GRP78-directed immunotherapy in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma - results from a phase 1 trial with the monoclonal immunoglobulin M antibody PAT-SM6.
ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this phase 1 study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the anti-glucose regulated protein 78 monoclonal immunoglobulin M antibody PAT-SM6 in subjects with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Twelve heavily pretreated patients received four intravenous infusions of PAT-SM6 at doses of 0.3, 1, 3, and 6 mg/kg within 2 weeks. Efficacy, pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity were followed up until the end of the trial (day 36). In addition, immune cell patterns in peripheral blood were assessed by flow cytometry and glucose regulated protein 78 expression status was evaluated in bone marrow specimens by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry at screening. All doses administered were found to be safe and well tolerated; the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The most common treatment emergent adverse event was leukopenia (grades 1 and 2) in eight out of the 12 multiple myeloma patients. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated dose-proportional increases in drug serum concentration. The terminal half-life ranged from 5.86 to 8.41 h, the apparent volume of distribution ranged from 101 to 150 mL/kg, and clearance ranged from 8.11 to 16.1 mL/h/kg. All patients showed glucose regulated protein 78 surface expression on multiple myeloma cells. Four out of the 12 patients (33.3 %) had stable disease, according to the International Myeloma Working Group criteria, after PAT-SM6 treatment across the doses 1, 3 and 6 mg/kg. In summary, single-agent PAT-SM6 was well tolerated with modest clinical activity in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Further trials exploring the combination of PAT-SM6 with existing myeloma therapies are planned.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01727778.
Project description:In contrast to other haematological malignancies, targeted immunotherapy has not entered standard treatment regimens for de novo or relapsed multiple myeloma (MM) yet. While a number of IgG-formatted monoclonal antibodies are currently being evaluated in clinical trials in MM, our study aimed to investigate whether the fully human IgM monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6 that targets a tumour-specific variant of the heat shock protein GRP78 might be an attractive candidate for future immunotherapeutic approaches. We here show that GRP78 is stably and consistently expressed on the surface on tumour cells from patients with de novo, but also relapsed MM and that binding of PAT-SM6 to MM cells can specifically exert cytotoxic effects on malignant plasma cells, whereas non-malignant cells are not targeted. We demonstrate that the induction of apoptosis and, to a lesser extent, complement dependent cytotoxicity is the main mode of action of PAT-SM6, whereas antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity does not appear to contribute to the cytotoxic properties of this antibody. Given the favourable safety profile of PAT-SM6 in monkeys, but also in a recent phase I trial in patients with malignant melanoma, our results form the basis for a planned phase I study in patients with relapsed MM.
Project description:FcRH5 is a cell surface marker enriched on malignant plasma cells when compared to other hematologic malignancies and normal tissues. DFRF4539A is an anti-FcRH5 antibody-drug conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), a potent anti-mitotic agent. This phase I study assessed safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), anti-tumor activity, and pharmacokinetics of DFRF4539A in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. DFRF4539A was administered at 0.3-2.4 mg/kg every 3 weeks or 0.8-1.1 mg/kg weekly as a single-agent by intravenous infusion to 39 patients. Exposure of total antibody and antibody-conjugate-MMAE analytes was linear across the doses tested. There were 37 (95%) adverse events (AEs), 8 (21%) serious AEs, and 15 (39%) AEs ≥ grade 3. Anemia (n = 10, 26%) was the most common AE considered related to DFRF4539A. Two cases of grade 3 acute renal failure were attributed to DFRF4539A. There were no deaths; the MTD was not reached. DFRF4539A demonstrated limited activity in patients at the doses tested with 2 (5%) partial response, 1 (3%) minimal response, 18 (46%) stable disease, and 16 (41%) progressive disease. FcRH5 was confirmed to be expressed and occupied by antibody post-treatment and thus remains a valid myeloma target. Nevertheless, this MMAE-based antibody-drug-conjugate targeting FcRH5 was unsuccessful for myeloma.
Project description:<label>PURPOSE</label>Cancer cells can exploit the programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint pathway to avoid immune surveillance by modulating T-lymphocyte activity. In part, this may occur through overexpression of PD-1 and PD-1 pathway ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) in the tumor microenvironment. PD-1 blockade has produced significant antitumor activity in solid tumors, and similar evidence has emerged in hematologic malignancies.<label>METHODS</label>In this phase I, open-label, dose-escalation, cohort-expansion study, patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphoma, T-cell lymphoma, and multiple myeloma received the anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody nivolumab at doses of 1 or 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nivolumab and to assess PD-L1/PD-L2 locus integrity and protein expression.<label>RESULTS</label>Eighty-one patients were treated (follicular lymphoma, n = 10; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, n = 11; other B-cell lymphomas, n = 10; mycosis fungoides, n = 13; peripheral T-cell lymphoma, n = 5; other T-cell lymphomas, n = 5; multiple myeloma, n = 27). Patients had received a median of three (range, one to 12) prior systemic treatments. Drug-related adverse events occurred in 51 (63%) patients, and most were grade 1 or 2. Objective response rates were 40%, 36%, 15%, and 40% among patients with follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, respectively. Median time of follow-up observation was 66.6 weeks (range, 1.6 to 132.0+ weeks). Durations of response in individual patients ranged from 6.0 to 81.6+ weeks.<label>CONCLUSION</label>Nivolumab was well tolerated and exhibited antitumor activity in extensively pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory B- and T-cell lymphomas. Additional studies of nivolumab in these diseases are ongoing.
Project description:A Phase 2 dose-finding study evaluated isatuximab, an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody, in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM; NCT01084252). Patients with ?3 prior lines or refractory to both immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors (dual refractory) were randomized to isatuximab 3?mg/kg every 2 weeks (Q2W), 10?mg/kg Q2W(2 cycles)/Q4W, or 10?mg/kg Q2W. A fourth arm evaluated 20?mg/kg QW(1 cycle)/Q2W. Patients (N?=?97) had a median (range) age of 62 years (38-85), 5 (2-14) prior therapy lines, and 85% were double refractory. The overall response rate (ORR) was 4.3, 20.0, 29.2, and 24.0% with isatuximab 3?mg/kg Q2W, 10?mg/kg Q2W/Q4W, 10?mg/kg Q2W, and 20?mg/kg QW/Q2W, respectively. At doses ?10?mg/kg, median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.6 and 18.7 months, respectively, and the ORR was 40.9% (9/22) in patients with high-risk cytogenetics. CD38 receptor density was similar in responders and non-responders. The most common non-hematologic adverse events (typically grade ?2) were nausea (34.0%), fatigue (32.0%), and upper respiratory tract infections (28.9%). Infusion reactions (typically with first infusion and grade ?2) occurred in 51.5% of patients. In conclusion, isatuximab is active and generally well tolerated in heavily pretreated RRMM, with greatest efficacy at doses ?10?mg/kg.
Project description:BACKGROUND:B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a cell-surface receptor of the tumour necrosis superfamily required for plasma cell survival. BMCA is universally detected on patient-derived myeloma cells and has emerged as a selective antigen to be targeted by novel treatments in multiple myeloma. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and preliminary clinical activity of GSK2857916, a novel anti-BCMA antibody conjugated to microtubule-disrupting agent monomethyl auristatin F, in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. METHODS:We did an international, multicentre, open-label, first-in-human phase 1 study with dose escalation (part 1) and dose expansion (part 2) phases, at nine centres in the USA, Canada, and the UK. Adults with histologically or cytologically confirmed multiple myeloma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1, and progressive disease after stem cell transplantation, alkylators, proteasome inhibitors, and immunomodulators were recruited for this study. In part 1, patients received GSK2857916 (0·03-4·60 mg/kg) through 1 h intravenous infusions once every 3 weeks. In part 2, patients received the selected recommended phase 2 dose of GSK2857916 (3·40 mg/kg) once every 3 weeks. Primary endpoints were maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase 2 dose. Secondary endpoints for part 2 included preliminary anti-cancer clinical activity. All patients who received one or more doses were included in this prespecified administrative interim analysis (data cutoff date June 26, 2017), which was done for internal purposes. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02064387, and is ongoing, but closed for recruitment. FINDINGS:Between July 29, 2014, and Feb 21, 2017, we treated 73 patients: 38 patients in the dose-escalation part 1 and 35 patients in the dose-expansion part 2. There were no dose-limiting toxicities and no maximum tolerated dose was identified in part 1. On the basis of safety and clinical activity, we selected 3·40 mg/kg as the recommended phase 2 dose. Corneal events were common (20 [53%] of 38 patients in part 1 and 22 [63%] of 35 in part 2); most (18 [47%] in part 1 and 19 [54%] in part 2) were grade 1 or 2 and resulted in two treatment discontinuations in part 1 and no discontinuations in part 2. The most common grade 3 or 4 events were thrombocytopenia (13 [34%] of 38 patients in part 1 and 12 [34%] of 35 in part 2) and anaemia (6 [16%] in part 1 and 5 [14%] in part 2). There were 12 treatment-related serious adverse events and no treatment-related deaths. In part 2, 21 (60·0%; 95% CI 42·1-76·1) of 35 patients achieved an overall response. INTERPRETATION:At the identified recommended phase 2 dose, GSK2857916 was well tolerated and had good clinical activity in heavily pretreated patients, thereby indicating that this might be a promising candidate for the treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. FUNDING:GlaxoSmithKline.
Project description:PURPOSE:This pediatric phase I study was designed to identify the doses of RG1507, a monoclonal antibody against the Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor (IGF1R), that achieves exposures equivalent to those achieved in adults at recommended doses. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Children with relapsed or refractory solid tumors were treated using the same doses and administration schedules of RG1507 (3 and 9 mg/kg/wk, and 16 mg/kg every 3 weeks [q3W]) as those studied in adults. Detailed pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling was performed after the first dose; selected peak and trough levels were subsequently obtained. Target exposures were ?85% of mean areas under concentration x time curves (AUCs) in adults at doses of 9 mg/kg/wk and 16 mg/kg q3W. A maximum tolerated dose could be identified if dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) occurred. RESULTS:Thirty-one evaluable patients aged 3-17 years were enrolled at 3 mg/kg/wk (n = 3), 9 mg/kg/wk (n = 18), or 16 mg/kg q3W (n = 10). There were no DLTs. At 9 mg/kg/wk the mean AUC(0-7d) (21,000 ?g h/mL) exceeded the target (16,000 ?g h/mL). At 16 mg/kg q3W, the mean AUC(021d) (70,000 ?g h/mL) exceeded the target (59,400 ?g h/mL). Clearance normalized to body weight was age dependent. There were no objective responses. Seven patients had stable disease for >12 weeks, including two patients with osteosarcoma with stable disease for 52+ and 78+ weeks. CONCLUSIONS:The recommended doses of RG1507 in children with solid tumors are 9 mg/kg/wk and 16 mg/kg q3W. This flexible design is well suited for trials of agents associated with limited toxicity.
Project description:This phase I dose-escalation/expansion study evaluated isatuximab (anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody) monotherapy in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Patients progressing on or after standard therapy received intravenous isatuximab (weekly [QW] or every 2 weeks [Q2W]). The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of isatuximab. Overall, 84 patients received ≥ 1 dose of isatuximab. The MTD was not reached; no cumulative adverse reactions were noted. The most frequent adverse events were infusion reactions (IRs), occurring in 37/73 patients (51%) following introduction of mandatory prophylaxis. IRs were mostly grade 1/2, occurred predominantly during Cycle 1, and led to treatment discontinuation in two patients. CD38 receptor occupancy reached a plateau of 80% with isatuximab 20 mg/kg (highest dose tested) and was associated with clinical response. In patients receiving isatuximab ≥ 10 mg/kg, overall response rate (ORR) was 23.8% (15/63), including one complete response. In high-risk patients treated with isatuximab 10 mg/kg (QW or Q2W), ORR was 16.7% (3/18). Median (range) duration of response at doses ≥ 10 mg/kg was 25 (8-30) weeks among high-risk patients versus 36 (6-85) weeks for other patients. In conclusion, isatuximab demonstrated a manageable safety profile and clinical activity in patients with RRMM.
Project description:We report results of a retrospective analysis of 44 patients with relapsed and high-risk multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing allogeneic CD34-selected hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from HLA-compatible donors. Patients had multiply relapsed disease including relapse at <15 months after autologous transplantation and most patients (28 of 44; 65%) also had high-risk cytogenetics. Before transplantation, patients received busulfan (.8 mg/kg × 10 doses), melphalan (70 mg/m(2) × 2 days), fludarabine (25 mg/m(2) × 5 days), and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (2.5 mg/kg × 2 days). Patients with 10/10 HLA- matched donors were treated prophylactically with low doses of donor lymphocyte infusions (.5 to 1 × 10(6) CD3(+)/kg) starting 4 to 6 months after CD34-selected HSCT. Acute (grade II to IV) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and transplantation-related mortality at 12 months were 2% and 18%, respectively. Chronic GVHD was not observed in any patient. Overall and progression-free survival at 2 years were 54% and 31%, respectively. By multivariate analyses, the outcomes of CD34-selected HSCT were influenced by presence of extramedullary disease, disease status before CD34-selected HSCT, and age. This study demonstrates notable safety and efficacy of CD34-selected HSCT in patients with multiply relapsed MM, including those with high-risk cytogenetics.
Project description:IgM antibodies are an important player of the human's innate defense mechanisms and increasingly have gained interest as therapeutics. Although the expression of IgM antibodies in mammalian cell culture is established, this approach remains costly and alternative methods have not been developed yet. Plants have a proven record for the production of therapeutically relevant recombinant proteins. However, whether they are able to express proteins like IgM antibodies, which range among the most complex human proteins, remains unknown so far. Here we report the in planta generation of the functionally active monoclonal antitumor IgM PAT-SM6 (SM6). SM6 efficiently accumulates in plant leaves and assembles correctly into heterooligomers (pentamers and hexamers). Detailed glycosylation analysis exhibited complex and oligomannosidic N-glycans in a site-specific manner on human-serum IgM and on plant- and human-cell-line-produced SM6. Moreover, extensive in planta glycoengineering allowed the generation of SM6 decorated with sialylated human-type oligosaccharides, comparable to plasma-derived IgM. A glycosylated model of pentameric IgM exhibits different accessibility of the glycosylation sites, explaining site-specific glycosylation. Biochemical and biophysical properties and importantly biological activities of plant-derived SM6 glycoforms are comparable to the human-cell-derived counterparts. The in planta generation of one of the most complex human proteins opens new pathways toward the production of difficult-to-express proteins for pharmaceutical applications. Moreover, the generation of IgMs with a controlled glycosylation pattern allows the study of the so far unknown contribution of sugar moieties to the function of IgMs.
Project description:To evaluate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and efficacy of elotuzumab in combination with bortezomib in patients with relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM).Elotuzumab (2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 mg/kg intravenously [IV]) and bortezomib (1.3 mg/m(2) IV) were administered on days 1 and 11 and days 1, 4, 8, and 11, respectively, in 21-day cycles by using a 3 + 3 dose-escalation design. Patients with stable disease or better after four cycles could continue treatment until disease progression or unexpected toxicity. Responses were assessed during each cycle by using European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) criteria.Twenty-eight patients with a median of two prior therapies were enrolled; three patients each received 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg/kg of elotuzumab and 19 received 20 mg/kg (six during dose escalation and 13 during an expansion phase). No dose-limiting toxicities were observed during cycle 1 of the dose-escalation phase, and the MTD was not reached up to the maximum planned dose of 20 mg/kg. The most frequent grade 3 to 4 adverse events (AEs) were lymphopenia (25%) and fatigue (14%). Two elotuzumab-related serious AEs of chest pain and gastroenteritis occurred in one patient. An objective response (a partial response or better) was observed in 13 (48%) of 27 evaluable patients and in two (67%) of three patients refractory to bortezomib. Median time to progression was 9.46 months.The combination of elotuzumab and bortezomib was generally well-tolerated and showed encouraging activity in patients with relapsed/refractory MM.