Structural basis for acceptor-substrate recognition of UDP-glucose: anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase from Clitoria ternatea.
ABSTRACT: UDP-glucose: anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UGT78K6) from Clitoria ternatea catalyzes the transfer of glucose from UDP-glucose to anthocyanidins such as delphinidin. After the acylation of the 3-O-glucosyl residue, the 3'- and 5'-hydroxyl groups of the product are further glucosylated by a glucosyltransferase in the biosynthesis of ternatins, which are anthocyanin pigments. To understand the acceptor-recognition scheme of UGT78K6, the crystal structure of UGT78K6 and its complex forms with anthocyanidin delphinidin and petunidin, and flavonol kaempferol were determined to resolutions of 1.85 Å, 2.55 Å, 2.70 Å, and 1.75 Å, respectively. The enzyme recognition of unstable anthocyanidin aglycones was initially observed in this structural determination. The anthocyanidin- and flavonol-acceptor binding details are almost identical in each complex structure, although the glucosylation activities against each acceptor were significantly different. The 3-hydroxyl groups of the acceptor substrates were located at hydrogen-bonding distances to the N?2 atom of the His17 catalytic residue, supporting a role for glucosyl transfer to the 3-hydroxyl groups of anthocyanidins and flavonols. However, the molecular orientations of these three acceptors are different from those of the known flavonoid glycosyltransferases, VvGT1 and UGT78G1. The acceptor substrates in UGT78K6 are reversely bound to its binding site by a 180° rotation about the O1-O3 axis of the flavonoid backbones observed in VvGT1 and UGT78G1; consequently, the 5- and 7-hydroxyl groups are protected from glucosylation. These substrate recognition schemes are useful to understand the unique reaction mechanism of UGT78K6 for the ternatin biosynthesis, and suggest the potential for controlled synthesis of natural pigments.
Project description:Flowers of the butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) accumulate a group of polyacylated anthocyanins, named ternatins, in their petals. The first step in ternatin biosynthesis is the transfer of glucose from UDP-glucose to anthocyanidins such as delphinidin, a reaction catalyzed in C. ternatea by UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase (Ct3GT-A; AB185904). To elucidate the structure-function relationship of Ct3GT-A, recombinant Ct3GT-A was expressed in Escherichia coli and its tertiary structure was determined to 1.85 Å resolution by using X-ray crystallography. The structure of Ct3GT-A shows a common folding topology, the GT-B fold, comprised of two Rossmann-like β/α/β domains and a cleft located between the N- and C-domains containing two cavities that are used as binding sites for the donor (UDP-Glc) and acceptor substrates. By comparing the structure of Ct3GT-A with that of the flavonoid glycosyltransferase VvGT1 from red grape (Vitis vinifera) in complex with UDP-2-deoxy-2-fluoro glucose and kaempferol, locations of the catalytic His-Asp dyad and the residues involved in recognizing UDP-2-deoxy-2-fluoro glucose were essentially identical in Ct3GT-A, but certain residues of VvGT1 involved in binding kaempferol were found to be substituted in Ct3GT-A. These findings are important for understanding the differentiation of acceptor-substrate recognition in these two enzymes.
Project description:Anthocyanidins are bioactive compounds found mostly in colored plants and fruits. Consumption of anthocyanidin-rich foods has been shown to reduce the risk of diabetes. However, limited information is available regarding the inhibitory effect and interactions of anthocyanidins on ?-glucosidase, the key enzyme that controls diabetes through degrading carbohydrate. Therefore, we used computational docking analysis to investigate the degree and type of inhibition by ?-glucosidase, and the structural interactions of enzyme-selected anthocyanidins. The results suggested that anthocyanidins exhibit half maximal inhibitory concentration of 4?55 ?M; the strongest and weakest ?-glucosidase inhibitors were delphinidin and malvidin, respectively. Indeed, delphinidin inhibits ?-glucosidase in a mixed type, close to non-competitive manner with an inhibitory constant of 78 nM. Addition of a glycoside (glucoside or galactoside) at C3 on the C ring of delphinidin significantly decreased inhibitory activity, and addition of glycosides at C3 on the C ring and C5 on the A ring of delphinidin prevented all inhibitory activity. Molecular docking and free binding energy accurately confirmed the mode of inhibition determined by enzyme kinetics. These data will inform the use of alternative sources of anthocyanidins in functional foods and dietary supplements for prevention of diabetes. The results provide useful information for evaluating possible molecular models using anthocyanins/anthocyanidins as templates and ?-glucosidase as the key enzyme in management of diabetes.
Project description:Flavonols and anthocyanins are two widely distributed groups of flavonoids that occurred apart during plant evolution and biosynthesized by shared specific enzymes involved in flavonoid metabolism. UDP-glucose, flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UF3GT), is one of the common enzymes which could catalyze the glycosylation of both flavonol and anthocyanidin aglycons simultaneously in vitro. However, whether and how UF3GT paralogous genes function diversely at the biochemical and transcriptional levels are largely unknown. Recently, Fh3GT1 was identified to be a member of UF3GTs in Freesia hybrida. However, its expression patterns and enzymatic characteristics could not coincide well with flavonol accumulation. In an attempt to characterize other flavonoids, especially flavonol glycosyltransferase genes in Freesia, three closest candidate UFGT genes-Fh3GT2, Fh3GT3, and Fh3GT4-were mined from the Freesia transcriptomic database and isolated from the flowers of the widely distributed Freesia cultivar, Red River®. Based on bioinformatic analysis and enzymatic assays, Fh3GT2 turned out to be another bona fide glycosyltransferase gene. Biochemical analysis further proved that Fh3GT2 preferentially glucosylated kaempferol while Fh3GT1 controlled the glucosylation of quercetin and anthocyanidins. In addition, transfection assays demonstrated that Fh3GT2 could be mainly activated by the flavonol regulator FhMYBF1 or the anthocyanin regulator FhPAP1, whereas Fh3GT1 could only be activated by FhPAP1. These findings suggested that Fh3GTs might have functionally diverged in flavonoid biosynthesis at both the biochemical and transcriptional levels.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects over 320 million people worldwide. Healthy lifestyles, improved drugs and effective nutraceuticals are different components of a response against the growing T2D epidemic. The specialized metabolite montbretin A (MbA) is being developed for treatment of T2D and obesity due to its unique pharmacological activity as a highly effective and selective inhibitor of the human pancreatic ?-amylase. MbA is an acylated flavonol glycoside found in small amounts in montbretia (Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora) corms. MbA cannot be obtained in sufficient quantities for drug development from its natural source or by chemical synthesis. To overcome these limitations through metabolic engineering, we are investigating the genes and enzymes of MbA biosynthesis. We previously reported the first three steps of MbA biosynthesis from myricetin to myricetin 3-O-(6'-O-caffeoyl)-glucosyl rhamnoside (mini-MbA). Here, we describe the sequence of reactions from mini-MbA to MbA, and the discovery and characterization of the gene and enzyme responsible for the glucosylation of mini-MbA. The UDP-dependent glucosyltransferase CcUGT3 (UGT703E1) catalyzes the 1,2-glucosylation of mini-MbA to produce myricetin 3-O-(glucosyl-6'-O-caffeoyl)-glucosyl rhamnoside. Co-expression of CcUGT3 with genes for myricetin and mini-MbA biosynthesis in Nicotiana benthamiana validated its biological function and expanded the set of genes available for metabolic engineering of MbA.
Project description:UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) is a key enzyme for anthocyanin biosynthesis, which by catalyzing glycosylation of anthocyanidins increases their solubility and accumulation in plants. Previously we showed that pre-harvest spray of CaCl2 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in strawberry fruit by stimulating the expression of anthocyanin structural genes including a fruit specific FvUGT1.To further understand the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis, we conducted kinetic analysis of recombinant FvUGT1 on glycosylation of pelargonidin, the major anthocyanidin in strawberry fruit. At the fixed pelargonidin concentration, FvUGT1 catalyzed the sugar transfer from UDP-glucose basically following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. By contrast, at the fixed UDP-glucose concentration, pelargonidin over 150 ?M exhibited marked partial substrate inhibition in an uncompetitive mode. These results suggest that the sugar acceptor at high concentration inhibits FvUGT1 activity by binding to another site in addition to the catalytic site. Furthermore, calcium/calmodulin specifically bound FvUGT1 at a site partially overlapping with the interdomain linker, and significantly relieved the substrate inhibition. In the presence of 0.1 and 0.5 ?M calmodulin, V max was increased by 71.4 and 327 %, respectively.FvUGT1 activity is inhibited by anthocyanidin, the sugar acceptor substrate, and calcium/calmodulin binding to FvUGT1 enhances anthocyanin accumulation via alleviation of this substrate inhibition.
Project description:Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.
Project description:UGT79B31 encodes flavonol 3- O -glycoside: 2?- O -glucosyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for the terminal modification of pollen-specific flavonols in Petunia hybrida. Flavonoids are known to be involved in pollen fertility in petunia (P. hybrida) and maize (Zea mays). As a first step toward elucidating the role of flavonoids in pollen, we have identified a glycosyltransferase that is responsible for the terminal modification of petunia pollen-specific flavonoids. An in silico search of the petunia transcriptome database revealed four candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes. UGT79B31 was selected for further analyses based on a correlation between the accumulation pattern of flavonol glycosides in various tissues and organs and the expression profiles of the candidate genes. Arabidopsis ugt79b6 mutants that lacked kaempferol/quercetin 3-O-glucosyl(1 ? 2)glucosides, were complemented by transformation with UGT79B31 cDNA under the control of Arabidopsis UGT79B6 promoter, showing that UGT79B31 functions as a flavonol 3-O-glucoside: 2?-O-glucosyltransferase in planta. Recombinant UGT79B31 protein can convert kaempferol 3-O-galactoside/glucoside to kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl(1 ? 2)galactoside/glucoside. UGT79B31 prefers flavonol 3-O-galactosides to the 3-O-glucosides and rarely accepted the 3-O-diglycosides as sugar acceptors. UDP-glucose was the preferred sugar donor for UGT79B31. These results indicated that UGT79B31 encodes a flavonoid 3-O-glycoside: 2?-O-glucosyltransferase. Transient expression of UGT79B31 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in Nicotiana benthamiana showed that UGT79B31 protein was localized in the cytosol.
Project description:The glycosylation of flavonoids increases their solubility and stability in plants. Flowers accumulate anthocyanidin and flavonol glycosides which are synthesized by UDP-sugar flavonoid glycosyltransferases (UFGTs). In our previous study, a cDNA clone (Fh3GT1) encoding UFGT was isolated from Freesia hybrida, which was preliminarily proved to be invovled in cyanidin 3-O-glucoside biosynthesis. Here, a variety of anthocyanin and flavonol glycosides were detected in flowers and other tissues of F. hybrida, implying the versatile roles of Fh3GT1 in flavonoids biosynthesis. To further unravel its multi-functional roles, integrative analysis between gene expression and metabolites was investigated. The results showed expression of Fh3GT1 was positively related to the accumulation of anthocyanins and flavonol glycosides, suggesting its potential roles in the biosynthesis of both flavonoid glycosides. Subsequently, biochemical analysis results revealed that a broad range of flavonoid substrates including flavonoid not naturally occurred in F. hybrida could be recognized by the recombinant Fh3GT1. Both UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose could be used as sugar donors by recombinant Fh3GT1, although UDP-galactose was transferred with relatively low activity. Furthermore, regiospecificity analysis demonstrated that Fh3GT1 was able to glycosylate delphinidin at the 3-, 4-', and 7- positions in a sugar-dependent manner. And the introduction of Fh3GT1 into Arabidopsis UGT78D2 mutant successfully restored the anthocyanins and flavonols phenotypes caused by lost-of-function of the 3GT, indicating that Fh3GT1 functions as a flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase in vivo. In summary, these results demonstrate that Fh3GT1 is a flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase using UDP-glucose as the preferred sugar donor and may involve in flavonoid glycosylation in F. hybrida.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that anthocyanidins play a pivotal role in the chemopreventive effects of fruits and vegetables. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and cellular targets remain unknown. Neoplastic transformation of cells and inflammation are considered to be major events contributing to carcinogenesis. Here, we report that delphinidin, a major dietary anthocyanidin, inhibits tumor promoter-induced transformation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in JB6 promotion-sensitive mouse skin epidermal (JB6 P+) cells by directly targeting Raf and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK). Delphinidin inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced neoplastic transformation and COX-2 expression at both the protein and transcriptional levels. The activation of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB induced by TPA was dose dependently inhibited by delphinidin treatment. Delphinidin strongly suppressed Raf1 and MEK1 kinase activities and subsequently attenuated TPA-induced phosphorylation of MEK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p90RSK, and MSK. Although delphinidin suppressed ERK and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activities, it was more effective at inhibiting Raf1 or MEK1 activities. Pull-down and competition assays revealed that delphinidin binds with Raf1 or MEK1 noncompetitively with ATP. Delphinidin also dose dependently suppressed JB6 P+ cell transformation induced by epidermal growth factor and H-Ras, both of which are involved in the activation of Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. Together, these findings suggested that the targeted inhibition of Raf1 and MEK activities and COX-2 expression by delphinidin contribute to the chemopreventive potential of fruits and vegetables.
Project description:Iridoids are one of the most widely distributed secondary metabolites in higher plants. They are pharmacologically active principles in various medicinal plants and key intermediates in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids as well as quinoline alkaloids. Although most iridoids are present as 1-O-glucosides, the glucosylation step in the biosynthetic pathway has remained obscure. We isolated a cDNA coding for UDP-glucose:iridoid glucosyltransferase (UGT85A24) from Gardenia jasminoides. UGT85A24 preferentially glucosylated the 1-O-hydroxyl group of 7-deoxyloganetin and genipin but exhibited only weak activity toward loganetin and no activity toward 7-deoxyloganetic acid. This suggests that, in the biosynthetic pathway of geniposide, a major iridoid compound in G. jasminoides, glucosylation occurs after methylation of 7-deoxyloganetic acid. UGT85A24 showed negligible activity toward any acceptor substrates other than iridoid aglycones. Thus, UGT85A24 has a remarkable specificity for iridoid aglycones. The mRNA level of UGT85A24 overlaps with the marked increase in genipin glucosylation activity in the methyl jasmonate-treated cell cultures of G. jasminoides and is related to iridoid accumulation in G. jasminoides fruits.