Transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis GCR1 mutant reveals its roles in stress, hormones, secondary metabolism and phosphate starvation.
ABSTRACT: The controversy over the existence or the need for G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in plant G-protein signalling has overshadowed a more fundamental quest for the role of AtGCR1, the most studied and often considered the best candidate for GPCR in plants. Our whole transcriptome microarray analysis of the GCR1-knock-out mutant (gcr1-5) in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed 350 differentially expressed genes spanning all chromosomes. Many of them were hitherto unknown in the context of GCR1 or G-protein signalling, such as in phosphate starvation, storage compound and fatty acid biosynthesis, cell fate, etc. We also found some GCR1-responsive genes/processes that are reported to be regulated by heterotrimeric G-proteins, such as biotic and abiotic stress, hormone response and secondary metabolism. Thus, GCR1 could have G-protein-mediated as well as independent roles and regardless of whether it works as a GPCR, further analysis of the organism-wide role of GCR1 has a significance of its own.
Project description:G-protein signaling components have been attributed many biological roles in plants, but the extent of involvement of G-protein coupled receptor 1 (GCR1) with the G? (GPA1) remained unknown. To address this, we have performed transcriptomic analyses on Arabidopsis gpa1-5gcr1-5 double mutant and identified 656 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). MapMan and Gene Ontology analyses revealed global transcriptional changes associated with external stimulus, cell wall organization/biogenesis and secondary metabolite process among others. Comparative transcriptomic analyses using the single and double mutants of gcr1-5 and gpa1-5 identified 194, 139 and 391 exclusive DEGs respectively, whereas 64 DEGs were common to all three mutants. Further, pair wise comparison of DEGs of double mutant with single mutants of gcr1-5 or gpa1-5 showed about one-third and over half common DEGs, respectively. Further analysis of the DEGs exclusive to the double mutant using protein-protein interaction networks revealed molecular complexes associated with nitrate and light signaling and plant-pathogen interactions among others. Physiological and molecular validation of nitrate-response revealed the sensitivity of germination to low N in the double mutant and differential expression of nitrate transporter (and nitrate reductase in all three mutants). Taken together, GCR1 and GPA1 work in partnership as well as independently to regulate different pathways.
Project description:The transcription factor Gcr1 controls expression of over 75% of the genes in actively growing yeast. Yet despite its widespread effects, regulation of Gcr1 itself remains poorly understood. Here, we show that posttranscriptional Gcr1 regulation is nutrient dependent. Moreover, GCR1 RNA contains a long, highly conserved intron, which allows the cell to generate multiple RNA and protein isoforms whose levels change upon glucose depletion. Intriguingly, an isoform generated by intron retention is exported from the nucleus, and its translation is initiated from a conserved, intronic translation start site. Expression of gene products from both the spliced and unspliced RNAs is essential, as cells expressing only one isoform cannot adjust their metabolic program in response to environmental changes. Finally, we show that the Gcr1 proteins form dimers, providing an elegant mechanism by which this one gene, through its regulation, can perform the repertoire of transcriptional activities necessary for fine-tuned environmental response.
Project description:G-protein signaling components have been implicated in some individual stress responses in Arabidopsis, but have not been comprehensively evaluated at the genetic and biochemical level. Stress emerged as the largest functional category in our whole transcriptome analyses of knock-out mutants of GCR1 and/or GPA1 in Arabidopsis (Chakraborty et al., 2015a,b). This led us to ask whether G-protein signaling components offer converging points in the plant's response to multiple abiotic stresses. In order to test this hypothesis, we carried out detailed analysis of the abiotic stress category in the present study, which revealed 144 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), spanning a wide range of abiotic stresses, including heat, cold, salt, light stress etc. Only 10 of these DEGs are shared by all the three mutants, while the single mutants (GCR1/GPA1) shared more DEGs between themselves than with the double mutant (GCR1-GPA1). RT-qPCR validation of 28 of these genes spanning different stresses revealed identical regulation of the DEGs shared between the mutants. We also validated the effects of cold, heat and salt stresses in all the 3 mutants and WT on % germination, root and shoot length, relative water content, proline content, lipid peroxidation and activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the 3 mutants showed evidence of stress tolerance, especially to cold, followed by heat and salt, in terms of all the above parameters. This clearly shows the role of GCR1 and GPA1 in mediating the plant's response to multiple abiotic stresses for the first time, especially cold, heat and salt stresses. This also implies a role for classical G-protein signaling pathways in stress sensitivity in the normal plants of Arabidopsis. This is also the first genetic and biochemical evidence of abiotic stress tolerance rendered by knock-out mutation of GCR1 and/or GPA1. This suggests that G-protein signaling pathway could offer novel common targets for the development of tolerance/resistance to multiple abiotic stresses.
Project description:The oncoprotein Smoothened (SMO), a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) of the Frizzled-class (class-F), transduces the Hedgehog signal from the tumour suppressor Patched-1 (PTCH1) to the glioma-associated-oncogene (GLI) transcription factors, which activates the Hedgehog signalling pathway1,2. It has remained unknown how PTCH1 modulates SMO, how SMO is stimulated to form a complex with heterotrimeric G proteins and whether G-protein coupling contributes to the activation of GLI proteins3. Here we show that 24,25-epoxycholesterol, which we identify as an endogenous ligand of PTCH1, can stimulate Hedgehog signalling in cells and can trigger G-protein signalling via human SMO in vitro. We present a cryo-electron microscopy structure of human SMO bound to 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol and coupled to a heterotrimeric Gi protein. The structure reveals a ligand-binding site for 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol in the 7-transmembrane region, as well as a Gi-coupled activation mechanism of human SMO. Notably, the Gi protein presents a different arrangement from that of class-A GPCR-Gi complexes. Our work provides molecular insights into Hedgehog signal transduction and the activation of a class-F GPCR.
Project description:The recruitment model for gene activation presumes that DNA is a platform on which the requisite components of the transcriptional machinery are assembled. In contrast to this idea, we show here that Rap1/Gcr1/Gcr2 transcriptional activation in yeast cells occurs through a large anchored protein platform, the Nup84 nuclear pore subcomplex. Surprisingly, Nup84 and associated subcomplex components activate transcription themselves in vivo when fused to a heterologous DNA-binding domain. The Rap1 coactivators Gcr1 and Gcr2 form an important bridge between the yeast nuclear pore complex and the transcriptional machinery. Nucleoporin activation may be a widespread eukaryotic phenomenon, because it was first detected as a consequence of oncogenic rearrangements in acute myeloid leukemia and related syndromes in humans. These chromosomal translocations fuse a homeobox DNA-binding domain to the human homolog (hNup98) of a transcriptionally active component of the yeast Nup84 subcomplex. We conclude that Rap1 target genes are activated by moving to contact compartmentalized nuclear assemblages, rather than through recruitment of the requisite factors to chromatin by means of diffusion. We term this previously undescribed mechanism "reverse recruitment" and discuss the possibility that it is a central feature of eukaryotic gene regulation. Reverse recruitment stipulates that activators work by bringing the DNA to an nuclear pore complex-tethered platform of assembled transcriptional machine components.
Project description:This experiment was done to detect the transcriptomic defects in the gcr1 null mutant, relative to an isogenic wild type, in the immediate response to glucose. Keywords: time course Both gcr1 mutant and wild type cells were grown in YEP containing 3% pyruvate to early/mid log phase. The 0min sample was taken just prior to glucose addition. After addition of glucose, samples were taken at 20min and 60min. Total RNA was extracted for both strains and expression was measured by competitive hybridization of the mutant and wild type labeled cRNA for each time point.
Project description:Knock out mutants of GPA1 (gpa1-5), GCR1 (gcr1-5) as well as their double mutant (gpa1-5 gcr1-5) were used to obtain genomewide transcriptome profile to deduce genomewide effect of both the subunits alone or in combination. Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathways have been implicated in a variety of biological processes in plants. While an impressive range of important plant responses are known to be mediated by G-protein signaling pathways, the genes that respond through these pathways are not yet known completely. More importantly, the role of G-proteins in mediating plant metabolic regulation, which is well established in animal systems, has not received adequate attention. The availability of loss-of-function G_alpha (GPA1) and G-protein coupled receptor (GCR1) mutant(s) as well as their double mutant in Arabidopsis provided an opportunity for a genome-wide microarray analysis in the current study for the first time. transcriptome profile of mutants gpa1-5, gcr1-5 and double mutant gpa1-5 gcr1-5 were compared to that of the corresponding wild type, ws2. biological duplicates of each sample wa used and hybridized using single color array
Project description:Signal transduction through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is central for the regulation of virtually all cellular functions, and it has been widely implicated in human diseases. These receptors activate a common molecular switch that is represented by the heterotrimeric G-protein generating a number of second messengers (cAMP, cGMP, DAG, IP3, Ca2+ etc.), leading to a plethora of diverse cellular responses. Spatiotemporal regulation of signals generated by a given GPCR is crucial for proper signalling and is accomplished by a series of biochemical modifications. Over the past few years, it has become evident that many signalling proteins also undergo ubiquitination, a posttranslational modification that typically leads to protein degradation, but also mediates processes such as protein-protein interaction and protein subcellular localization. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has proven to be an excellent model to investigate signal transduction triggered by GPCR activation, as cAMP signalling via GPCR is a major regulator of chemotaxis, cell differentiation, and multicellular morphogenesis. Ubiquitin ligases have been recently involved in these processes. In the present review, we will summarize the most significant pathways activated upon GPCRs stimulation and discuss the role played by ubiquitination in Dictyostelium cells.
Project description:Membrane trafficking involves large fluxes of cargo and membrane across separate compartments. These fluxes must be regulated by control systems to maintain homoeostasis. While control systems for other key functions such as protein folding or the cell cycle are well known, the mechanisms that control secretory transport are poorly understood. We have previously described a signalling circuit operating at the Golgi complex that regulates intra-Golgi trafficking and is initiated by the KDEL receptor (KDEL-R), a protein previously known to mediate protein recycling from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we investigated the KDEL-R signalling mechanism. We show that the KDEL-R is predicted to fold like a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), and that it binds and activates the heterotrimeric signalling G-protein G?(q/11) which, in turn, regulates transport through the Golgi complex. These findings reveal an unexpected GPCR-like mode of action of the KDEL-R and shed light on a core molecular control mechanism of intra-Golgi traffic.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for the majority of cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters as well as the senses of sight, olfaction and taste. The paradigm of GPCR signalling is the activation of a heterotrimeric GTP binding protein (G protein) by an agonist-occupied receptor. The ?(2) adrenergic receptor (?(2)AR) activation of Gs, the stimulatory G protein for adenylyl cyclase, has long been a model system for GPCR signalling. Here we present the crystal structure of the active state ternary complex composed of agonist-occupied monomeric ?(2)AR and nucleotide-free Gs heterotrimer. The principal interactions between the ?(2)AR and Gs involve the amino- and carboxy-terminal ?-helices of Gs, with conformational changes propagating to the nucleotide-binding pocket. The largest conformational changes in the ?(2)AR include a 14 Å outward movement at the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane segment 6 (TM6) and an ?-helical extension of the cytoplasmic end of TM5. The most surprising observation is a major displacement of the ?-helical domain of G?s relative to the Ras-like GTPase domain. This crystal structure represents the first high-resolution view of transmembrane signalling by a GPCR.