Protease 3C of hepatitis A virus induces vacuolization of lysosomal/endosomal organelles and caspase-independent cell death.
ABSTRACT: 3C proteases, the main proteases of picornaviruses, play the key role in viral life cycle by processing polyproteins. In addition, 3C proteases digest certain host cell proteins to suppress antiviral defense, transcription, and translation. The activity of 3C proteases per se induces host cell death, which makes them critical factors of viral cytotoxicity. To date, cytotoxic effects have been studied for several 3C proteases, all of which induce apoptosis. This study for the first time describes the cytotoxic effect of 3C protease of human hepatitis A virus (3Cpro), the only proteolytic enzyme of the virus.Individual expression of 3Cpro induced catalytic activity-dependent cell death, which was not abrogated by the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) and was not accompanied by phosphatidylserine externalization in contrast to other picornaviral 3C proteases. The cell survival was also not affected by the inhibitors of cysteine proteases (z-FA-fmk) and RIP1 kinase (necrostatin-1), critical enzymes involved in non-apoptotic cell death. A substantial fraction of dying cells demonstrated numerous non-acidic cytoplasmic vacuoles with not previously described features and originating from several types of endosomal/lysosomal organelles. The lysosomal protein Lamp1 and GTPases Rab5, Rab7, Rab9, and Rab11 were associated with the vacuolar membranes. The vacuolization was completely blocked by the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor (bafilomycin A1) and did not depend on the activity of the principal factors of endosomal transport, GTPases Rab5 and Rab7, as well as on autophagy and macropinocytosis.3Cpro, apart from other picornaviral 3C proteases, induces caspase-independent cell death, accompanying by cytoplasmic vacuolization. 3Cpro-induced vacuoles have unique properties and are formed from several organelle types of the endosomal/lysosomal compartment. The data obtained demonstrate previously undocumented morphological characters of the 3Cpro-induced cell death, which can reflect unknown aspects of the human hepatitis A virus-host cell interaction.
Project description:Apoptosis and programmed necrosis (necroptosis) determine cell fate, and antagonize infection. Execution of these complementary death pathways involves the formation of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) containing complexes. RIPK1 binds to adaptor proteins, such as TRIF (Toll-IL-1 receptor-domain-containing-adaptor-inducing interferon-beta factor), FADD (Fas-associated-protein with death domain), NEMO (NF-?B regulatory subunit IKK?), SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1/p62), or RIPK3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3), which are involved in RNA sensing, NF-?B signaling, autophagosome formation, apoptosis, and necroptosis. We report that a range of rhinoviruses impair apoptosis and necroptosis in epithelial cells late in infection. Unlike the double-strand (ds) RNA mimetic poly I:C (polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid), the exposure of dsRNA to toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in rhinovirus-infected cells did not lead to apoptosis execution. Accordingly, necroptosis and the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) were not observed late in infection, when RIPK3 was absent. Instead, a virus-induced alternative necrotic cell death pathway proceeded, which led to membrane rupture, indicated by propidium iodide staining. The impairment of dsRNA-induced apoptosis late in infection was controlled by the viral 3C-protease (3Cpro), which disrupted RIPK1-TRIF/FADD /SQSTM1 immune-complexes. 3Cpro and 3C precursors were found to coimmuno-precipitate with RIPK1, cleaving the RIPK1 death-domain, and generating N-terminal RIPK1 fragments. The depletion of RIPK1 or chemical inhibition of its kinase at the N-terminus did not interfere with virus progeny formation or cell fate. The data show that rhinoviruses suppress apoptosis and necroptosis, and release progeny by an alternative cell death pathway, which is controlled by viral proteases modifying innate immune complexes.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, which has been continuously prevalent in Asia in recent years. In children, severe cases can lead to death, and no prophylactic or therapeutic measures against EV71 infection are available. The 3C proteases of EV71 play an important role in viral replication and are an ideal drug target. In previous work, we resolved the crystal structure for EV71 3Cpro. In this report, we took advantage of the automated docking program AutoDock 4.0 to simulate EV71 3Cpro-ligand conformation. 7-hydroxyflavone (HF) and its phosphate ester(FIP) were predicted to bind with EV71 3Cpro.In an in vitro protease inhibition assay, FIP inhibited EV71 3Cpro protease activity. Both flavones were highly active against EV71, protecting cells from EV71 infection. Replication of viral RNA and formation of EV71 plaque were all strongly inhibited in cells. These results indicated that HF and FIP may serve as potential protective agents in the treatment of patients with chronic EV71 infection.
Project description:Senecavirus A (SVA), an oncolytic picornavirus used for cancer treatment in humans, has recently emerged as a vesicular disease (VD)-causing agent in swine worldwide. Notably, SVA-induced VD is indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and other high-consequence VDs of pigs. Here we investigated the role of apoptosis on infection and replication of SVA. Given the critical role of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) signaling pathway on modulation of cell death, we first assessed activation of NF-?B during SVA infection. Results here show that while early during infection SVA induces activation of NF-?B, as evidenced by nuclear translocation of NF-?B-p65 and NF-?B-mediated transcription, late in infection a cleaved product corresponding to the C-terminus of NF-?B-p65 is detected in infected cells, resulting in lower NF-?B transcriptional activity. Additionally, we assessed the potential role of SVA 3C protease (3Cpro) in SVA-induced host-cell apoptosis and cleavage of NF-?B-p65. Transient expression of SVA 3Cpro was associated with cleavage of NF-?B-p65 and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), suggesting its involvement in virus-induced apoptosis. Most importantly, we showed that while cleavage of NF-?B-p65 is secondary to caspase activation, the proteolytic activity of SVA 3Cpro is essential for induction of apoptosis. Experiments using the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK confirmed the relevance of late apoptosis for SVA infection, indicating that SVA induces apoptosis, presumably, as a mechanism to facilitate virus release and/or spread from infected cells. Together, these results suggest an important role of apoptosis for SVA infection biology.
Project description:Proteolytical cleavage of the picornaviral polyprotein is essential for viral replication. Therefore, viral proteases are attractive targets for anti-viral therapy. Most assays available for testing proteolytical activity of proteases are performed in vitro, using heterologously expressed proteases and peptide substrates. To deal with the disadvantages associated with in vitro assays, we modified a cell-based protease assay for picornavirus proteases. The assay is based on the induction of expression of a firefly luciferase reporter by a chimeric transcription factor in which the viral protease and cleavage sites are inserted between the GAL4 binding domain and the VP16 activation domain. Firefly luciferase expression is dependent on cleavage of the transcription factor by the viral protease. This biosafe assay enables testing the effect of compounds on protease activity in cells while circumventing the need for infection. We designed the assay for 3C proteases (3C(pro)) of various enteroviruses as well as of viruses of several other picornavirus genera, and show that the assay is amenable for use in a high-throughput setting. Furthermore, we show that the spectrum of activity of 3C(pro) inhibitor AG7088 (rupintrivir) not only encompasses enterovirus 3C(pro) but also 3C(pro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), an aphthovirus. In contrary, AG7404 (compound 1), an analogue of AG7088, had no effect on FMDV 3C(pro) activity, for which we provide a structural explanation.
Project description:The interferon-induced double-strand RNA activated protein kinase (PKR) plays important roles in host defense against viral infection. Here we demonstrate the significant antiviral role of PKR against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and report that FMDV infection inhibits PKR expression and activation in porcine kidney (PK-15) cells. The viral nonstructural protein 3C proteinase (3Cpro) is identified to be responsible for this inhibition. However, it is independent of the well-known proteinase activity of 3Cpro or 3Cpro-induced shutoff of host protein synthesis. We show that 3Cpro induces PKR degradation by lysosomal pathway and no interaction is determined between 3Cpro and PKR. Together, our results indicate that PKR acts an important antiviral factor during FMDV infection, and FMDV has evolved a strategy to overcome PKR-mediated antiviral role by downregulation of PKR protein.
Project description:Phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that some positive-sense RNA viruses can be classified into the picornavirus-like supercluster, which includes picornaviruses, caliciviruses, and coronaviruses. These viruses possess 3C or 3C-like proteases (3Cpro or 3CLpro, respectively), which contain a typical chymotrypsin-like fold and a catalytic triad (or dyad) with a Cys residue as a nucleophile. The conserved key sites of 3Cpro or 3CLpro may serve as attractive targets for the design of broad-spectrum antivirals for multiple viruses in the supercluster. We previously reported the structure-based design and synthesis of potent protease inhibitors of Norwalk virus (NV), a member of the Caliciviridae family. We report herein the broad-spectrum antiviral activities of three compounds possessing a common dipeptidyl residue with different warheads, i.e., an aldehyde (GC373), a bisulfite adduct (GC376), and an α-ketoamide (GC375), against viruses that belong to the supercluster. All compounds were highly effective against the majority of tested viruses, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations in the high nanomolar or low micromolar range in enzyme- and/or cell-based assays and with high therapeutic indices. We also report the high-resolution X-ray cocrystal structures of NV 3CLpro-, poliovirus 3Cpro-, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus 3CLpro- GC376 inhibitor complexes, which show the compound covalently bound to a nucleophilic Cys residue in the catalytic site of the corresponding protease. We conclude that these compounds have the potential to be developed as antiviral therapeutics aimed at a single virus or multiple viruses in the picornavirus-like supercluster by targeting 3Cpro or 3CLpro.
Project description:Hepatitis A is an acute infection caused by Hepatitis A virus (HAV), which is widely distributed throughout the world. The HAV 3C cysteine protease (3Cpro), an important nonstructural protein, is responsible for most cleavage within the viral polyprotein and is critical for the processes of viral replication. Our group has previously demonstrated that HAV 3Cpro cleaves human NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO), a kinase required in interferon signaling. Based on this finding, we generated four luciferase-based biosensors containing the NEMO sequence (PVLKAQ?ADIYKA) that is cleaved by HAV 3Cpro and/or the Nostoc punctiforme DnaE intein, to monitor the activity of HAV 3Cpro in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293T). Western blotting showed that HAV 3Cpro recognized and cleaved the NEMO cleavage sequence incorporated in the four biosensors, whereas only one cyclized luciferase-based biosensor (233-DnaE-HAV, 233DH) showed a measurable and reliable increase in firefly luciferase activity, with very low background, in the presence of HAV 3Cpro. With this biosensor (233DH), we monitored HAV 3Cpro activity in HEK-293T cells, and tested it against a catalytically deficient mutant HAV 3Cpro and other virus-encoded proteases. The results showed that the activity of this luciferase biosensor is specifically dependent on HAV 3Cpro. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the luciferase biosensor developed here might provide a rapid, sensitive, and efficient evaluation of HAV 3Cpro activity, and should extend our better understanding of the biological relevance of HAV 3Cpro.
Project description:Enteroviruses encode proteinases that are essential for processing of the translated viral polyprotein. In addition, viral proteinases also target host proteins to manipulate cellular processes and evade innate antiviral responses to promote replication and infection. Although some host protein substrates of enterovirus proteinases have been identified, the full repertoire of targets remains unknown. We used a novel quantitative in vitro proteomics-based approach, termed terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS), to identify with high confidence 72 and 34 new host protein targets of poliovirus and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) 3C proteinases (3Cpros) in HeLa cell and cardiomyocyte HL-1 cell lysates, respectively. We validated a subset of candidate substrates that are targets of poliovirus 3Cproin vitro including three common protein targets, phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthetase (PFAS), hnRNP K, and hnRNP M, of both proteinases. 3Cpro-targeted substrates were also cleaved in virus-infected cells but not noncleavable mutant proteins designed from the TAILS-identified cleavage sites. Knockdown of TAILS-identified target proteins modulated infection both negatively and positively, suggesting that cleavage by 3Cpro promotes infection. Indeed, expression of a cleavage-resistant mutant form of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi vesicle-tethering protein p115 decreased viral replication and yield. As the first comprehensive study to identify and validate functional enterovirus 3Cpro substrates in vivo, we conclude that N-terminomics by TAILS is an effective strategy to identify host targets of viral proteinases in a nonbiased manner.IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses that encode proteases that cleave the viral polyprotein into the individual mature viral proteins. In addition, viral proteases target host proteins in order to modulate cellular pathways and block antiviral responses in order to facilitate virus infection. Although several host protein targets have been identified, the entire list of proteins that are targeted is not known. In this study, we used a novel unbiased proteomics approach to identify ?100 novel host targets of the enterovirus 3C protease, thus providing further insights into the network of cellular pathways that are modulated to promote virus infection.
Project description:Defective biosynthesis of the phospholipid PI(3,5)P2 underlies neurological disorders characterized by cytoplasmic accumulation of large acidic vacuoles. To identify novel genetic causes of lysosomal vacuolization, we developed an assay for enlargement of the lysosome compartment that is amenable to cell sorting and pooled screens. After calibration on cells lacking FIG4, a known PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic factor, we carried out a genome-wide knockout screen that captured fifteen genes, including VAC14 which is known to cause endosomal vacuolization. We selected three genes not previously associated with lysosome dysfunction for validation: C10orf35, LRRC8A, and MARCH7. We isolated two clonal knockout cell lines for each gene and confirmed loss of protein expression. The knockout lines contained enlarged acidic vesicles with surface labeling of the endolysosomal marker LAMP2. This assay will be useful for characterizing variants of unknown significance in patients with neuromuscular or lysosomal storage disorders. This genome-wide strategy for identification of genes with lysosomal function can also be adapted for drug screens to identify small molecules that correct vacuolization. Overall design: We performed a CRSIPR screen to identify genes that, when mutated, result in accumulation of enlarged vacuoles.
Project description:Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71), the major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, has been known to cause fatal neurological complications. Unfortunately, the reason for neurological complications that have been seen in fatal cases of the disease and the relationship between EV71 virulence and viral genetic sequences remains largely undefined. The 3C protease (3Cpro) of EV71 plays an irreplaceable role in segmenting the precursor polyprotein during viral replication, and intervening with host life activity during viral infection. In this study, for the first time, the 69th residue of 3C protease has been identified as a novel virulence determinant of EV71. The recombinant virus with single point variation, in the 69th of 3Cpro, exhibited obvious decline in replication, and virulence. We further determined the crystal structure of 3C N69D at 1.39 ? resolution and found that conformation of 3C N69D demonstrated significant changes compared with a normal 3C protein, in the substrate-binding site and catalytic active site. Strikingly, one of the switch loops, essential in fixing substrates, adopts an open conformation in the 3C N69D-rupintrivir complex. Consistent with this apparent structural disruption, the catalytic activity of 3C N69D decreased sharply for host derived and viral derived substrates, detected for both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, in addition to EV71, Asp69 was also found in 3C proteases of other virus strains, such as CAV16, and was conserved in nearly all C type human rhinovirus. Overall, we identified a natural virulence determinant of 3C protease and revealed the mechanism of attenuated virulence is mediated by N69D substitution. Our data provides new insight into the enzymatic mechanism of a subdued 3C protease and suggests a theoretical basis for virulence determinantion of picornaviridae.