SD-208, a novel protein kinase D inhibitor, blocks prostate cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest.
ABSTRACT: Protein kinase D (PKD) has been implicated in many aspects of tumorigenesis and progression, and is an emerging molecular target for the development of anticancer therapy. Despite recent advancement in the development of potent and selective PKD small molecule inhibitors, the availability of in vivo active PKD inhibitors remains sparse. In this study, we describe the discovery of a novel PKD small molecule inhibitor, SD-208, from a targeted kinase inhibitor library screen, and the synthesis of a series of analogs to probe the structure-activity relationship (SAR) vs. PKD1. SD-208 displayed a narrow SAR profile, was an ATP-competitive pan-PKD inhibitor with low nanomolar potency and was cell active. Targeted inhibition of PKD by SD-208 resulted in potent inhibition of cell proliferation, an effect that could be reversed by overexpressed PKD1 or PKD3. SD-208 also blocked prostate cancer cell survival and invasion, and arrested cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Mechanistically, SD-208-induced G2/M arrest was accompanied by an increase in levels of p21 in DU145 and PC3 cells as well as elevated phosphorylation of Cdc2 and Cdc25C in DU145 cells. Most importantly, SD-208 given orally for 24 days significantly abrogated the growth of PC3 subcutaneous tumor xenografts in nude mice, which was accompanied by reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis and decreased expression of PKD biomarkers including survivin and Bcl-xL. Our study has identified SD-208 as a novel efficacious PKD small molecule inhibitor, demonstrating the therapeutic potential of targeted inhibition of PKD for prostate cancer treatment.
Project description:The emergence of protein kinase D (PKD) as a potential therapeutic target for several diseases including cancer has triggered the search for potent, selective, and cell-permeable small molecule inhibitors. In this study, we describe the identification, in vitro characterization, structure-activity analysis, and biological evaluation of a novel PKD inhibitory scaffold exemplified by 1-naphthyl PP1 (1-NA-PP1). 1-NA-PP1 and IKK-16 were identified as pan-PKD inhibitors in a small-scale targeted kinase inhibitor library assay. Both screening hits inhibited PKD isoforms at about 100 nM and were ATP-competitive inhibitors. Analysis of several related kinases indicated that 1-NA-PP1 was highly selective for PKD as compared to IKK-16. SAR analysis showed that 1-NA-PP1 was considerably more potent and showed distinct substituent effects at the pyrazolopyrimidine core. 1-NA-PP1 was cell-active, and potently blocked prostate cancer cell proliferation by inducing G2/M arrest. It also potently blocked the migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells, demonstrating promising anticancer activities on multiple fronts. Overexpression of PKD1 or PKD3 almost completely reversed the growth arrest and the inhibition of tumor cell invasion caused by 1-NA-PP1, indicating that its anti-proliferative and anti-invasive activities were mediated through the inhibition of PKD. Interestingly, a 12-fold increase in sensitivity to 1-NA-PP1 could be achieved by engineering a gatekeeper mutation in the active site of PKD1, suggesting that 1-NA-PP1 could be paired with the analog-sensitive PKD1(M659G) for dissecting PKD-specific functions and signaling pathways in various biological systems.
Project description:Protein kinase D (PKD) is a member of a novel family of serine/threonine kinases that regulate fundamental cellular processes. PKD is implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. Progress in understanding the biological functions and therapeutic potential of PKD has been hampered by the lack of specific inhibitors. The benzoxoloazepinolone CID755673 was recently identified as the first potent and selective PKD inhibitor. The study of structure-activity relationships (SAR) of this lead structure led to further improvements in PKD1 potency. We describe herein the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel benzothienothiazepinone analogs. We achieved a ten-fold increase in the in vitro PKD1 inhibitory potency for the second generation lead kb-NB142-70 and accomplished a transition to an almost equally potent novel pyrimidine scaffold, while maintaining excellent target selectivity. These promising results will guide the design of pharmacological tools to dissect PKD function and pave the way for the development of potential anti-cancer agents.
Project description:Protein kinase D (PKD) is a novel family of serine/threonine kinases targeted by the second messenger diacylglycerol. It has been implicated in many important cellular processes and pathological conditions. However, further analysis of PKD in these processes is severely hampered by the lack of a PKD-specific inhibitor that can be readily applied to cells and in animal models. We now report the discovery of the first potent and selective cell-active small molecule inhibitor for PKD, benzoxoloazepinolone (CID755673). This inhibitor was identified from the National Institutes of Health small molecule repository library of 196,173 compounds using a human PKD1 (PKCmu)-based fluorescence polarization high throughput screening assay. CID755673 suppressed half of the PKD1 enzyme activity at 182 nm and exhibited selective PKD1 inhibition when compared with AKT, polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), CDK activating kinase (CAK), CAMKIIalpha, and three different PKC isoforms. Moreover, it was not competitive with ATP for enzyme inhibition. In cell-based assays, CID755673 blocked phorbol ester-induced endogenous PKD1 activation in LNCaP cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Functionally, CID755673 inhibited the known biological actions of PKD1 including phorbol ester-induced class IIa histone deacetylase 5 nuclear exclusion, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane, and the ilimaquinone-induced Golgi fragmentation. Moreover, CID755673 inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation, cell migration, and invasion. In summary, our findings indicate that CID755673 is a potent and selective PKD1 inhibitor with valuable pharmacological and cell biological potential.
Project description:Protein kinase D (PKD) family members are increasingly implicated in multiple normal and abnormal biological functions, including signaling pathways that promote mitogenesis in pancreatic cancer. However, nothing is known about the effects of targeting PKD in pancreatic cancer. Our PKD inhibitor discovery program identified CRT0066101 as a specific inhibitor of all PKD isoforms. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of CRT0066101 in pancreatic cancer. Initially, we showed that autophosphorylated PKD1 and PKD2 (activated PKD1/2) are significantly upregulated in pancreatic cancer and that PKD1/2 are expressed in multiple pancreatic cancer cell lines. Using Panc-1 as a model system, we showed that CRT0066101 reduced bromodeoxyuridine incorporation; increased apoptosis; blocked neurotensin-induced PKD1/2 activation; reduced neurotensin-induced, PKD-mediated Hsp27 phosphorylation; attenuated PKD1-mediated NF-kappaB activation; and abrogated the expression of NF-kappaB-dependent proliferative and prosurvival proteins. We showed that CRT0066101 given orally (80 mg/kg/d) for 24 days significantly abrogated pancreatic cancer growth in Panc-1 subcutaneous xenograft model. Activated PKD1/2 expression in the treated tumor explants was significantly inhibited with peak tumor concentration (12 micromol/L) of CRT0066101 achieved within 2 hours after oral administration. Further, we showed that CRT0066101 given orally (80 mg/kg/d) for 21 days in Panc-1 orthotopic model potently blocked tumor growth in vivo. CRT0066101 significantly reduced Ki-67-positive proliferation index (P < 0.01), increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive apoptotic cells (P < 0.05), and abrogated the expression of NF-kappaB-dependent proteins including cyclin D1, survivin, and cIAP-1. Our results show for the first time that a PKD-specific small-molecule inhibitor CRT0066101 blocks pancreatic cancer growth in vivo and show that PKD is a novel therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.
Project description:Protein kinase D (PKD) has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in multiple pathological conditions, including cancer and heart diseases. Potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of PKD are valuable for dissecting PKD-mediated cellular signaling pathways and for therapeutic application. In this study, we evaluated a targeted library of 235 small organic kinase inhibitors for PKD1 inhibitory activity at a single concentration. Twenty-eight PKD inhibitory chemotypes were identified and six exhibited excellent PKD1 selectivity. Five of the six lead structures share a common scaffold, with compound 139 being the most potent and selective for PKD vs PKC and CAMK. Compound 139 was an ATP-competitive PKD1 inhibitor with a low double-digit nanomolar potency and was also cell-active. Kinase profiling analysis identified this class of small molecules as pan-PKD inhibitors, confirmed their selectivity again PKC and CAMK, and demonstrated an overall favorable selectivity profile that could be further enhanced through structural modification. Furthermore, using a PKD homology model based on similar protein kinase structures, docking modes for compound 139 were explored and compared to literature examples of PKD inhibition. Modeling of these compounds at the ATP-binding site of PKD was used to rationalize its high potency and provide the foundation for future further optimization. Accordingly, using biochemical screening of a small number of privileged scaffolds and computational modeling, we have identified a new core structure for highly potent PKD inhibition with promising selectivity against closely related kinases. These lead structures represent an excellent starting point for the further optimization and the design of selective and therapeutically effective small molecule inhibitors of PKD.
Project description:Before entering mitosis, the stacks of the Golgi cisternae are separated from each other, and inhibiting this process delays entry of mammalian cells into mitosis. Protein kinase D (PKD) is known to be involved in Golgi-to-cell surface transport by controlling the biogenesis of specific transport carriers. Here we show that depletion of PKD1 and PKD2 proteins from HeLa cells by small interfering RNA leads to the accumulation of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and prevents cells from entering mitosis. We further provide evidence that inhibition of PKD blocks mitotic Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) activation, and, as a consequence, mitotic Golgi fragmentation, which could be rescued by expression of active MEK1. Finally, Golgi fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analyses demonstrate that PKD is crucial for the cleavage of the noncompact zones of Golgi membranes in G2 phase. Our findings suggest that PKD controls interstack Golgi connections in a Raf-1/MEK1-dependent manner, a process required for entry of the cells into mitosis.
Project description:Histone deacetylases (HDACs), especially HDAC1, 2, 3 and 4, are abundantly expressed and over-activated in prostate cancer that is correlated with the poor prognosis. Thus, inhibition of HDAC activity has emerged as a potential alternative option for prostate cancer therapy. Chromopeptide A is a depsipeptide isolated from the marine sediment-derived bacterium Chromobacterium sp. HS-13-94; it has a chemical structure highly similar to FK228, a class I HDAC inhibitor that is approved by FDA for treating T-cell lymphoma. In this study, we determined whether chromopeptide A, like FK228, acted as a class I HDAC inhibitor, and whether chromopeptide A could inhibit the growth and migration of human prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. HDAC enzyme selectivity and kinetic analysis revealed that chromopeptide A selectively inhibited the enzymatic activities of HDAC1, 2, 3 and 8 in a substrate non-competitive manner with comparable IC50 values for each HDAC member as FK228 in vitro. Importantly, chromopeptide A dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines PC3, DU145 and LNCaP with IC50 values of 2.43±0.02, 2.08±0.16, and 1.75±0.06 nmol/L, respectively, accompanied by dose-dependent inhibition of HDAC enzymatic activity in PC3 and DU145 cells. Chromopeptide A (0.2-50 nmol/L) caused G2/M phase arrest and induced apoptosis in the prostate cancer cell lines. Moreover, chromopeptide A dose-dependently inhibited the migration of PC3 cells. In mice bearing PC3 prostate cancer xenografts, intravenous injection of chromopeptide A (1.6, 3.2 mg/kg, once a week for 18 d) significantly suppressed the tumor growth, which was associated with increased expression levels of Ac-H3 and p21 in tumor tissues. Our results identify chromopeptide A as a novel class I HDAC inhibitor and provide therapeutic strategies that may be implemented in prostate cancer.
Project description:We examined whether protein kinase D1 (PKD1) mediates negative feeback of PI3K/Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells stimulated with G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists. Exposure of intestinal epithelial IEC-18 cells to increasing concentrations of the PKD family inhibitor kb NB 142-70, at concentrations that inhibited PKD1 activation, strikingly potentiated Akt phosphorylation at Thr(308) and Ser(473) in response to the mitogenic GPCR agonist angiotensin II (ANG II). Enhancement of Akt activation by kb NB 142-70 was also evident in cells with other GPCR agonists, including vasopressin and lysophosphatidic acid. Cell treatment with the structurally unrelated PKD family inhibitor CRT0066101 increased Akt phosphorylation as potently as kb NB 142-70 [corrected]. Knockdown of PKD1 with two different siRNAs strikingly enhanced Akt phosphorylation in response to ANG II stimulation in IEC-18 cells. To determine whether treatment with kb NB 142-70 enhances accumulation of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) in the plasma membrane, we monitored the redistribution of Akt-pleckstrin homology domain-green fluorescent protein (Akt-PH-GFP) in single IEC-18 cells. Exposure to kb NB 142-70 strikingly increased membrane accumulation of Akt-PH-GFP in response to ANG II. The translocation of the PIP3 sensor to the plasma membrane and the phosphorylation of Akt was completed prevented by prior exposure to the class I p110? specific inhibitor A66. ANG II markedly increased the phosphorylation of p85? detected by a PKD motif-specific antibody and enhanced the association of p85? with PTEN. Transgenic mice overexpressing PKD1 showed a reduced phosphorylation of Akt at Ser(473) in intestinal epithelial cells compared to wild type littermates. Collectively these results indicate that PKD1 activation mediates feedback inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Protein kinase D (PKD) is a novel family of serine/threonine kinases regulated by diacylglycerol, which is involved in multiple cellular processes and various pathological conditions. The limited number of cell-active, selective inhibitors has historically restricted biochemical and pharmacological studies of PKD. We now markedly expand the PKD1 inhibitory chemotype inventory with eleven additional novel small molecule PKD1 inhibitors derived from our high throughput screening campaigns. The in vitro IC(50)s for these eleven compounds ranged in potency from 0.4 to 6.1 µM with all of the evaluated compounds being competitive with ATP. Three of the inhibitors (CID 1893668, (1Z)-1-(3-ethyl-5-methoxy-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylidene)propan-2-one; CID 2011756, 5-(3-chlorophenyl)-N-[4-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)phenyl]furan-2-carboxamide; CID 5389142, (6Z)-6-[4-(3-aminopropylamino)-6-methyl-1H-pyrimidin-2-ylidene]cyclohexa-2,4-dien-1-one) inhibited phorbol ester-induced endogenous PKD1 activation in LNCaP prostate cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The specificity of these compounds for PKD1 inhibitory activity was supported by kinase assay counter screens as well as by bioinformatics searches. Moreover, computational analyses of these novel cell-active PKD1 inhibitors indicated that they were structurally distinct from the previously described cell-active PKD1 inhibitors while computational docking of the new cell-active compounds in a highly conserved ATP-binding cleft suggests opportunities for structural modification. In summary, we have discovered novel PKD1 inhibitors with in vitro and cell-based inhibitory activity, thus successfully expanding the structural diversity of small molecule inhibitors available for this important pharmacological target.
Project description:Polycystic kidney diseases (PKD) are genetic disorders characterized by progressive epithelial cyst growth leading to destruction of normally functioning renal tissue. Current therapies have focused on the cyst epithelium, and little is known about how the blood and lymphatic microvasculature modulates cystogenesis. Hypomorphic Pkd1(nl/nl) mice were examined, showing that cystogenesis was associated with a disorganized pericystic network of vessels expressing platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3). The major ligand for VEGFR3 is VEGFC, and there were lower levels of Vegfc mRNA within the kidneys during the early stages of cystogenesis in 7-day-old Pkd1(nl/nl) mice. Seven-day-old mice were treated with exogenous VEGFC for 2 weeks on the premise that this would remodel both the VEGFR3(+) pericystic vascular network and larger renal lymphatics that may also affect the severity of PKD. Treatment with VEGFC enhanced VEGFR3 phosphorylation in the kidney, normalized the pattern of the pericystic network of vessels, and widened the large lymphatics in Pkd1(nl/nl) mice. These effects were associated with significant reductions in cystic disease, BUN and serum creatinine levels. Furthermore, VEGFC administration reduced M2 macrophage pericystic infiltrate, which has been implicated in the progression of PKD. VEGFC administration also improved cystic disease in Cys1(cpk/cpk) mice, a model of autosomal recessive PKD, leading to a modest but significant increase in lifespan. Overall, this study highlights VEGFC as a potential new treatment for some aspects of PKD, with the possibility for synergy with current epithelially targeted approaches.