Microbial dynamics during azo dye degradation in a UASB reactor supplied with yeast extract.
ABSTRACT: The present work aimed to investigate the microbial dynamics during the anaerobic treatment of the azo dye blue HRFL in bench scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor operated at ambient temperature. Sludge samples were collected under distinct operational phases, when the reactor were stable (low variation of color removal), to assess the effect of glucose and yeast extract as source of carbon and redox mediators, respectively. Reactors performance was evaluated based on COD (chemical oxygen demand) and color removal. The microbial dynamics were investigated by PCR-DGGE (Polimerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient of Gel Electrophoresis) technique by comparing the 16S rDNA profiles among samples. The results suggest that the composition of microorganisms changed from the beginning to the end of the reactor operation, probably in response to the presence of azo dye and/or its degradation byproducts. Despite the highest efficiency of color removal was observed in the presence of 500 mg/L of yeast extract (up to 93%), there were no differences regarding the microbial profiles that could indicate a microbial selection by the yeast extract addition. On the other hand Methosarcina barkeri was detected only in the end of operation when the best efficiencies on color removal occurred. Nevertheless the biomass selection observed in the last stages of UASB operation is probably a result of the washout of the sludge in response of accumulation of aromatic amines which led to tolerant and very active biomass that contributed to high efficiencies on color removal.
Project description:The effect of nickel deprivation from the influent of a mesophilic (30 degrees C) methanol fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was investigated by coupling the reactor performance to the evolution of the Methanosarcina population of the bioreactor sludge. The reactor was operated at pH 7.0 and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5-15 g COD l(-1) day(-1) for 191 days. A clear limitation of the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) on methanol due to the absence of nickel was observed after 129 days of bioreactor operation: the SMA of the sludge in medium with the complete trace metal solution except nickel amounted to 1.164 (+/-0.167) g CH(4)-COD g VSS(-1) day(-1) compared to 2.027 (+/-0.111) g CH(4)-COD g VSS(-1) day(-1) in a medium with the complete (including nickel) trace metal solution. The methanol removal efficiency during these 129 days was 99%, no volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation was observed and the size of the Methanosarcina population increased compared to the seed sludge. Continuation of the UASB reactor operation with the nickel limited sludge lead to incomplete methanol removal, and thus methanol accumulation in the reactor effluent from day 142 onwards. This methanol accumulation subsequently induced an increase of the acetogenic activity in the UASB reactor on day 160. On day 165, 77% of the methanol fed to the system was converted to acetate and the Methanosarcina population size had substantially decreased. Inclusion of 0.5 muM Ni (dosed as NiCl(2)) to the influent from day 165 onwards lead to the recovery of the methanol removal efficiency to 99% without VFA accumulation within 2 days of bioreactor operation.
Project description:The effect of omitting zinc from the influent of mesophilic (30 degrees C) methanol fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors, and latter zinc supplementation to the influent to counteract the deprivation, was investigated by coupling the UASB reactor performance to the microbial ecology of the bioreactor sludge. Limitation of the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) on methanol due to the absence of zinc from the influent developed after 137 days of operation. At that day, the SMA in medium with a complete trace metal solution except Zn was 3.4 g CH4-COD g VSS(-1) day(-1), compared to 4.2 g CH4-COD g VSS(-1) day(-1) in a medium with a complete (including zinc) trace metal solution. The methanol removal capacity during these 137 days was 99% and no volatile fatty acids accumulated. Two UASB reactors, inoculated with the zinc-deprived sludge, were operated to study restoration of the zinc limitation by zinc supplementation to the bioreactor influent. In a first reactor, no changes to the operational conditions were made. This resulted in methanol accumulation in the reactor effluent after 12 days of operation, which subsequently induced acetogenic activity 5 days after the methanol accumulation started. Methanogenesis could not be recovered by the continuous addition of 0.5 microM ZnCl2 to the reactor for 13 days. In the second reactor, 0.5 microM ZnCl2 was added from its start-up. Although the reactor stayed 10 days longer methanogenically than the reactor operated without zinc, methanol accumulation was observed in this reactor (up to 1.1 g COD-MeOH L(-1)) as well. This study shows that zinc limitation can induce failure of methanol fed UASB reactors due to acidification, which cannot be restored by resuming the continuous supply of the deprived metal.
Project description:In this study, the long-term performance and microbial dynamics of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor targeting sulfate reduction in a SOx emissions treatment system were assessed using crude glycerol as organic carbon source and electron donor under constant S and C loading rates. The reactor was inoculated with granular sludge obtained from a pulp and paper industry and fed at a constant inlet sulfate concentration of 250 mg S-SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>L<sup>-1</sup> and a constant C/S ratio of 1.5 ± 0.3 g Cg<sup>-1</sup> S for over 500 days. Apart from the regular analysis of chemical species, Illumina analyses of the 16S rRNA gene were used to study the dynamics of the bacterial community along with the whole operation. The reactor was sampled along the operation to monitor its diversity and the changes in targeted species to gain insight into the performance of the sulfidogenic UASB. Moreover, studies on the stratification of the sludge bed were performed by sampling at different reactor heights. Shifts in the UASB performance correlated well with the main shifts in microbial communities of interest. A progressive loss of the methanogenic capacity towards a fully sulfidogenic UASB was explained by a progressive wash-out of methanogenic <i>Archaea</i>, which were outcompeted by sulfate-reducing bacteria. <i>Desulfovibrio</i> was found as the main sulfate-reducing genus in the reactor along time. A progressive reduction in the sulfidogenic capacity of the UASB was found in the long run due to the accumulation of a slime-like substance in the UASB.
Project description:Whole-cell immobilization of selenate-respiring Sulfurospirillum barnesii in polyacrylamide gels was investigated to allow the treatment of selenate contaminated (790 microg Se x L(-1)) synthetic wastewater with a high molar excess of nitrate (1,500 times) and sulfate (200 times). Gel-immobilized S. barnesii cells were used to inoculate a mesophilic (30 degrees C) bioreactor fed with lactate as electron donor at an organic loading rate of 5 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) x L(-1) day(-1). Selenate was reduced efficiently (>97%) in the nitrate and sulfate fed bioreactor, and a minimal effluent concentration of 39 microg Se x L(-1) was obtained. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis revealed spherical bioprecipitates of <or=2 microm diameter mostly on the gel surface, consisting of selenium with a minor contribution of sulfur. To validate the bioaugmentation success under microbial competition, gel cubes with immobilized S. barnesii cells were added to an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor, resulting in earlier selenate (24 hydraulic retention times (HRTs)) and sulfate (44 HRTs) removal and higher nitrate/nitrite removal efficiencies compared to a non-bioaugmented control reactor. S. barnesii was efficiently immobilized inside the UASB bioreactors as the selenate-reducing activity was maintained during long-term operation (58 days), and molecular analysis showed that S. barnesii was present in both the sludge bed and the effluent. This demonstrates that gel immobilization of specialized bacterial strains can supersede wash-out and out-competition of newly introduced strains in continuous bioaugmented systems. Eventually, proliferation of a selenium-respiring specialist occurred in the non-bioaugmented control reactor, resulting in simultaneous nitrate and selenate removal during a later phase of operation.
Project description:The redox-mediating capacity of magnetic reduced graphene oxide nanosacks (MNS) to promote the reductive biodegradation of the halogenated pollutant, iopromide (IOP), was tested. Experiments were performed using glucose as electron donor in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor under methanogenic conditions. Higher removal efficiency of IOP in the UASB reactor supplied with MNS as redox mediator was observed as compared with the control reactor lacking MNS. Results showed 82% of IOP removal efficiency under steady state conditions in the UASB reactor enriched with MNS, while the reactor control showed IOP removal efficiency of 51%. The precise microbial transformation pathway of IOP was elucidated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS) analysis. Biotransformation by-products with lower molecular weight than IOP molecule were identified in the reactor supplied with MNS, which were not detected in the reactor control, indicating the contribution of these magnetic nano-carbon composites in the redox conversion of this halogenated pollutant. Reductive reactions of IOP favored by MNS led to complete dehalogenation of the benzene ring and partial rupture of side chains of this pollutant, which is the first step towards its complete biodegradation. Possible reductive mechanisms that took place in the biodegradation of IOP were stated. Finally, the novel and successful application of magnetic graphene composites in a continuous bioreactor to enhance the microbial transformation of IOP was demonstrated.
Project description:We herein analyzed the diversity of microbes involved in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor used for treating municipal sewage under low-temperature conditions. Anaerobic sulfur oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen, with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors; however, reactor performance parameters demonstrated that anaerobic conditions were maintained. In order to gain insights into the underlying basis of anaerobic sulfur oxidation, the microbial diversity that exists in the UASB sludge was analyzed comprehensively to determine their identities and contribution to sulfur oxidation. Sludge samples were collected from the UASB reactor over a period of 2 years and used for bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing analyses. T-RFLP and sequencing results both showed that microbial community patterns changed markedly from day 537 onwards. Bacteria belonging to the genus Desulforhabdus within the phylum Proteobacteria and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Fusobacteria were the main groups observed during the period of anaerobic sulfur oxidation. Their abundance correlated with temperature, suggesting that these bacterial groups played roles in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in UASB reactors.
Project description:Eukaryotes are important components of ecosystems in wastewater treatment processes. However, little is known about eukaryotic community in anaerobic wastewater treatment systems. In this study, eukaryotic communities in an up flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating domestic sewage during two years of operation were investigated using V4 and V9 regions of 18S rRNA gene for amplicon sequencing. In addition, activated sludge and influent sewage samples were also analyzed and used as the references for aerobic eukaryotic community to characterize anaerobic eukaryotes. The amplicon sequence V4 and V9 libraries detected different taxonomic groups, especially from the UASB samples, suggesting that commonly used V4 and V9 primer pairs could produce a bias for eukaryotic communities analysis. Eukaryotic community structures in the UASB reactor were influenced by the immigration of eukaryotes via influent sewage but were clearly different from the influent sewage and activated sludge. Multivariate statistics indicated that protist genera Cyclidium, Platyophrya and Subulatomonas correlated with chemical oxygen demand and suspended solid concentration, and could be used as bioindicators of treatment performance. Uncultured eukaryotes groups were dominant in the UASB reactor, and their physiological roles need to be examined to understand their contributions to anaerobic processes in future studies.
Project description:Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor has served as an effective process to treat industrial wastewater such as purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater. For optimal UASB performance, balanced ecological interactions between syntrophs, methanogens, and fermenters are critical. However, much of the interactions remain unclear because UASB have been studied at a "macro"-level perspective of the reactor ecosystem. In reality, such reactors are composed of a suite of granules, each forming individual micro-ecosystems treating wastewater. Thus, typical approaches may be oversimplifying the complexity of the microbial ecology and granular development. To identify critical microbial interactions at both macro- and micro- level ecosystem ecology, we perform community and network analyses on 300 PTA-degrading granules from a lab-scale UASB reactor and two full-scale reactors. Based on MiSeq-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing of individual granules, different granule-types co-exist in both full-scale reactors regardless of granule size and reactor sampling depth, suggesting that distinct microbial interactions occur in different granules throughout the reactor. In addition, we identify novel networks of syntrophic metabolic interactions in different granules, perhaps caused by distinct thermodynamic conditions. Moreover, unseen methanogenic relationships (e.g. "Candidatus Aminicenantes" and Methanosaeta) are observed in UASB reactors. In total, we discover unexpected microbial interactions in granular micro-ecosystems supporting UASB ecology and treatment through a unique single-granule level approach.
Project description:An ecogenomic analysis of the methanogenic microbial community in a laboratory-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating soy sauce-processing wastewater revealed a synergistic metabolic network. Granular sludge samples were collected from the UASB reactor operated under psychrophilic (20°C) conditions with a COD removal rate >75%. A 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing-based microbial community analysis classified the major microbial taxa as Methanothrix, Methanobacterium, Pelotomaculaceae, Syntrophomonadaceae, Solidesulfovibrio, and members of the phyla Synergistota and Bacteroidota. Draft genomes of dominant microbial populations were recovered by metagenomic shotgun sequencing. Metagenomic- and metatranscriptomic-assisted metabolic reconstructions indicated that Synergistota- and Bacteroidota-related organisms play major roles in the degradation of amino acids. A metagenomic bin of the uncultured Bacteroidales 4484-276 clade encodes genes for proteins that may function in the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine under microaerobic conditions. Syntrophomonadaceae and Pelotomaculaceae oxidize fatty acid byproducts presumably derived from the degradation of amino acids in syntrophic association with aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogen populations. Solidesulfovibrio organisms are responsible for the reduction of sulfite and may support the activity of hydrogenotrophic methanogens and other microbial populations by providing hydrogen and ammonia using nitrogen fixation-related proteins. Overall, functionally diverse anaerobic organisms unite to form a metabolic network that performs the complete degradation of amino acids in the psychrophilic methanogenic microbiota.
Project description:A filamentous bulking of a methanogenic granular sludge caused by uncultured filamentous bacteria of the candidate phylum KSB3 in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system has been reported. To characterize the physiological traits of the filaments, a polyphasic approach consisting of rRNA-based activity monitoring of the KSB3 filaments using the RNase H method and substrate uptake profiling using microautoradiography combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) was conducted. On the basis of rRNA-based activity, the monitoring of a full-scale UASB reactor operated continuously revealed that KSB3 cells became active and predominant (up to 54% of the total 16S rRNA) in the sludge when the carbohydrate loading to the system increased. Batch experiments with a short incubation of the sludge with maltose, glucose, fructose, and maltotriose at relatively low concentrations (approximately 0.1 mM) in the presence of yeast extract also showed an increase in KSB3 rRNA levels under anaerobic conditions. MAR-FISH confirmed that the KSB3 cells took up radioisotopic carbons from [(14)C]maltose and [(14)C]glucose under the same incubation conditions in the batch experiments. These results suggest that one of the important ecophysiological characteristics of KSB3 cells in the sludge is carbohydrate degradation in wastewater and that high carbohydrate loadings may trigger an outbreak of KSB3 bacteria, causing sludge bulking in UASB systems.