The myosin mesa and a possible unifying hypothesis for the molecular basis of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
ABSTRACT: No matter how many times one explores the structure of the myosin molecule, there is always something new to discover. Here, I describe the myosin mesa, a structural feature of the motor domain that has the characteristics of a binding domain for another protein, possibly myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C). Interestingly, many well-known hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutations lie along this surface and may affect the putative interactions proposed here. A potential unifying hypothesis for the molecular basis of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is discussed here. It involves increased power output of the cardiac muscle as a result of HCM mutations causing the release of inhibition by myosin binding protein C.
Project description:Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is primarily caused by mutations in ?-cardiac myosin and myosin-binding protein-C (MyBP-C). Changes in the contractile parameters of myosin measured so far do not explain the clinical hypercontractility caused by such mutations. We propose that hypercontractility is due to an increase in the number of myosin heads (S1) that are accessible for force production. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate myosin tail (S2)-dependent functional regulation of actin-activated human ?-cardiac myosin ATPase. In addition, we show that both S2 and MyBP-C bind to S1 and that phosphorylation of either S1 or MyBP-C weakens these interactions. Importantly, the S1-S2 interaction is also weakened by four myosin HCM-causing mutations but not by two other mutations. To explain these experimental results, we propose a working structural model involving multiple interactions, including those with myosin's own S2 and MyBP-C, that hold myosin in a sequestered state.
Project description:The sarcomere is an exquisitely designed apparatus that is capable of generating force, which in the case of the heart results in the pumping of blood throughout the body. At the molecular level, an ATP-dependent interaction of myosin with actin drives the contraction and force generation of the sarcomere. Over the past six decades, work on muscle has yielded tremendous insights into the workings of the sarcomeric system. We now stand on the cusp where the acquired knowledge of how the sarcomere contracts and how that contraction is regulated can be extended to an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of sarcomeric diseases, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In this review we present a picture that combines current knowledge of the myosin mesa, the sequestered state of myosin heads on the thick filament, known as the interacting-heads motif (IHM), their possible interaction with myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) and how these interactions can be abrogated leading to hyper-contractility, a key clinical manifestation of HCM. We discuss the structural and functional basis of the IHM state of the myosin heads and identify HCM-causing mutations that can directly impact the equilibrium between the 'on state' of the myosin heads (the open state) and the IHM 'off state'. We also hypothesize a role of MyBP-C in helping to maintain myosin heads in the IHM state on the thick filament, allowing release in a graded manner upon adrenergic stimulation. By viewing clinical hyper-contractility as the result of the destabilization of the IHM state, our aim is to view an old disease in a new light.
Project description:Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutations in ?-cardiac myosin and myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) lead to hypercontractility of the heart, an early hallmark of HCM. We show that hypercontractility caused by the HCM-causing mutation R663H cannot be explained by changes in fundamental myosin contractile parameters, much like the HCM-causing mutation R403Q. Using enzymatic assays with purified human ?-cardiac myosin, we provide evidence that both mutations cause hypercontractility by increasing the number of functionally accessible myosin heads. We also demonstrate that the myosin mutation R403Q, but not R663H, ablates the binding of myosin with the C0-C7 fragment of MyBP-C. Furthermore, addition of C0-C7 decreases the wild-type myosin basal ATPase single turnover rate, while the mutants do not show a similar reduction. These data suggest that a primary mechanism of action for these mutations is to increase the number of myosin heads functionally available for interaction with actin, which could contribute to hypercontractility.
Project description:Contraction of the heart results from interaction of the myosin and actin filaments. Cardiac myosin filaments consist of the molecular motor myosin II, the sarcomeric template protein, titin, and the cardiac modulatory protein, myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C). Inherited hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease caused mainly by mutations in these proteins. The structure of cardiac myosin filaments and the alterations caused by HCM mutations are unknown. We have used electron microscopy and image analysis to determine the three-dimensional structure of myosin filaments from wild-type mouse cardiac muscle and from a MyBP-C knockout model for HCM. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the wild-type filament reveals the conformation of the myosin heads and the organization of titin and MyBP-C at 4 nm resolution. Myosin heads appear to interact with each other intramolecularly, as in off-state smooth muscle myosin [Wendt T, Taylor D, Trybus KM, Taylor K (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:4361-4366], suggesting that all relaxed muscle myosin IIs may adopt this conformation. Titin domains run in an elongated strand along the filament surface, where they appear to interact with part of MyBP-C and with the myosin backbone. In the knockout filament, some of the myosin head interactions are disrupted, suggesting that MyBP-C is important for normal relaxation of the filament. These observations provide key insights into the role of the myosin filament in cardiac contraction, assembly, and disease. The techniques we have developed should be useful in studying the structural basis of other myosin-related HCM diseases.
Project description:RATIONALE:Truncation mutations in the MYBPC3 gene, encoding for cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C), are the leading cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Whole heart, fiber and molecular studies demonstrate that MyBP-C is a potent modulator of cardiac contractility, but how these mutations contribute to HCM is unresolved. OBJECTIVES:To readdress whether MYBPC3 truncation mutations result in loss of MyBP-C content and/or the expression of truncated MyBP-C from the mutant allele and determine how these mutations effect myofilament sliding in human myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS:Septal wall tissue samples were obtained from HCM patients undergoing myectomy (n?=?18) and donor controls (n?=?8). The HCM samples contained 40% less MyBP-C and reduced levels of MyBP-C phosphorylation, when compared to the donor control samples using quantitative mass spectrometry. These differences occurred in the absence of changes in the stoichiometry of other myofilament proteins or production of truncated MyBP-C from the mutant MYBPC3 allele. The functional impact of MYBPC3 truncation mutations on myofilament sliding was determined using a total internal reflection microscopy (TIRFM) single particle assay. Myosin-thick filaments containing their native complement of MyBP-C, and actin-thin filaments decorated with the troponin/tropomyosin calcium regulatory proteins, were isolated from a subgroup of the HCM (n?=?4) and donor (n?=?5) heart samples. The maximal sliding velocity of native thin filaments was enhanced within the C-zones of the native thick filaments isolated from the HCM samples, when compared to velocity within the C-zones of thick filaments isolated from the donor samples. Analytical modeling demonstrated that the 40% reduction in MyBP-C content was sufficient to enhance the myofilament sliding velocity, as observed in the TIRFM assay. CONCLUSIONS:HCM-causing MYBPC3 truncation mutations result in a loss of MyBP-C content that enhances maximal myofilament sliding velocities, only where MyBP-C is localized within the C-zone. These findings support therapeutic rationale for restoring normal levels of MyBP-C and/or dampening maximal contractile velocities for the treatment of human HCM.
Project description:Mutations in cardiac myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C, encoded by MYBPC3) are the most common cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Most MYBPC3 mutations result in premature termination codons (PTCs) that cause RNA degradation and a reduction of MyBP-C in HCM patient hearts. However, a reduction in MyBP-C has not been consistently observed in MYBPC3-mutant induced pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (iPSCMs). To determine early MYBPC3 mutation effects, we used patient and genome-engineered iPSCMs. iPSCMs with frameshift mutations were compared with iPSCMs with MYBPC3 promoter and translational start site deletions, revealing that allelic loss of function is the primary inciting consequence of mutations causing PTCs. Despite a reduction in wild-type mRNA in all heterozygous iPSCMs, no reduction in MyBP-C protein was observed, indicating protein-level compensation through what we believe is a previously uncharacterized mechanism. Although homozygous mutant iPSCMs exhibited contractile dysregulation, heterozygous mutant iPSCMs had normal contractile function in the context of compensated MyBP-C levels. Agnostic RNA-Seq analysis revealed differential expression in genes involved in protein folding as the only dysregulated gene set. To determine how MYBPC3-mutant iPSCMs achieve compensated MyBP-C levels, sarcomeric protein synthesis and degradation were measured with stable isotope labeling. Heterozygous mutant iPSCMs showed reduced MyBP-C synthesis rates but a slower rate of MyBP-C degradation. These findings indicate that cardiomyocytes have an innate capacity to attain normal MyBP-C stoichiometry despite MYBPC3 allelic loss of function due to truncating mutations. Modulating MyBP-C degradation to maintain MyBP-C protein levels may be a novel treatment approach upstream of contractile dysfunction for HCM.
Project description:In previous studies of septal heart muscle from HCM patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM, LVOT gradient 50-120 mmHg) we found that the level of phosphorylation of troponin I (TnI) and myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) was extremely low yet samples from hearts with HCM or DCM mutations that did not have pressure overload were similar to donor heart controls. We therefore investigated heart muscle samples taken from patients undergoing valve replacement for aortic stenosis, since they have pressure overload that is unrelated to inherited cardiomyopathy. Thirteen muscle samples from septum and from free wall were analyzed (LVOT gradients 30-100 mmHg) The levels of TnI and MyBP-C phosphorylation were determined in muscle myofibrils by separating phosphospecies using phosphate affinity SDS-PAGE and detecting with TnI and MyBP-C specific antibodies. TnI was predominantly monophosphorylated and total phosphorylation was 0.85 ± 0.03 molsPi/mol TnI. This phosphorylation level was significantly different (<i>p</i> < 0.0001) from both donor heart TnI (1.6 ± 0.06 molsPi/mol TnI) and HOCM heart TnI (0.19 ± 0.04 molsPi/mol TnI). MyBP-C is phosphorylated at up to four sites. In donor heart the 4P and 3P species predominate but in the pressure overload samples the 4P species was much reduced and 3P and 1P species predominated. Total phosphorylation was 2.0 ± 0.2 molsPi/mol MyBP-C (<i>n</i> = 8) compared with 3.4 ± 0.07 (<i>n</i> = 21) in donor heart and 1.1 ± 0.1 (<i>n</i> = 10) in HOCM heart. We conclude that pressure overload may be associated with substantial dephosphorylation of troponin I and MyBP-C.
Project description:cMyBP-C [cardiac (MyBP-C) myosin-binding protein-C)] is a sarcomeric protein involved both in thick filament structure and in the regulation of contractility. It is composed of eight IgI-like and three fibronectin-3-like domains (termed C0-C10). Mutations in the gene encoding cMyBP-C are a principal cause of HCM (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). cMyBP-C binds to the LMM (light meromyosin) portion of the myosin rod via its C-terminal domain, C10. We investigated this interaction in detail to determine whether HCM mutations in beta myosin heavy chain located within the LMM portion alter the binding of cMyBP-C, and to define the precise region of LMM that binds C10 to aid in developing models of the arrangement of MyBP-C on the thick filament. In co-sedimentation experiments recombinant C10 bound full-length LMM with a K(d) of 3.52 microM and at a stoichiometry of 1.14 C10 per LMM. C10 was also shown to bind with similar affinity to LMM containing either the HCM mutations A1379T or S1776G, suggesting that these HCM mutations do not perturb C10 binding. Using a range of N-terminally truncated LMM fragments, the cMyBP-C-binding site on LMM was shown to lie between residues 1554 and 1581. Since it had been reported previously that acidic residues on myosin mediate the C10 interaction, three clusters of acidic amino acids (Glu1554/Glu1555, Glu1571/Glu1573 and Glu1578/Asp1580/Glu1581/Glu1582) were mutated in full-length LMM and the proteins tested for C10 binding. No effect of these mutations on C10 binding was however detected. We interpret our results with respect to the localization of the proposed trimeric collar on the thick filament.
Project description:To elucidate the role of cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (MyBP-C) in myocardial structure and function, we have produced mice expressing altered forms of this sarcomere protein. The engineered mutations encode truncated forms of MyBP-C in which the cardiac myosin heavy chain-binding and titin-binding domain has been replaced with novel amino acid residues. Analogous heterozygous defects in humans cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Mice that are homozygous for the mutated MyBP-C alleles express less than 10% of truncated protein in M-bands of otherwise normal sarcomeres. Homozygous mice bearing mutated MyBP-C alleles are viable but exhibit neonatal onset of a progressive dilated cardiomyopathy with prominent histopathology of myocyte hypertrophy, myofibrillar disarray, fibrosis, and dystrophic calcification. Echocardiography of homozygous mutant mice showed left ventricular dilation and reduced contractile function at birth; myocardial hypertrophy increased as the animals matured. Left-ventricular pressure-volume analyses in adult homozygous mutant mice demonstrated depressed systolic contractility with diastolic dysfunction. These data revise our understanding of the role that MyBP-C plays in myofibrillogenesis during cardiac development and indicate the importance of this protein for long-term sarcomere function and normal cardiac morphology. We also propose that mice bearing homozygous familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-causing mutations may provide useful tools for predicting the severity of disease that these mutations will cause in humans.
Project description:Myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) is a thick filament protein involved in the regulation of muscle contraction. Mutations in the gene for MyBP-C are the second most frequent cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. MyBP-C binds to myosin with two binding sites, one at its C-terminus and another at its N-terminus. The N-terminal binding site, consisting of immunoglobulin domains C1 and C2 connected by a flexible linker, interacts with the S2 segment of myosin in a phosphorylation-regulated manner. It is assumed that the function of MyBP-C is to act as a tether that fixes the S1 heads in a resting position and that phosphorylation releases the S1 heads into an active state. Here, we report the structure and binding properties of domain C1. Using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and NMR interaction experiments, we identified the binding site of domain C1 in the immediate vicinity of the S1-S2 hinge, very close to the light chains. In addition, we identified a zinc binding site on domain C1 in close proximity to the S2 binding site. Its zinc binding affinity (K(d) of approximately 10-20 microM) might not be sufficient for a physiological effect. However, the familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-related mutation of one of the zinc ligands, glutamine 210 to histidine, will significantly increase the binding affinity, suggesting that this mutation may affect S2 binding. The close proximity of the C1 binding site to the hinge, the light chains and the S1 heads also provides an explanation for recent observations that (a) shorter fragments of MyBP-C unable to act as a tether still have an effect on the actomyosin ATPase and (b) as to why the myosin head positions in phosphorylated wild-type mice and MyBP-C knockout mice are so different: Domain C1 bound to the S1-S2 hinge is able to manipulate S1 head positions, thus influencing force generation without tether. The potentially extensive extra interactions of C1 are expected to keep it in place, while phosphorylation dislodges the C1-C2 linker and domain C2. As a result, the myosin heads would always be attached to a tether that has phosphorylation-dependent length regulation.