mice model supported the finding that ?CDP-(DMA/PEG-Tf) NPs are effective carriers of TPT to Tf receptor-positive MDA-MB-231 tumor cells, promoting drug uptake into the tumors through the Tf ligand-mediated endocytic pathway and increasing their toxicity due to DMA-mediated cytosolic TPT delivery.