Comparing interventions and exploring neural mechanisms of exercise in Parkinson disease: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: Effective treatment of locomotor dysfunction in Parkinson disease (PD) is essential, as gait difficulty is an early and major contributor to disability. Exercise is recommended as an adjunct to traditional treatments for improving gait, balance, and quality of life. Among the exercise approaches known to improve walking, tango and treadmill training have recently emerged as two promising therapies for improving gait, disease severity and quality of life, yet these two interventions have not been directly compared to each other. Prior studies have been helpful in identifying interventions effective in improving gait function, but have done little to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying functional improvements. The primary objective of the proposed work is to compare the effects of three community-based exercise programs, tango, treadmill training and stretching, on locomotor function in individuals with PD. In addition, we aim to determine whether and how these interventions alter functional connectivity of locomotor control networks in the brain.One hundred and twenty right-handed individuals with idiopathic PD who are at least 30 years of age will be assigned in successive waves to one of three community-based exercise groups: tango dancing, treadmill training or stretching (control). Each group will receive three months of exercise training with twice weekly one-hour group classes. Each participant will be evaluated at three time points: pre-intervention (baseline), post-intervention (3 months), and follow-up (6 months). All evaluations will include assessment of gait, balance, disease severity, and quality of life. Baseline and post-intervention evaluations will also include task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting state functional connectivity MRI. All MRI and behavioral measures will be conducted with participants OFF anti-Parkinson medication, with behavioral measures also assessed ON medication.This study will provide important insights regarding the effects of different modes of exercise on locomotor function in PD. The protocol is innovative because it: 1) uses group exercise approaches for all conditions including treadmill training, 2) directly compares tango to treadmill training and stretching, 3) tests participants OFF medication, and 4) utilizes two distinct neuroimaging approaches to explore mechanisms of the effects of exercise on the brain.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01768832 .
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Impaired gait, balance, and motor function are common in Parkinson disease (PD) and may lead to falls and injuries. Different forms of exercise improve motor function in persons with PD, but determining which form of exercise is most effective requires a direct comparison of various approaches. In this prospective, controlled trial, we evaluated the impact of tango, treadmill walking, and stretching on gait, balance, motor function, and quality of life. We hypothesized tango and treadmill would improve forward walking and motor symptom severity, and tango would also improve backward walking, balance, and quality of life. METHODS:Ninety-six participants (age: 67.2 ± 8.9 years, 42% female) with mild to moderate idiopathic PD were serially assigned to tango, treadmill walking, or stretching (active control group) and attended 1-hour classes twice weekly for 12 weeks. Assessments occurred OFF anti-PD medication before and after the intervention and at follow-up 12 weeks after the intervention. RESULTS:Forward velocity and backward velocity improved for the treadmill group from baseline to posttest and improvements persisted at follow-up. Backward velocity and motor functioning improved for the stretching group from baseline to posttest, but results did not persist at follow-up. There were no significant changes in the tango group across time points. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:Contrary to our hypotheses, only treadmill improved forward walking, while backward walking improved with treadmill and stretching. Future research should examine combinations of exercises with a focus on optimizing dosing and examining whether specific characteristics of people with PD correlate with different types of exercise.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A237).
Project description:To compare the efficacy of treadmill exercises and stretching and resistance exercises in improving gait speed, strength, and fitness for patients with Parkinson disease.A comparative, prospective, randomized, single-blinded clinical trial of 3 types of physical exercise.The Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center at the University of Maryland and the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center.A total of 67 patients with Parkinson disease who had gait impairment were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 arms of the trial. INTERVENTIONS; (1) A higher-intensity treadmill exercise (30 minutes at 70%-80% of heart rate reserve), (2) a lower-intensity treadmill exercise (50 minutes at 40%-50% of heart rate reserve), and (3) stretching and resistance exercises (2 sets of 10 repetitions on each leg on 3 resistance machines [leg press, leg extension, and curl]). These exercises were performed 3 times a week for 3 months.The primary outcome measures were gait speed (6-minute walk), cardiovascular fitness (peak oxygen consumption per unit time [$$ VO2], and muscle strength (1-repetition maximum strength).All 3 types of physical exercise improved distance on the 6-minute walk: lower-intensity treadmill exercise (12% increase; P=.001), stretching and resistance exercises (9% increase; P<.02), and higher-intensity treadmill exercise (6% increase; P=.07), with no between-group differences. Both treadmill exercises improved peak $$ VO2 (7%-8% increase; P<.05) more than did the stretching and resistance exercises. Only stretching and resistance improved muscle strength (16% increase; P<.001).The effects of exercise were seen across all 3 exercise groups. The lower-intensity treadmill exercise resulted in the greatest improvement in gait speed. Both the higher- and lower-intensity treadmill exercises improved cardiovascular fitness. Only the stretching and resistance exercises improved muscle strength. Therefore, exercise can improve gait speed, muscle strength, and fitness for patients with Parkinson disease. The combination of treadmill and resistance exercises may result in greater benefit and requires further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) can compensate for the loss of automatic and rhythmic movements in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of RAS are still poorly understood. We aimed at identifying which mechanisms sustain gait improvement in a cohort of patients with PD who practiced RAS gait training. METHODS:We enrolled 50 patients with PD who were randomly assigned to two different modalities of treadmill gait training using GaitTrainer3 with and without RAS (non_RAS) during an 8-week training program. We measured clinical, kinematic, and electrophysiological effects of both the gait trainings. RESULTS:We found a greater improvement in Functional Gait Assessment (p?<?0.001), Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale (p?<?0.001), Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (p?=?0.001), and overall gait quality index (p?<?0.001) following RAS than non_RAS training. In addition, the RAS gait training induced a stronger EEG power increase within the sensorimotor rhythms related to specific periods of the gait cycle, and a greater improvement of fronto-centroparietal/temporal electrode connectivity than the non_RAS gait training. CONCLUSIONS:The findings of our study suggest that the usefulness of cueing strategies during gait training consists of a reshape of sensorimotor rhythms and fronto-centroparietal/temporal connectivity. Restoring the internal timing mechanisms that generate and control motor rhythmicity, thus improving gait performance, likely depends on a contribution of the cerebellum. Finally, identifying these mechanisms is crucial to create patient-tailored, RAS-based rehabilitative approaches in PD. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT03434496 . Registered 15 February 2018, retrospectively registered.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons leading to dopamine depletion and problems of movement, emotions, and cognition. While the pathogenesis of PD is not clear, damage of dopaminergic neurons by oxygen-derived free radicals is considered an important contributing mechanism. This study aimed to evaluate the role of treadmill exercise in male Wister rats as a single treatment and as an aid-therapy with L-dopa for rotenone-induced PD. To study the role of the Nrf2- ARE pathway as a mechanism involved in exercise-associated improvement in rotenone-induced PD in rats. METHOD:Animals were divided into 5 groups, (Control, rotenone, rotenone\exercise, rotenone\L-dopa, and rotenone\exercise\L-dopa (combination)groups). After the PD induction, rats in the rotenone\exercise and combination groups were daily treadmill exercised for 4 weeks. RESULTS:Treadmill exercise significantly improved behavioral and motor aspects of rotenone-induced PD. When treadmill exercise was introduced as a single intervention, it amended most behavioral aspects of PD, gait fully corrected, short-term memory, and motor coordination. Where L-dopa corrected locomotor activity and motor coordination but failed to improve short-term memory and only partially corrected the gait of rotenone-treated rats. When treadmill exercise was combined with L-dopa, all features of PD were corrected. It was found that exercise upregulated some of its associative genes to Nrf2 pathways such as TFAM, Nrf2 and NQO.1 mRNA expression. CONCLUSION:This study suggests that forced exercise improved parkinsonian like features by activating the Nrf2 pathway.
Project description:High-intensity stepping practice may be a critical component to improve gait following motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). However, such practice is discouraged by traditional theories of rehabilitation that suggest high-intensity locomotor exercise degrades gait performance. Accordingly, such training is thought to reinforce abnormal movement patterns, although evidence to support this notion is limited.The purposes of this study were: (1) to evaluate the effects of short-term manipulations in locomotor intensity on gait performance in people with iSCI and (2) to evaluate potential detrimental effects of high-intensity locomotor training on walking performance.A single-day, repeated-measures, pretraining-posttraining study design was used.Nineteen individuals with chronic iSCI performed a graded-intensity locomotor exercise task with simultaneous collection of lower extremity kinematic and electromyographic data. Measures of interest were compared across intensity levels of 33%, 67%, and 100% of peak gait speed. A subset of 9 individuals participated in 12 weeks of high-intensity locomotor training. Similar measurements were collected and compared between pretraining and posttraining evaluations.The results indicate that short-term increases in intensity led to significant improvements in muscle activity, spatiotemporal metrics, and joint excursions, with selected improvements in measures of locomotor coordination. High-intensity locomotor training led to significant increases in peak gait speed (0.64-0.80 m/s), and spatiotemporal and kinematic metrics indicate a trend for improved coordination.Measures of gait performance were assessed during treadmill ambulation and not compared with a control group. Generalizability of these results to overground ambulation is unknown.High-intensity locomotor exercise and training does not degrade, but rather improves, locomotor function and quality in individuals with iSCI, which contrasts with traditional theories of motor dysfunction following neurologic injury.
Project description:Given the relative importance of cognitive impairment, there was considerable interest in identifying the cognitive profile of PD patients, in order to ensure specific and appropriate therapeutic interventions.To determine the effects of physical exercise programs on cognitive function in PD patients, compared with the control group.Medline, Cochrane, Scopus, PEDro and Web of Science (last searched in September 2016).Randomized clinical trials examining the effects of physical exercise programs and cognitive function in PD patients. Nine studies fulfilled the selection criteria and were included in this review.Characteristics of the publication, characteristics of the participants, test used for cognitive screening, cognitive domain assessed, tools used to assess cognitive function, characteristics of the experimental intervention, characteristics of the control group, mean results and standard deviation of function cognitive. The PEDro score was used to evaluate methodological quality.Most eligible studies showed good methodological quality based on the PEDro scale. Studies have shown that adapted tango for PD patients, cognitive training combined with motor training, and treadmill training promote the preservation or improvement of cognitive function in PD patients.The diversity of cognitive tests used to assess cognitive function and the high heterogeneity identified between the physical exercise programs.Physical exercise programs promote positive and significant effects on global cognitive function, processing speed, sustained attention and mental flexibility in PD patients, at a mild to moderate stage for patients with a 6-year clinical diagnosis of PD. However, treadmill training performed 3 times a week for about 60 minutes and for a period of 24 weeks produced larger improvements in cognition.
Project description:To determine the influences of exercise on motor deficits and dopaminergic transmission in a hemiparkinson animal model, we measured the effects of exercise on the ambulatory system by estimating spatio-temporal parameters during walking, striatal dopamine (DA) release and reuptake and synaptic plasticity in the corticostriatal pathway after unilateral 6-OHDA lesions. 6-OHDA lesioned hemiparkinsonian rats were exercised on a fixed speed treadmill for 30?minutes per day. Controls received the same lesion but no exercise. Animals were subsequently analyzed for behavior including gait analysis, rotarod performance and apomorphine induced rotation. Subsequently, in vitro striatal dopamine release was analyzed by using FSCV and activity-dependent plasticity in the corticostriatal pathway was measured in each group. Our data indicated that exercise could improve motor walking speed and increase the apomorphine-induced rotation threshold. Exercise also ameliorated spatiotemporal impairments in gait in PD animals. Exercise increased the parameters of synaptic plasticity formation in the corticostriatal pathway of PD animals as well as the dynamics of dopamine transmission in PD animals. Fixed speed treadmill training 30?minutes per day could ameliorate spatial-temporal gait impairment, improve walking speed, dopamine transmission as well as corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in the unilateral 6-OHDA lesioned rat model.
Project description:Two different training strategies to improve turning performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) were designed and investigated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a specific exercise group, turning-based training group, or control group to receive training that emphasized balance and strengthening, turning-based treadmill training, and general exercise training, respectively. A total of 12 30-min training sessions followed by 10?min of turning training on a level surface were administered over 4 to 6 weeks. The results (n?=?12 for each group) showed that both the specific exercise and turning-based training group experienced improved turning performance, the primary outcome, compared with the control group (specific exercise, 33% change, p?=?0.016; turning-based training, 35% change, p?=?0.021). For the secondary outcomes, the specific exercise group performed better than the control group on the Tinetti balance scale, limit of stability test and lower extremity extensor and abductor strength. The turning-based training groups performed better than the control group in sensory organization and ankle plantar flexor strength. In summary, specific exercise training and turning-based treadmill training were both effective in improving turning performance in participants with PD. However, the improvements in turning performance of these two groups resulted from improving different aspects of impairment in individuals with PD.
Project description:This study presents a secondary analysis from the Progressive Resistance Exercise Training in Parkinson Disease (PRET-PD) trial investigating the effects of progressive resistance exercise (PRE) and a Parkinson disease (PD)-specific multimodal exercise program, modified Fitness Counts (mFC), on spatial, temporal, and stability-related gait impairments in people with PD.Forty-eight people with PD were randomized to participate in PRE or mFC 2 times a week for 24 months; 38 completed the study. Gait velocity, stride length, cadence, and double-support time were measured under 4 walking conditions (off-/on-medication, comfortable/fast speed). Ankle strength was also measured off- and on-medication. Twenty-four healthy controls provided comparison data at one time point.At 24 months, there were no significant differences between exercise groups. Both groups improved fast gait velocity off-medication, cadence in all conditions, and plantarflexion strength off-/on-medication. Both groups with PD had more gait measures that approximated the healthy controls at 24 months than at baseline. Plantarflexion strength was significantly associated with gait velocity and stride length in people with PD at baseline and 24 months, but changes in strength were not associated with changes in gait.Twenty-four months of PRE and mFC were associated with improved off-medication fast gait velocity and improved cadence in all conditions, which is important because temporal gait measures can be resistant to medications. Spatial and stability-related measures were resistant to long-term improvements, but did not decline over 24 months. Strength gains did not appear to transfer to gait.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A161).