Genomic analysis of ADAR1 binding and its involvement in multiple RNA processing pathways.
ABSTRACT: Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are the primary factors underlying adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing in metazoans. Here we report the first global study of ADAR1-RNA interaction in human cells using CLIP-seq. A large number of CLIP sites are observed in Alu repeats, consistent with ADAR1's function in RNA editing. Surprisingly, thousands of other CLIP sites are located in non-Alu regions, revealing functional and biophysical targets of ADAR1 in the regulation of alternative 3' UTR usage and miRNA biogenesis. We observe that binding of ADAR1 to 3' UTRs precludes binding by other factors, causing 3' UTR lengthening. Similarly, ADAR1 interacts with DROSHA and DGCR8 in the nucleus and possibly out-competes DGCR8 in primary miRNA binding, which enhances mature miRNA expression. These functions are dependent on ADAR1's editing activity, at least for a subset of targets. Our study unfolds a broad landscape of the functional roles of ADAR1.
Project description:Some solid tumors have reduced posttranscriptional RNA editing by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, but the functional significance of this alteration has been unclear. Here, we found the primary RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 is frequently reduced in metastatic melanomas. In situ analysis of melanoma samples using progression tissue microarrays indicated a substantial downregulation of ADAR1 during the metastatic transition. Further, ADAR1 knockdown altered cell morphology, promoted in vitro proliferation, and markedly enhanced the tumorigenicity in vivo. A comparative whole genome expression microarray analysis revealed that ADAR1 controls the expression of more than 100 microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate many genes associated with the observed phenotypes. Importantly, we discovered that ADAR1 fundamentally regulates miRNA processing in an RNA binding–dependent, yet RNA editing–independent manner by regulating Dicer expression at the translational level via let-7. In addition, ADAR1 formed a complex with DGCR8 that was mutually exclusive with the DGCR8-Drosha complex that processes pri-miRNAs in the nucleus. We found that cancer cells silence ADAR1 by overexpressing miR-17 and miR-432, which both directly target the ADAR1 transcript. We further demonstrated that the genes encoding miR-17 and miR-432 are frequently amplified in melanoma and that aberrant hypomethylation of the imprinted DLK1-DIO3 region in chromosome 14 can also drive miR-432 overexpression.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing constitutes a crucial component of the cellular transcriptome and critically underpins organism survival and development. While recent high-throughput approaches have provided comprehensive documentation of the RNA editome, its functional output remains mostly unresolved, particularly for events in the non-coding regions. Gene ontology analysis of the known RNA editing targets unveiled a preponderance of genes related to apoptosis regulation, among which proto-oncogenes XIAP and MDM2 encode two the most abundantly edited transcripts. To further decode this potential functional connection, here we showed that the main RNA editor ADAR1 directly targets this 3' UTR editing of XIAP and MDM2, and further exerts a negative regulation on the expression of their protein products. This post-transcriptional silencing role was mediated via the inverted Alu elements in the 3' UTR but independent of alteration in transcript stability or miRNA targeting. Rather, we discovered that ADAR1 competes transcript occupancy with the RNA shuttling factor STAU1 to facilitate nuclear retention of the XIAP and MDM2 mRNAs. As a consequence, ADAR1 may acquire functionality in part by conferring spatial distribution and translation efficiency of the target transcripts. Finally, abrogation of ADAR1 expression or catalytic activity elicited a XIAP-dependent suppression of apoptotic response, whereas ectopic expression reversed this protective effect on cell death. Together, our results extended the known functions of ADAR1 and RNA editing to the critical fine-tuning of the intracellular apoptotic signaling and also provided mechanistic explanation for ADAR1's roles in development and tumorigenesis.
Project description:ADARs are the primary factors underlying A-to-I editing in metazoans. We conducted the first global study of ADAR1-RNA interaction in human cells using CLIP-Seq. In contrast to the expected predominant binding of ADAR1 to Alu repeats, thousands of CLIP sites were located in non-Alu regions. This unexpectedly frequent non-Alu binding enabled discovery of transcriptome-wide functional and biophysical targets of ADAR1 in the regulation of mRNA processing including alternative 3' UTR usage and alternative splicing. In addition, a global analysis of ADAR1 binding to non-Alu regions also revealed its primary interaction with microRNA (miRNA) transcripts in the nucleus, which subsequently affected expression levels of mature miRNAs. A complex global picture was revealed regarding the dependence of this function on the double-stranded RNA binding domains or deaminase activity. Our study unfolded a broad landscape of the diverse functional roles of ADAR1. To identify ADAR binding dependent miRNA defferential expression profiles, U87MG cells were transfected with ADAR1 overexpression vector, RNA binding mutant (EAA and E912A), siRNA of ADAR1 or controls.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are involved in adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing and are implicated in development and diseases. Here we observed that ADAR1 deficiency in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) significantly affected hESC differentiation and neural induction with widespread changes in mRNA and miRNA expression, including upregulation of self-renewal-related miRNAs, such as miR302s. Global editing analyses revealed that ADAR1 editing activity contributes little to the altered miRNA/mRNA expression in ADAR1-deficient hESCs upon neural induction. Genome-wide iCLIP studies identified that ADAR1 binds directly to pri-miRNAs to interfere with miRNA processing by acting as an RNA-binding protein. Importantly, aberrant expression of miRNAs and phenotypes observed in ADAR1-depleted hESCs upon neural differentiation could be reversed by an enzymatically inactive ADAR1 mutant, but not by the RNA-binding-null ADAR1 mutant. These findings reveal that ADAR1, but not its editing activity, is critical for hESC differentiation and neural induction by regulating miRNA biogenesis via direct RNA interaction.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are involved in RNA editing that converts adenosine residues to inosine specifically in double-stranded RNAs. In this study, we investigated the interaction of the RNA editing mechanism with the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and found that ADAR1 forms a complex with Dicer through direct protein-protein interaction. Most importantly, ADAR1 increases the maximum rate (Vmax) of pre-microRNA (miRNA) cleavage by Dicer and facilitates loading of miRNA onto RNA-induced silencing complexes, identifying a new role of ADAR1 in miRNA processing and RNAi mechanisms. ADAR1 differentiates its functions in RNA editing and RNAi by the formation of either ADAR1/ADAR1 homodimer or Dicer/ADAR1 heterodimer complexes, respectively. As expected, the expression of miRNAs is globally inhibited in ADAR1(-/-) mouse embryos, which, in turn, alters the expression of their target genes and might contribute to their embryonic lethal phenotype.
Project description:Post-transcriptional adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA1 (ADAR1) promotes cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. However, ADAR1 editase-dependent mechanisms governing leukemia stem cell (LSC) generation have not been elucidated. In blast crisis chronic myeloid leukemia (BC CML), we show that increased JAK2 signaling and BCR-ABL1 amplification activate ADAR1. In a humanized BC CML mouse model, combined JAK2 and BCR-ABL1 inhibition prevents LSC self-renewal commensurate with ADAR1 downregulation. Lentiviral ADAR1 wild-type, but not an editing-defective ADAR1(E912A) mutant, induces self-renewal gene expression and impairs biogenesis of stem cell regulatory let-7 microRNAs. Combined RNA sequencing, qRT-PCR, CLIP-ADAR1, and pri-let-7 mutagenesis data suggest that ADAR1 promotes LSC generation via let-7 pri-microRNA editing and LIN28B upregulation. A small-molecule tool compound antagonizes ADAR1's effect on LSC self-renewal in stromal co-cultures and restores let-7 biogenesis. Thus, ADAR1 activation represents a unique therapeutic vulnerability in LSCs with active JAK2 signaling.
Project description:ADARs are the primary factors underlying A-to-I editing in metazoans. We conducted the first global study of ADAR1-RNA interaction in human cells using CLIP-Seq. In contrast to the expected predominant binding of ADAR1 to Alu repeats, thousands of CLIP sites were located in non-Alu regions. This unexpectedly frequent non-Alu binding enabled discovery of transcriptome-wide functional and biophysical targets of ADAR1 in the regulation of mRNA processing including alternative 3' UTR usage and alternative splicing. In addition, a global analysis of ADAR1 binding to non-Alu regions also revealed its primary interaction with microRNA (miRNA) transcripts in the nucleus, which subsequently affected expression levels of mature miRNAs. A complex global picture was revealed regarding the dependence of this function on the double-stranded RNA binding domains or deaminase activity. Our study unfolded a broad landscape of the diverse functional roles of ADAR1. Overall design: To charaterize ADAR1 binding profiles in U87 cells, we performed CLIP-seq using two different ADAR1 monoclonal antibodies.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and thereby potentially alter the information content and structure of cellular RNAs. Notably, although the overwhelming majority of such editing events occur in transcripts derived from Alu repeat elements, the biological function of non-coding RNA editing remains uncertain. Here, we show that mutations in ADAR1 (also known as ADAR) cause the autoimmune disorder Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). As in Adar1-null mice, the human disease state is associated with upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes, indicating a possible role for ADAR1 as a suppressor of type I interferon signaling. Considering recent insights derived from the study of other AGS-related proteins, we speculate that ADAR1 may limit the cytoplasmic accumulation of the dsRNA generated from genomic repetitive elements.
Project description:Type I interferon (IFN) is produced when host sensors detect foreign nucleic acids, but how sensors differentiate self from nonself nucleic acids, such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is incompletely understood. Mutations in ADAR1, an adenosine-to-inosine editing enzyme of dsRNA, cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, an autoinflammatory disorder associated with spontaneous interferon production and neurologic sequelae. We generated ADAR1 knockout human cells to explore ADAR1 substrates and function. ADAR1 primarily edited Alu elements in RNA polymerase II (pol II)-transcribed mRNAs, but not putative pol III-transcribed Alus. During the IFN response, ADAR1 blocked translational shutdown by inhibiting hyperactivation of PKR, a dsRNA sensor. ADAR1 dsRNA binding and catalytic activities were required to fully prevent endogenous RNA from activating PKR. Remarkably, ADAR1 knockout neuronal progenitor cells exhibited MDA5 (dsRNA sensor)-dependent spontaneous interferon production, PKR activation, and cell death. Thus, human ADAR1 regulates sensing of self versus nonself RNA, allowing pathogen detection while avoiding autoinflammation.
Project description:Posttranscriptional regulation is an important step in the regulation of gene expression. In this article, we show an unexpected connection between two proteins that participate in different processes of posttranscriptional regulation that ensures the production of functional mRNA molecules. Specifically, we show that the A-to-I RNA editing protein adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA 1 (ADAR1) and the human Upf1 (hUpf1) protein involved in RNA surveillance are found associated within nuclear RNA-splicing complexes. A potential functional role for this association was revealed by RNAi-mediated down-regulation of ADAR1, which was accompanied by up-regulation of a number of genes previously shown to undergo A-to-I editing in Alu repeats and to be down-regulated by hUpf1. This study suggests a regulatory pathway by a combination of ADAR1 A-to-I editing enzyme and RNA degradation presumably with the aid of hUpf1.