Asymmetric isolating barriers between different microclimatic environments caused by low immigrant survival.
ABSTRACT: Spatially variable selection has the potential to result in local adaptation unless counteracted by gene flow. Therefore, barriers to gene flow will help facilitate divergence between populations that differ in local selection pressures. We performed spatially and temporally replicated reciprocal field transplant experiments between inland and coastal habitats using males of the common blue damselfly (Enallagma cyathigerum) as our study organism. Males from coastal populations had lower local survival rates than resident males at inland sites, whereas we detected no differences between immigrant and resident males at coastal sites, suggesting asymmetric local adaptation in a source-sink system. There were no intrinsic differences in longevity between males from the different environments suggesting that the observed differences in male survival are environment-dependent and probably caused by local adaptation. Furthermore, the coastal environment was found to be warmer and drier than the inland environment, further suggesting local adaptation to microclimatic factors has lead to differential survival of resident and immigrant males. Our results suggest that low survival of immigrant males mediates isolation between closely located populations inhabiting different microclimatic environments.
Project description:Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations in different ecological settings. We used microsatellite data to examine local differentiation in one of these lineages, the Pacific Coast polyploid complex of the plant genus Grindelia (Asteraceae). We examined 439 individuals in 10 different populations. The plants grouped broadly into a coastal and an inland set of populations. The coastal group contained plants from salt marshes and coastal bluffs, as well as a population growing in a serpentine grassland close to the coast, while the inland group contained grassland plants. No evidence for hybridization was found at the single location where adjacent populations of the two groups were sampled. In addition to differentiation along ecotypic lines, there was also a strong signal of local differentiation, with the plants grouping strongly by population. The strength of local differentiation is consistent with the extensive morphological variation observed across populations and the history of taxonomic confusion in the group. The Pacific Clade of Grindelia and other young Californian plant groups warrant additional analysis of evolutionary divergence along the steep coast-to-inland climatic gradient, which has been associated with local adaptation and ecotype formation since the classic studies of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey.
Project description:Over the past decade, the high-dose refuge (HDR) strategy, aimed at delaying the evolution of pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins produced by transgenic crops, became mandatory in the United States and is being discussed for Europe. However, precopulatory dispersal and the mating rate between resident and immigrant individuals, two features influencing the efficiency of this strategy, have seldom been quantified in pests targeted by these toxins. We combined mark-recapture and biogeochemical marking over three breeding seasons to quantify these features directly in natural populations of Ostrinia nubilalis, a major lepidopteran corn pest. At the local scale, resident females mated regardless of males having dispersed beforehand or not, as assumed in the HDR strategy. Accordingly, 0-67% of resident females mating before dispersal did so with resident males, this percentage depending on the local proportion of resident males (0% to 67.2%). However, resident males rarely mated with immigrant females (which mostly arrived mated), the fraction of females mating before dispersal was variable and sometimes substantial (4.8% to 56.8%), and there was no evidence for male premating dispersal being higher. Hence, O. nubilalis probably mates at a more restricted spatial scale than previously assumed, a feature that may decrease the efficiency of the HDR strategy under certain circumstances, depending for example on crop rotation practices.
Project description:Introgression from one species in a specific environment to another may facilitate colonization of the environment by the recipient species. However, such environment-dependent introgression has been clarified in limited plant taxa. In northern Japan, there are two interfertile oak species: Quercus dentata (Qd) in coastal areas and Q. mongolica var. crispula (Qc) in inland areas. However, at higher latitudes where Qd is rare, a coastal Qc ecotype with Qd-like traits is distributed in the coastal areas. We distinguished inland Qc, coastal Qc, and coastal Qd populations based on genome-wide genotypes and multitrait phenotypes and verified introgression from coastal Qd to coastal Qc using reduced library sequencing. Genotypes and phenotypes differed among the populations, and coastal Qc was intermediate between inland Qc and coastal Qd. The ABBA-BABA test showed introgression from coastal Qd to coastal Qc. In coastal Qc, we found various stages of introgression after the first generation of backcross but detected no genomic regions where introgression was enhanced. Overall, we show evidence for introgression from a coastal species to an ecotype of an inland species, which has colonized the coastal environment. It remains unclear whether introgressed alleles are selected in the coastal environment.
Project description:We sequenced mRNA from brain samples of 20 captive Swainson's thrushes. 10 were from California, belonging to the coastal subspecies, and 10 were from Alaska, belonging to the inland subspecies. Overall design: Gene expression level analysis of Swainson's thrushes maintained in captivity for >1 year. The study treatments were: non-migratory inland (N = 4), non-migratory coastal (N = 6), migratory inland (N = 6), migratory coastal (N = 4). This Series includes 19 Samples. This Series does not include migratory inland Sample t22 (it was not included in any analyses because its overall expression was an outlier to the remaining dataset).
Project description:Impacts of introgressive hybridisation may range from genomic erosion and species collapse to rapid adaptation and speciation but opportunities to study these dynamics are rare. We investigated the extent, causes and consequences of a hybrid zone between Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae in Guinea-Bissau, where high hybridisation rates appear to be stable at least since the 1990s. Anopheles gambiae was genetically partitioned into inland and coastal subpopulations, separated by a central region dominated by A. coluzzii. Surprisingly, whole genome sequencing revealed that the coastal region harbours a hybrid form characterised by an A. gambiae-like sex chromosome and massive introgression of A. coluzzii autosomal alleles. Local selection on chromosomal inversions may play a role in this process, suggesting potential for spatiotemporal stability of the coastal hybrid form and providing resilience against introgression of medically-important loci and traits, found to be more prevalent in inland A. gambiae.
Project description:Recent work has shown that dispersal has an important role in shaping microbial communities. However, little is known about how dispersed bacteria cope with new environmental conditions and how they compete with local resident communities. To test this, we implemented two full-factorial transplant experiments with bacterial communities originating from two sources (freshwater or saline water), which were incubated, separately or in mixes, under both environmental conditions. Thus, we were able to separately test for the effects of the new environment with and without interactions with local communities. We determined community composition using 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA to specifically target the active fraction of the communities, and measured several functional parameters. In absence of a local resident community, the net functional response was mainly affected by the environmental conditions, suggesting successful functional adaptation to the new environmental conditions. Community composition was influenced both by the source and the incubation environment, suggesting simultaneous effects of species sorting and functional plasticity. In presence of a local resident community, functional parameters were higher compared with those expected from proportional mixes of the unmixed communities in three out of four cases. This was accompanied by an increase in the relative abundance of generalists, suggesting that competitive interactions among local and immigrant taxa could explain the observed 'functional overachievement'. In summary, our results suggest that environmental filtering, functional plasticity and competition are all important mechanisms influencing the fate of dispersed communities.
Project description:Within global biodiversity hotspots such as the California Floristic Province, local patterns of diversity must be better understood to prioritize conservation for the greatest number of species. This study investigates patterns of vascular plant diversity in relation to coast-inland environmental gradients in the shrublands of Central California known as northern coastal scrub. We sampled coastal shrublands of the San Francisco Bay Area at coastal and inland locations, modeled fine-scale climatic variables, and developed an index for local exposure to maritime salts. We compared diversity, composition, and structure of the coastal and inland plots using indirect gradient analysis and estimated species accumulation using rarefaction curves. Coastal plots were significantly higher in alpha, beta, and gamma diversity than inland plots. Plant diversity (effective species number) in coastal plots was 2.1 times greater than inland plots, and beta diversity was 1.9 times greater. Estimated richness by rarefaction was 2.05 times greater in coastal sites than inland sites. Salt deposition and water availability were the abiotic process most strongly correlated with increased maritime plant diversity and compositional differences. Stands of northern coastal scrub on the immediate coast with higher maritime influence exhibit markedly higher plant diversity than most interior stands, paralleling previous work in other vegetation types in this region. These studies suggest that the California coastline deserves special consideration for botanical conservation. Fine-scale climatic models of cloud frequency, water availability, and the salt deposition index presented here can be used to define priority areas for plant conservation in California and other coastal regions worldwide.
Project description:Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is closely linked to different habitats and way of life. In birds, some studies have noted that BMR is higher in marine species compared to those inhabiting terrestrial habitats. However, the extent of such metabolic dichotomy and its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Migratory shorebirds (Charadriiformes) offer a particularly interesting opportunity for testing this marine-non-marine difference as they are typically divided into two broad categories in terms of their habitat occupancy outside the breeding season: 'coastal' and 'inland' shorebirds. Here, we measured BMR for 12 species of migratory shorebirds wintering in temperate inland habitats and collected additional BMR values from the literature for coastal and inland shorebirds along their migratory route to make inter- and intraspecific comparisons. We also measured the BMR of inland and coastal dunlins Calidris alpina wintering at a similar latitude to facilitate a more direct intraspecific comparison. Our interspecific analyses showed that BMR was significantly lower in inland shorebirds than in coastal shorebirds after the effects of potentially confounding climatic (latitude, temperature, solar radiation, wind conditions) and organismal (body mass, migratory status, phylogeny) factors were accounted for. This indicates that part of the variation in basal metabolism might be attributed to genotypic divergence. Intraspecific comparisons showed that the mass-specific BMR of dunlins wintering in inland freshwater habitats was 15% lower than in coastal saline habitats, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity also plays an important role in generating these metabolic differences. We propose that the absence of tidally-induced food restrictions, low salinity, and less windy microclimates associated with inland freshwater habitats may reduce the levels of energy expenditure, and hence BMR. Further research including common-garden experiments that eliminate phenotypic plasticity as a source of phenotypic variation is needed to determine to what extent these general patterns are attributable to genotypic adaptation.
Project description:Seafood mislabeling occurs in a wide range of seafood products worldwide, resulting in public distrust, economic fraud, and health risks for consumers. We quantified the extent of shrimp mislabeling in coastal and inland North Carolina. We used standard DNA barcoding procedures to determine the species identity of 106 shrimp sold as "local" by 60 vendors across North Carolina. Thirty-four percent of the purchased shrimp was mislabeled, and surprisingly the percentage did not differ significantly between coastal and inland counties. One third of product incorrectly marketed as "local" was in fact whiteleg shrimp: an imported and globally farmed species native to the eastern Pacific, not found in North Carolina waters. In addition to the negative ecosystem consequences of shrimp farming (e.g., the loss of mangrove forests and the coastal buffering they provide), North Carolina fishers-as with local fishers elsewhere-are negatively impacted when vendors label farmed, frozen, and imported shrimp as local, fresh, and wild-caught.
Project description:Adaptive phenotypic plasticity and fixed genotypic differences have long been considered opposing strategies in adaptation. More recently, these mechanisms have been proposed to act complementarily and under certain conditions jointly facilitate evolution, speciation, and even adaptive radiations. Here, we investigate the relative contributions of adaptive phenotypic plasticity vs. local adaptation to fitness, using an emerging model system to study early phases of adaptive divergence, the generalist cichlid fish species Astatotilapia burtoni. We tested direct fitness consequences of morphological divergence between lake and river populations in nature by performing two transplant experiments in Lake Tanganyika. In the first experiment, we used wild-caught juvenile lake and river individuals, while in the second experiment, we used F1 crosses between lake and river fish bred in a common garden setup. By tracking the survival and growth of translocated individuals in enclosures in the lake over several weeks, we revealed local adaptation evidenced by faster growth of the wild-caught resident population in the first experiment. On the other hand, we did not find difference in growth between different types of F1 crosses in the second experiment, suggesting a substantial contribution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity to increased immigrant fitness. Our findings highlight the value of formally comparing fitness of wild-caught and common garden-reared individuals and emphasize the necessity of considering adaptive phenotypic plasticity in the study of adaptive divergence.