Aspirin therapy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with reduced intensive care unit mortality: a prospective analysis.
ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common clinical syndrome with high mortality and long-term morbidity. To date there is no effective pharmacological therapy. Aspirin therapy has recently been shown to reduce the risk of developing ARDS, but the effect of aspirin on established ARDS is unknown.In a single large regional medical and surgical ICU between December 2010 and July 2012, all patients with ARDS were prospectively identified and demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were recorded retrospectively. Aspirin usage, both pre-hospital and during intensive care unit (ICU) stay, was included. The primary outcome was ICU mortality. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the impact of these variables on ICU mortality.In total, 202 patients with ARDS were included; 56 (28%) of these received aspirin either pre-hospital, in the ICU, or both. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, aspirin therapy, given either before or during hospital stay, was associated with a reduction in ICU mortality (odds ratio (OR) 0.38 (0.15 to 0.96) P = 0.04). Additional factors that predicted ICU mortality for patients with ARDS were vasopressor use (OR 2.09 (1.05 to 4.18) P = 0.04) and APACHE II score (OR 1.07 (1.02 to 1.13) P = 0.01). There was no effect upon ICU length of stay or hospital mortality.Aspirin therapy was associated with a reduced risk of ICU mortality. These data are the first to demonstrate a potential protective role for aspirin in patients with ARDS. Clinical trials to evaluate the role of aspirin as a pharmacological intervention for ARDS are needed.
Project description:Antiplatelet therapy may attenuate the undesirable effects of platelets on the inflammatory cascades in critical illness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between aspirin therapy during intensive care unit (ICU) stay and all-cause mortality.This was a nested cohort study within two randomized controlled trials in which all enrolled patients (N = 763) were grouped according to aspirin intake during ICU stay. The primary endpoints were all-cause ICU mortality and hospital mortality. Secondary endpoints included the development of severe sepsis during the ICU stay, ICU and hospital length of stay and the duration of mechanical ventilation. Propensity score was used to adjust for clinically and statistically relevant variables.Of the 763 patients, 154 patients (20 %) received aspirin. Aspirin therapy was not associated with a reduction in ICU mortality (adjusted OR 1.18, 95 % CI 0.69-2.02, P = 0.55) nor with hospital mortality (adjusted OR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.61-1.50, P = 0.82). Aspirin use had no preferential association with mortality among any of the study subgroups. Additionally, aspirin therapy was associated with higher risk of ICU-acquired severe sepsis, and increased mechanical ventilation duration and ICU length of stay.Our study showed that the use of aspirin in critically ill patients was not associated with lower mortality, but rather with an increased morbidity.ISRCTN07413772 and ISRCTN96294863 .
Project description:PURPOSE:Previous studies assessing impact of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on mortality have shown conflicting results. We sought to assess the independent association of ARDS with in-hospital mortality among intensive care unit (ICU) patients with sepsis. METHODS:We studied two prospective sepsis cohorts drawn from the Early Assessment of Renal and Lung Injury (EARLI; n?=?474) and Validating Acute Lung Injury markers for Diagnosis (VALID; n?=?337) cohorts. ARDS was defined by Berlin criteria. We used logistic regression to compare in-hospital mortality in patients with and without ARDS, controlling for baseline severity of illness. We also estimated attributable mortality, adjusted for illness severity by stratification. RESULTS:ARDS occurred in 195 EARLI patients (41%) and 99 VALID patients (29%). ARDS was independently associated with risk of hospital death in multivariate analysis, even after controlling for severity of illness, as measured by APACHE II (odds ratio [OR] 1.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 2.67), p?=?0.04 in EARLI; OR 2.12 (CI 1.16, 3.92), p?=?0.02 in VALID). Patients with severe ARDS (P/F?<?100) primarily drove this relationship. The attributable mortality of ARDS was 27% (CI 14%, 37%) in EARLI and 37% (CI 10%, 51%) in VALID. ARDS was independently associated with ICU mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), ICU LOS, and ventilator-free days. CONCLUSIONS:Development of ARDS among ICU patients with sepsis confers increased risk of ICU and in-hospital mortality in addition to other important outcomes. Clinical trials targeting patients with severe ARDS will be best poised to detect measurable differences in these outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intensive care unit (ICU) patients with the most severe forms of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) require invasive therapies such as extracorporeal life support. The risk of bleeding in ICU patients with ACS treated with a dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin and ticagrelor is unknown. The primary objective of this study was to compare the bleeding risk of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in ICU patients with ACS. METHODS AND FINDINGS:We conducted a retrospective study based on a propensity score and a proportional hazards model. All patients with ACS hospitalized in the ICU of a French university hospital between January 2013 and January 2017 were included in the study. Bleeding during ICU stay was defined as all Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major or minor events. A total of 155 patients were included in the study. According to propensity score matching, 57 patients treated with aspirin and ticagrelor were matched with 57 patients treated with aspirin and clopidogrel. Median (first-third quartile) Simplified Acute Physiology Score II was 61.5 (41.0-85.0). Bleeding during ICU stay occurred in 12 patients (21.1%) treated with clopidogrel and in 35 patients (61.4%) treated with ticagrelor (p<0.0001). This significant association was found for both TIMI major bleeding (12.3% vs. 35.1%, p = 0.004) and TIMI minor bleeding (8.8% vs. 26.3%, p = 0.01). The relative risk of bleeding occurrence during ICU stay was 2.60 (confidence interval 95%: 1.55-4.35) for ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel. No significant difference in ICU mortality was found between the two groups (45.6% in the clopidogrel group vs. 29.8% in the ticagrelor group, p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS:Bleeding complications are frequent and serious in ICU patients with ACS. A dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin and ticagrelor is associated with a higher risk of bleeding compared to a dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin and clopidogrel.
Project description:Management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains largely supportive. Whether early intervention can prevent development of ARDS remains unclear.To evaluate the efficacy and safety of early aspirin administration for the prevention of ARDS.A multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial conducted at 16 US academic hospitals. Between January 2, 2012, and November 17, 2014, 7673 patients at risk for ARDS (Lung Injury Prediction Score ?4) in the emergency department were screened and 400 were randomized. Ten patients were excluded, leaving 390 in the final modified intention-to-treat analysis cohort.Administration of aspirin, 325-mg loading dose followed by 81 mg/d (n?=?195) or placebo (n?=?195) within 24 hours of emergency department presentation and continued to hospital day 7, discharge, or death.The primary outcome was the development of ARDS by study day 7. Secondary measures included ventilator-free days, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, 28-day and 1-year survival, and change in serum biomarkers associated with ARDS. A final ? level of .0737 (??=?.10 overall) was required for statistical significance of the primary outcome.Among 390 analyzed patients (median age, 57 years; 187 [48%] women), the median (IQR) hospital length of stay was 6 3-10) days. Administration of aspirin, compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the incidence of ARDS at 7 days (10.3% vs 8.7%, respectively; odds ratio, 1.24 [92.6% CI, 0.67 to 2.31], P?=?.53). No significant differences were seen in secondary outcomes: ventilator-free to day 28, mean (SD), 24.9 (7.4) days vs 25.2 (7.0) days (mean [90% CI] difference, -0.26 [-1.46 to 0.94] days; P?=?.72); ICU length of stay, mean (SD), 5.2 (7.0) days vs 5.4 (7.0) days (mean [90% CI] difference, -0.16 [-1.75 to 1.43] days; P?=?.87); hospital length of stay, mean (SD), 8.8 (10.3) days vs 9.0 (9.9) days (mean [90% CI] difference, -0.27 [-1.96 to 1.42] days; P?=?.79); or 28-day survival, 90% vs 90% (hazard ratio [90% CI], 1.03 [0.60 to 1.79]; P?=?.92) or 1-year survival, 73% vs 75% (hazard ratio [90% CI], 1.06 [0.75 to 1.50]; P?=?.79). Bleeding-related adverse events were infrequent in both groups (aspirin vs placebo, 5.6% vs 2.6%; odds ratio [90% CI], 2.27 [0.92 to 5.61]; P?=?.13).Among 390 analyzed patients (median age, 57 years; 187 [48%] women), median (IQR) hospital length of stay was 6 (3-10) days. Administration of aspirin, compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the incidence of ARDS at 7 days (OR, 1.24; 92.6%CI, 0.67-2.31). No significant differences were seen in secondary outcomes or adverse events. [table: see text]Among at-risk patients presenting to the ED, the use of aspirin compared with placebo did not reduce the risk of ARDS at 7 days. The findings of this phase 2b trial do not support continuation to a larger phase 3 trial.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01504867.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by acute, diffuse, inflammatory lung injury leading to increased pulmonary vascular permeability, pulmonary oedema and loss of aerated tissue. Previous literature showed that restrictive fluid therapy in ARDS shortens time on mechanical ventilation and length of ICU-stay. However, the effect of intravenous fluid use on mortality remains uncertain. We investigated the relationship between cumulative fluid balance (FB), time on mechanical ventilation and mortality in ARDS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Retrospective observational study. Patients were divided in four cohorts based on cumulative FB on day 7 of ICU-admission: ?0 L (Group I); 0-3.5 L (Group II); 3.5-8 L (Group III) and ?8 L (Group IV). In addition, we used cumulative FB on day 7 as continuum as a predictor of mortality. Primary outcomes were 28-day mortality and ventilator-free days. Secondary outcomes were 90-day mortality and ICU length of stay. RESULTS:Six hundred ARDS patients were included, of whom 156 (26%) died within 28 days. Patients with a higher cumulative FB on day 7 had a longer length of ICU-stay and fewer ventilator-free days on day 28. Furthermore, after adjusting for severity of illness, a higher cumulative FB was associated with 28-day mortality (Group II, adjusted OR (aOR) 2.1 [1.0-4.6], p = 0.045; Group III, aOR 3.3 [1.7-7.2], p = 0.001; Group IV, aOR 7.9 [4.0-16.8], p<0.001). Using restricted cubic splines, a non-linear dose-response relationship between cumulative FB and probability of death at day 28 was found; where a more positive FB predicted mortality and a negative FB showed a trend towards survival. CONCLUSIONS:A higher cumulative fluid balance is independently associated with increased risk of death, longer time on mechanical ventilation and longer length of ICU-stay in patients with ARDS. This underlines the importance of implementing restrictive fluid therapy in ARDS patients.
Project description:The effect of statin therapy on mortality in critically ill patients is controversial, with some studies suggesting a benefit and others suggesting no benefit or even potential harm. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between statin therapy during intensive care unit (ICU) admission and all-cause mortality in critically ill patients.This was a nested cohort study within two randomised controlled trials conducted in a tertiary care ICU. All 763 patients who participated in the two trials were included in this study. Of these, 107 patients (14%) received statins during their ICU stay. The primary endpoint was all-cause ICU and hospital mortality. Secondary endpoints included the development of sepsis and severe sepsis during the ICU stay, the ICU length of stay, the hospital length of stay, and the duration of mechanical ventilation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for clinically and statistically relevant variables.Statin therapy was associated with a reduction in hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-0.99). Statin therapy was associated with lower hospital mortality in the following groups: patients >58 years of age (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.35-0.97), those with an acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score >22 (aOR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.31-0.96), diabetic patients (aOR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.30-0.90), patients on vasopressor therapy (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.29-0.97), those admitted with severe sepsis (aOR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.07-0.66), patients with creatinine ? 100 ?mol/L (aOR = 0.14, 95% CI 0.04-0.51), and patients with GCS ? 9 (aOR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.71). When stratified by statin dose, the mortality reduction was mainly observed with statin equipotent doses ? 40 mg of simvastatin (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.28-1.00). Mortality reduction was observed with simvastatin (aOR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.17-0.81) but not with atorvastatin (aOR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.84-1.46). Statin therapy was not associated with a difference in any of the secondary outcomes.Statin therapy during ICU stay was associated with a reduction in all-cause hospital mortality. This association was especially noted in high-risk subgroups. This potential benefit needs to be validated in a randomised, controlled trial.
Project description:In the past 20 years, our understanding of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) management has improved, but the worldwide incidence and current outcomes are unclear. The reported incidence is highly variable, and no studies specifically characterise ARDS epidemiology in Asia. This observation study aims to determine the incidence, mortality and management practices of ARDS in a high income South East Asian country.We conducted a prospective, population based observational study in 6 public hospitals. During a one month period, we identified all ARDS patients admitted to public hospital intensive care units (ICU) in Singapore, according to the Berlin definition. Demographic information, clinical management data and ICU outcome data was collected.A total of 904 adult patients were admitted to ICU during the study period and 15 patients met ARDS criteria. The unadjusted incidence of ARDS was 4.5 cases per 100,000 population, accounting for 1.25% of all ICU patients. Most patients were male (75%), Chinese (62%), had pneumonia (73%), and were admitted to a Medical ICU (56%). Management strategies varied across all ICUs. In-hospital mortality was 40% and median length of ICU stay was 7 days.The incidence of ARDS in a developed S.E Asia country is comparable to reported rates in European studies.
Project description:Critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may require sedation in their clinical care. The goals of sedation in ARDS patients are to improve patient comfort and tolerance of supportive and therapeutic measures without contributing to adverse outcomes. This review discusses the current evidence for sedation management in patients with ARDS.Deep sedation strategies should be avoided in the care of patients with ARDS because deep sedation has been associated with increased time on mechanical ventilation, longer ICU and hospital length of stay, and higher mortality in critically ill patients. Adoption of protocol-based, light-sedation strategies is preferred and improves patient outcomes. Although the optimal sedative agent for ARDS patients is unclear, benzodiazepines should be avoided because of associations with oversedation, delirium, prolonged ICU and hospital length of stay, and increased mortality. Minimizing sedation in patients with ARDS facilitates early mobilization and early discharge from the ICU, potentially aiding in recovery from critical illness. Strategies to optimize ventilation in ARDS patients, such as low tidal volume ventilation and high positive end-expiratory pressure can be employed without deep sedation; however, deep sedation is required if patients receive neuromuscular blockade, which may benefit some ARDS patients. Knowledge gaps persist as to whether or not prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can be tolerated with light sedation.Current evidence supports the use of protocol-based, light-sedation strategies in critically ill patients with ARDS. Further research into sedation management specifically in ARDS populations is needed.
Project description:Importance:The effects of recruitment maneuvers and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration on clinical outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain uncertain. Objective:To determine if lung recruitment associated with PEEP titration according to the best respiratory-system compliance decreases 28-day mortality of patients with moderate to severe ARDS compared with a conventional low-PEEP strategy. Design, Setting, and Participants:Multicenter, randomized trial conducted at 120 intensive care units (ICUs) from 9 countries from November 17, 2011, through April 25, 2017, enrolling adults with moderate to severe ARDS. Interventions:An experimental strategy with a lung recruitment maneuver and PEEP titration according to the best respiratory-system compliance (n?=?501; experimental group) or a control strategy of low PEEP (n?=?509). All patients received volume-assist control mode until weaning. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was all-cause mortality until 28 days. Secondary outcomes were length of ICU and hospital stay; ventilator-free days through day 28; pneumothorax requiring drainage within 7 days; barotrauma within 7 days; and ICU, in-hospital, and 6-month mortality. Results:A total of 1010 patients (37.5% female; mean [SD] age, 50.9 [17.4] years) were enrolled and followed up. At 28 days, 277 of 501 patients (55.3%) in the experimental group and 251 of 509 patients (49.3%) in the control group had died (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.42; P?=?.041). Compared with the control group, the experimental group strategy increased 6-month mortality (65.3% vs 59.9%; HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.38; P?=?.04), decreased the number of mean ventilator-free days (5.3 vs 6.4; difference, -1.1; 95% CI, -2.1 to -0.1; P?=?.03), increased the risk of pneumothorax requiring drainage (3.2% vs 1.2%; difference, 2.0%; 95% CI, 0.0% to 4.0%; P?=?.03), and the risk of barotrauma (5.6% vs 1.6%; difference, 4.0%; 95% CI, 1.5% to 6.5%; P?=?.001). There were no significant differences in the length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, ICU mortality, and in-hospital mortality. Conclusions and Relevance:In patients with moderate to severe ARDS, a strategy with lung recruitment and titrated PEEP compared with low PEEP increased 28-day all-cause mortality. These findings do not support the routine use of lung recruitment maneuver and PEEP titration in these patients. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01374022.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common cause of respiratory failure in critically ill patients. Experimental studies suggest that treatment with beta agonists may be helpful in ARDS. The Beta Agonist Lung Injury TrIal (BALTI-2) is a multicentre, pragmatic, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial which aims to determine if sustained treatment with intravenous (IV) salbutamol will improve survival in ARDS. METHODS/DESIGN:Patients fulfilling the American-European Consensus Conference Definition of ARDS will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive an IV infusion either of salbutamol (15 μg kg ideal body weight-1 hr-1) or placebo (0.9% sodium chloride solution), for a maximum of seven days. Allocation to randomised groups will use minimisation to ensure balance with respect to hospital of recruitment, age group (<64, 65-84, >85 years) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio (≤6.7, 6.8- 13.2, ≥13.3 kPa). Data will be recorded by participating ICUs until hospital discharge, and all surviving patients will be followed up by post at six and twelve months post randomisation. The primary outcome is mortality at 28 days after randomisation; secondary outcomes are mortality in ICU, mortality in hospital, number of ventilator-free days, number of organ failure-free days, mortality at twelve months post-randomisation, quality of life at six and twelve months, length of stay in ICU, length of stay in hospital, adverse effects (tachycardia, arrhythmia or other side effects sufficient to stop treatment drug). 1,334 patients will be recruited from about fifty ICUs in the UK. An economic evaluation will be conducted alongside the trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN38366450.