Identification of novel long non-coding RNAs in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) play an important role in carcinogenesis; knowledge on lncRNA expression in renal cell carcinoma is rudimental. As a basis for biomarker development, we aimed to explore the lncRNA expression profile in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissue.Microarray experiments were performed to determine the expression of 32,183 lncRNA transcripts belonging to 17,512 lncRNAs in 15 corresponding normal and malignant renal tissues. Validation was performed using quantitative real-time PCR in 55 ccRCC and 52 normal renal specimens. Computational analysis was performed to determine lncRNA-microRNA (MiRTarget2) and lncRNA-protein (catRAPID omics) interactions. We identified 1,308 dysregulated transcripts (expression change >2-fold; upregulated: 568, downregulated: 740) in ccRCC tissue. Among these, aberrant expression was validated using PCR: lnc-BMP2-2 (mean expression change: 37-fold), lnc-CPN2-1 (13-fold), lnc-FZD1-2 (9-fold), lnc-ITPR2-3 (15-fold), lnc-SLC30A4-1 (15-fold), and lnc-SPAM1-6 (10-fold) were highly overexpressed in ccRCC, whereas lnc-ACACA-1 (135-fold), lnc-FOXG1-2 (19-fold), lnc-LCP2-2 (2-fold), lnc-RP3-368B9 (19-fold), and lnc-TTC34-3 (314-fold) were downregulated. There was no correlation between lncRNA expression with clinical-pathological parameters. Computational analyses revealed that these lncRNAs are involved in RNA-protein networks related to splicing, binding, transport, localization, and processing of RNA. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of lnc-BMP2-2 and lnc-CPN2-1 did not influence cell proliferation.We identified many novel lncRNA transcripts dysregulated in ccRCC which may be useful for novel diagnostic biomarkers.
Project description:Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is among the most common human malignancies. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) regulate various cellular functions and have been implicated in ccRCC pathogenesis. In order to decipher the molecular biology of this tumor and to identify potential prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets, we re-evaluated published lncRNA expression profiling data. An expression profile of 49 lncRNAs allowed discrimination of localized and advanced ccRCC. The expression profile of six lncRNAs transcripts (lnc-ACO1625, lnc-CYP4A22-2/3, lnc-PEAK1.1-1, lnc-PCYOX1L, lnc-VCAN-1, lnc-ZNF180-2) with potential prognostic interest were validated in a cohort of 50 normal renal, 57 localized ccRCC and 45 advanced ccRCC tissues. lnc-ZNF180-2 levels were similar in localized ccRCC and normal renal tissue, but we observed a significant increase of lnc-ZNF180-2 expression in advanced ccRCC tissue. Furthermore, lnc-ZNF180-2 expression levels were an independent predictor of progression-free survival, cancer-specific survival and overall survival in ccRCC patients. We also observed that lnc-CYP4A22-2/3 expression levels allowed discrimination of ccRCC and normal renal tissue. In conclusion, lncRNAs are involved in renal carcinogenesis, and quantification of lnc-ZNF180-2 may be useful for the prediction of ccRCC patients outcome following nephrectomy.
Project description:Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a common human malignancy. Despite numerous efforts, there is still no reliable biomarker or combination of biomarkers available for daily practice. Our study was designed to explore the expression profile of messenger RNA (mRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcripts in ccRCC in order to identify potential diagnostic biomarkers for patients with ccRCC. Total RNA from corresponding normal and malignant tissue of 15 patients with ccRCC was isolated. Expression profiling was performed using a custom Agilent gene expression microarray which allowed the analysis of 34,144 mRNA and 32,183 lncRNA transcripts. We observed that a subset of mRNA (n = 1064; 3.1%) and lncRNA (n = 1308; 4.1%) transcripts are dysregulated (fold change > 2) in ccRCC tissue. The relative higher number of differentially expressed lncRNAs indicates that lncRNA profiling may be better suited for diagnostic purposes; a number of so far unknown RNAs with potential diagnostic interest in ccRCC are identified by our gene expression profiling study. The data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE61763).
Project description:Background:Increasing evidence has indicated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are crucial regulators affecting the progression of human cancers. Recently, lncRNA downregulated in liver cancer stem cells (lnc-DILC) was identified to function as a tumor suppressor inhibiting the tumorigenesis and metastasis in liver cancer and colorectal cancer. However, to date, little is known about the functional roles of lnc-DILC in modulating malignant phenotypes of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells. Methods:lnc-DILC expression in human ccRCC tissues was detected by qRT-PCR. Overexpression and knockdown experiments were carried out to determine the effects of lnc-DILC on ccRCC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. To reveal the underlying mechanisms of lnc-DILC functions in ccRCC cells. RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA pull-down, in vivo ubiquitination, co-immunoprecipitation and western blot assays were performed. Results:Here, we identified that lnc-DILC levels were dramatically downregulated in ccRCC tissues. Loss of lnc-DILC expression was correlated with larger tumor size, advanced tumor grade and lymph node metastasis, and also predicted worse prognosis in patients with ccRCC. Functionally, knockdown and overexpression experiments demonstrated that lnc-DILC inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in ccRCC cells. Mechanistic investigation revealed that lnc-DILC bound to tumor suppressor PTEN and suppressed its degradation. lnc-DILC repressed the PTEN ubiquitination through blocking the interaction between PTEN and E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2 and recruiting the deubiquitinase USP11 to PTEN. Moreover, we demonstrated that PTEN-AKT signaling was crucial for lnc-DILC-mediated suppressive effects. Conclusions:In summary, our research revealed a novel mechanism by which lnc-DILC regulates PTEN stability via WWP2 and USP11, and shed light on potential therapeutic strategies by the restoration of lnc-DILC expression in patients with ccRCC.
Project description:Recent evidences showed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are frequently dysregulated and play important roles in various cancers. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is one of the leading cause of cancer-related death, largely due to the metastasis of ccRCC. However, the clinical significances and roles of lncRNAs in metastatic ccRCC are still unknown.lncRNA expression microarray analysis was performed to search the dysregulated lncRNA in metastatic ccRCC. quantitative real-time PCR was performed to measure the expression of lncRNAs in human ccRCC samples. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments were performed to investigate the biological roles of lncRNAs on ccRCC cell proliferation, migration, invasion and in vivo metastasis. RNA pull-down, RNA immunoprecipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and western blot were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of lncRNAs.The microarray analysis identified a novel lncRNA termed metastatic renal cell carcinoma-associated transcript 1 (MRCCAT1), which is highly expressed in metastatic ccRCC tissues and associated with the metastatic properties of ccRCC. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that MRCCAT1 is an independent prognostic factor for ccRCC patients. Overexpression of MRCCAT1 promotes ccRCC cells proliferation, migration, and invasion. Depletion of MRCCAT1 inhibites ccRCC cells proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro, and ccRCC metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, MRCCAT1 represses NPR3 transcription by recruiting PRC2 to NPR3 promoter, and subsequently activates p38-MAPK signaling pathway.MRCCAT1 is a critical lncRNA that promotes ccRCC metastasis via inhibiting NPR3 and activating p38-MAPK signaling. Our results imply that MRCCAT1 could serve as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for ccRCC.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been considered as biomarkers for the carcinogenesis and development of various cancers. However, the prognostic significance of lncRNAs in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the predictive ability of lncRNAs in clear cell RCC (ccRCC). Among the cohort of kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) of the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), 525 patients were enrolled in our study. Expression of lncRNAs based on RNAseq was obtained from TCGA. Kaplan-Meier prognostic analysis and a Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to assess related factors. The lncRNA signature was then validated in an independent cohort of an additional 60 ccRCC patients. Hierarchical clustering of the KIRC TCGA dataset identified 26 differentially expressed lncRNAs (11 down-regulated and 15 up-regulated) using average linkage clustering. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis identified 30 statistically significant lncRNAs that strongly predicted prognosis, with 4 ccRCC-specific lncRNAs (TCL6, PVT1, MIR155HG, and HAR1B) being differentially expressed and correlating significantly with OS. Patients assigned to the high-risk group were associated with poor OS compared with patients in the low-risk group (HR = 2.57; 95%CI, 1.89-3.50; p < 0.001). This finding was validated in the Tongji Hospital cohort, and the four-lncRNA signature was shown to be significantly predictive of ccRCC prognosis (p < 0.001). In this study, we constructed an applicable four-lncRNA-based classifier as a reliable prognostic and predictive tool for OS in patients with ccRCC.
Project description:Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) are non-protein-coding transcripts greater than 200 nucleotides that regulate gene expression. The field of transcriptomics is only beginning to understand the role of lncRNA in host defense. Little is known about the role of lncRNA in the response to infection by intracellular pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii. Using a microarray, we examined the differential expression of 35,923 lncRNAs and 24,881 mRNAs in mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages during infection with high- and low-virulence T. gondii strains. We found that 1,522 lncRNA molecules were differentially regulated during infection with the high-virulence Type I strain, versus 528 with the less-virulent Type II strain. Of these lncRNAs, 282 were co-regulated with a nearby or overlapping mRNA-including approximately 60 mRNAs with immune-related functions. We validated the microarray for 4 lncRNAs and 4 mRNAs using qRT-PCR. Using deletion strains of T. gondii, we found that the secretory kinase ROP16 controls upregulation of lncRNAs Csf1-lnc and Socs2-lnc, demonstrating that the parasite directly manipulates host lncRNA expression. Given the number of regulated lncRNAs and the magnitude of the expression changes, we hypothesize that these molecules constitute both an additional regulatory layer in the host response to infection and a target for manipulation by T. gondii.
Project description:Overwhelming evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs have essential roles in tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, their role in the molecular pathogenesis of pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia has not been extensively explored. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the long non-coding RNA transcriptome in ETV6/RUNX1-positive BCP-ALL, one of the most frequent subtypes of pediatric leukemia. First, we used primary leukemia patient samples to identify an ETV6/RUNX1 specific expression signature consisting of 596 lncRNA transcripts. Next, integration of this lncRNA signature with RNA sequencing of BCP-ALL cell lines and lncRNA profiling of an in vitro model system of ETV6/RUNX1 knockdown, revealed that lnc-NKX2-3-1, lnc-TIMM21-5, lnc-ASTN1-1 and lnc-RTN4R-1 are truly regulated by the oncogenic fusion protein. Moreover, sustained inactivation of lnc-RTN4R-1 and lnc-NKX2-3-1 in ETV6/RUNX1 positive cells caused profound changes in gene expression. All together, our study defined a unique lncRNA expression signature associated with ETV6/RUNX1-positive BCP-ALL and identified lnc-RTN4R-1 and lnc-NKX2-3-1 as lncRNAs that might be functionally implicated in the biology of this prevalent subtype of human leukemia.
Project description:One-third of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients present with metastasis at the time of diagnosis. The prognosis of these patients is poor. To identify potential prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for ccRCC, we re-evaluated published long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression profiling data from the Gene Expression Omnibus and ArrayExpress database. We found that five lncRNAs were differentially expressed in ccRCC and adjacent tissues. These lncRNAs were assessed in an independent cohort of 71 paired patient samples using real-time PCR. Differences in expression of three of the lncRNAs (ENSG00000177133, TCL6, and ENSG00000244020) were validated in this analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that low expression of ENSG00000177133 and TCL6 was associated with a poor prognosis. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses demonstrated that TCL6 but not ENSG00000177133 expression was an independent predictor of ccRCC aggressiveness and had hazard ratios predictive of clinical outcome. TCL6 expression was negatively correlated with pTNM stage. Overexpression of TCL6 in 786-O and Caki-1 ccRCC cells decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis compared to controls. Our results indicate that lncRNA expression is altered in ccRCC and that decreased TCL6 expression may be an independent adverse prognostic factor in ccRCC patients.
Project description:Serum biomarkers have not been fully incorporated into clinical use for the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The recent discovery of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which have been reported in a variety of cancer types, suggested a promising new class of biomarkers for tumour diagnosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the levels of circulating lncRNAs could be used as a tumour marker to discriminate between clear cell RCC (ccRCC) patients and healthy controls. Serum samples were collected from 71 ccRCC patients including 62 age- and sex-matched healthy controls and 8 patients with benign renal tumours. Eighty-two cancer-associated lncRNAs were assessed by reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction in paired tissues and serum. A 5-lncRNA signature, including lncRNA-LET, PVT1, PANDAR, PTENP1 and linc00963, were identified and validated in the training set and testing set, respectively. The receiver operating characteristic curves for this serum 5-lncRNA signature were 0.900 and 0.823 for the two sets of serum samples. Moreover, five-minus-one lncRNA signatures demonstrated that none of the lncRNAs had a higher area under the curve than the others in either set. A risk model for the serum 5-lncRNA signature also determined that benign renal tumours can be distinguished from ccRCC samples. This work may facilitate the detection of ccRCC and serve as the basis for further studies of the clinical value of serum lncRNAs in maintaining surveillance and forecasting prognosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has recently emerged as key molecules in human cancers; however, whether lncRNAs are implicated in the progression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains unclear. METHODS:Candidate lncRNAs were selected using microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to detect lncRNAs expression in human ccRCC tissues. Overexpression and knocking down experiments in vivo and in vitro were performed to uncover the biological roles of lncRNA-URRCC on ccRCC cell proliferation and invasion. Microarray, chromatin immunoprecipitation, Luciferase reporter assay and western blot were constructed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of lncRNA-URRCC. RESULTS:The microarray analysis and qRT-PCR identified a new lncRNA, URRCC, whose expression is upregulated in RCC samples and associated with poor prognosis, leading to promote ccRCC cell proliferation and invasion. Mechanistically, URRCC enhances the expression of EGFL7 via mediating histone H3 acetylation of EGFL7 promoter, activation of P-AKT signaling, and suppressing P-AKT downstream gene, FOXO3. In return, FOXO3 could inhibit the transcription of URRCC via binding to the special region on the promoter of URRCC. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggests that targeting this newly identified feed-back loop between LncRNA-URRCC and EGFL7/P-AKT/FOXO3 signaling may enhance the efficacy of existing therapy and potentially imparts a new avenue to develop more potent therapeutic approaches to suppress RCC progression.