Climate drivers on malaria transmission in Arunachal Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted during the years 2006 to 2012 and provides information on prevalence of malaria and its regulation with effect to various climatic factors in East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Correlation analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Hotelling's T² statistics models are adopted to understand the effect of weather variables on malaria transmission. The epidemiological study shows that the prevalence of malaria is mostly caused by the parasite Plasmodium vivax followed by Plasmodium falciparum. It is noted that, the intensity of malaria cases declined gradually from the year 2006 to 2012. The transmission of malaria observed was more during the rainy season, as compared to summer and winter seasons. Further, the data analysis study with Principal Component Analysis and Hotelling's T² statistic has revealed that the climatic variables such as temperature and rainfall are the most influencing factors for the high rate of malaria transmission in East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh.
Project description:Dengue has been reported from plains as well as hilly regions of India including some parts of Northeast India. In July-August 2012, outbreak of fever with unknown origin (FUO) indicative of Dengue was reported in Pasighat, East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh (AP) state. Serum samples (n = 164) collected from patients from Health Training and Research Centre General Hospital, Pasighat, were tested for NS1 antigen and IgM antibodies. NS1-positive samples were analyzed by RT-PCR assay and entomological surveys were carried out. The majority of suspected cases reported NS1 antigen positivity. Females and young adults were mostly affected. The majority of the amplified NS1-positive samples showed Dengue serotype 3 infection. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus, known as semiurban breeding mosquitoes, was the only potential vector species identified from the affected areas of Pasighat which single handedly contributed to the outbreak. Thus, the present work identifies Dengue as an emerging arboviral infection in hilly state of AP along with a looming risk of its spread to neighbouring areas.
Project description:The occurrence of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) in cole crops (Brassica spp) grown in Basar, Arunachal Pradesh, India was confirmed by symptomatology, transmission electron microscopy, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and partial characterization of cytoplasmic inclusion protein and coat protein (CP) domains. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial CP sequences of the new TuMV isolates from Indian mustard (AR-IndM), broad leaved mustard (AR-BrLM) and broccoli (AR-Broc) revealed their closest relationship with members of the World-B genogroup of TuMV. This is the first molecular evidence of TuMV infection in Brassica spp from India.
Project description:The East Himalaya is one of the world's most biodiverse ecosystems. However, very little is known about the abundance and distribution of many plant and animal taxa in this region. Bumble bees are a group of cold-adapted and high elevation insects that fulfil an important ecological and economical function as pollinators of wild and agricultural flowering plants and crops. The Himalayan mountain range provides ample suitable habitats for bumble bees. Systematic study of Himalayan bumble bees began a few decades ago and the main focus has centred on the western region, while the eastern part of the mountain range has received little attention and only a few species have been verified. During a three-year survey, more than 700 bumble bee specimens of 21 species were collected in Arunachal Pradesh, the largest of the north-eastern states of India. The material included a range of species that were previously known from a limited number of collected specimens, which highlights the unique character of the East Himalayan ecosystem. Our results are an important first step towards a future assessment of species distribution, threat, and conservation. Clear elevation patterns of species diversity were observed, which raise important questions about the functional adaptations that allow bumble bees to thrive in this particularly moist region in the East Himalaya.
Project description:Malaria presents public health challenge despite extensive intervention campaigns. A 30-year hindcast of the climatic suitability for malaria transmission in India is presented, using meteorological variables from a state of the art seasonal forecast model to drive a process-based, dynamic disease model.The spatial distribution and seasonal cycles of temperature and precipitation from the forecast model are compared to three observationally-based meteorological datasets. These time series are then used to drive the disease model, producing a simulated forecast of malaria and three synthetic malaria time series that are qualitatively compared to contemporary and pre-intervention malaria estimates. The area under the Relative Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve is calculated as a quantitative metric of forecast skill, comparing the forecast to the meteorologically-driven synthetic malaria time series.The forecast shows probabilistic skill in predicting the spatial distribution of Plasmodium falciparum incidence when compared to the simulated meteorologically-driven malaria time series, particularly where modelled incidence shows high seasonal and interannual variability such as in Orissa, West Bengal, and Jharkhand (North-east India), and Gujarat, Rajastan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra (North-west India). Focusing on these two regions, the malaria forecast is able to distinguish between years of "high", "above average" and "low" malaria incidence in the peak malaria transmission seasons, with more than 70% sensitivity and a statistically significant area under the ROC curve. These results are encouraging given that the three month forecast lead time used is well in excess of the target for early warning systems adopted by the World Health Organization. This approach could form the basis of an operational system to identify the probability of regional malaria epidemics, allowing advanced and targeted allocation of resources for combatting malaria in India.
Project description:The ethnic population of Arunachal Pradesh uses a number of orchids as such, or in decoction for various ailments. Three untapped orchids namely, Rhynchostylis retusa, Tropidia curculioides and Satyrium nepalense, traditionally used in tuberculosis, asthma and cold stage of malaria in folk medicine, were selected for the present study.Dried material of each plant was divided into three parts. Solvent extraction and fractionation afforded altogether 30 extracts and fractions, which were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv and MDR strain) for antimycobacterial activity; promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani for leishmanicidal activity and two gram positive and three gram negative clinical isolates for antibacterial activity.The most significant antimycobacterial activity was observed with n-hexane fraction of the flower of Satyrium nepalense with MIC of 15.7 μg/mL. The most promising leishmanicidal activity was observed with diethyl ether fraction of the roots of Rhynchostylis retusa with IC50 values of 56.04 and 18.4 μg/mL against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes respectively. Evaluation of antibacterial activity identified S. nepalense flower n-hexane and R. retusa roots diethyl ether as potential fractions with MIC values of ≤100 μg/mL against selected clinical isolates.This is the first report of the plants possessing antimycobacterial and leishmanicidal activity. The investigation resulted in identification of S. nepalense as the most promising plant, which possessed all three activities in significant proportion. This laboratory outcome could be translated to marketable pharmaceutical products and also to produce maximum benefits to the local of nearby area. Antimycobacterial and leishmanicidal activity of medicinal orchids.
Project description:BACKGROUND: An epidemiological and entomological study was carried out in Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India to understand the dynamics of forest malaria transmission in a difficult and hard to reach area where indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets were used for vector control. METHODS: This community based cross-sectional study was undertaken from January 2010 to December 2012 in Baihar and Birsa Community Health Centres of district Balaghat for screening malaria cases. Entomological surveillance included indoor resting collections, pyrethrum spray catches and light trap catches. Anophelines were assayed by ELISA for detection of Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein. FINDINGS: Plasmodium falciparum infection accounted for >80% of all infections. P. vivax 16.5%, P. malariae 0.75% and remaining were mixed infections of P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae. More than, 30% infections were found in infants under 6 months of age. Overall, an increasing trend in malaria positivity was observed from 2010 to 2012 (chi-square for trend ?=? 663.55; P<0.0001). Twenty five Anopheles culicifacies (sibling species C, D and E) were positive for circumsporozoite protein of P. falciparum (44%) and P. vivax (56%). Additionally, 2 An. fluviatilis, were found positive for P. falciparum and 1 for P. vivax (sibling species S and T). An. fluviatilis sibling species T was found as vector in forest villages for the first time in India. CONCLUSION: These results showed that the study villages are experiencing almost perennial malaria transmission inspite of indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets. Therefore, there is a need for new indoor residual insecticides which has longer residual life or complete coverage of population with long lasting insecticide treated nets or both indoor residual spray and long lasting bed nets for effective vector control. There is a need to undertake a well designed case control study to evaluate the efficacy of these interventions.
Project description:North-east region of India has consistent role in the spread of multi drug resistant Plasmodium (P.) falciparum to other parts of Southeast Asia. After rapid clinical treatment failure of Artemisinin based combination therapy-Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine (ACT-SP) chemoprophylaxis, Artemether-Lumefantrine (ACT-AL) combination therapy was introduced in the year 2012 in this region for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. In a DNA sequencing based polymorphism analysis, seven codons of P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthetase (Pfdhps) gene were screened in a total of 127 P. falciparum isolates collected from Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Tripura of North-east India during the year 2014 and 2015 to document current sulfadoxine resistant haplotypes.Sequences were analyzed to rearrange both nucleotide and protein haplotypes. Molecular diversity indices were analyzed in DNA Sequence Polymorphism software (DnaSP) on the basis of Pfdhps gene sequences. Disappearance from selective neutrality was assessed based on the ratio of non-synonomous to synonomous nucleotide substitutions [dN/dS ratio]. Moreover, two-tailed Z test was performed in search of the significance for probability of rejecting null hypothesis of strict neutrality [dN = dS]. Presence of mutant P. falciparum multidrug resistance protein1 (Pfmdr1) was also checked in those isolates that were present with new Pfdhps haplotypes. Phylogenetic relationship based on Pfdhps gene was reconstructed in Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA).Among eight different sulfadoxine resistant haplotypes found, IS GNG A haplotype was documented in a total of five isolates from Tripura with association of a new mutant M538 R allele. Sequence analysis of Pfmdr1 gene in these five isolates came to notice that not all but only one isolate was mutant at codon 86 (N86 Y ; Y YSND) in the multidrug resistance protein. Molecular diversity based on Pfdhps haplotypes revealed that P. falciparum populations in Assam and Tripura were under balancing selection for sulfadoxine resistant haplotypes but population from Arunachal Pradesh was under positive selection with comparatively high haplotype diversity (h = 0.870). In reconstructed phylogenetic analysis, isolates having IS GNG A haplotype were grouped into two separate sub-clusters from the other isolates based on their genetic distances and diversities.This study suggests that sulfadoxine resistant isolates are still migrating from its epicenter to the other parts of Southeast Asia and hence control and elimination of the drug resistant isolates have become impedimental. Moreover, P. falciparum populations in different areas may undergo selection of particular sulfadoxine resistant haplotypes either in the presence of drug or after its removal to maintain their plasticity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Household survey data of Changlang district, Arunachal Pradesh, were used in the present study to assess the prevalence of opium use among different tribes, and to examine the association between sociodemographic factors and opium use.<h4>Methods</h4>A sample of 3421 individuals (1795 men and 1626 women) aged 15?years and older was analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model to determine factors associated with opium use. Sociodemographic information such as age, education, occupation, religion, ethnicity and marital status were included in the analysis.<h4>Results</h4>The prevalence of opium use was significantly higher (10.6%) among men than among women (2.1%). It varied according to age, educational level, occupation, marital status and religion of the respondents. In both sexes, opium use was significantly higher among Singpho and Khamti tribes compared with other tribes. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that opium use was significantly associated with age, occupation, ethnicity, religion and marital status of the respondents of both sexes. Multivariate rate ratios (MRR) for opium use were significantly higher (4-6 times) among older age groups (?35?years) and male respondents. In males, the MRR was also significantly higher in respondents of Buddhist and Indigenous religion, while in females, the MRR was significantly higher in Buddhists. Most of the female opium users had taken opium for more than 5?years and were introduced to it by their husbands after marriage. Use of other substances among opium users comprised mainly tobacco (76%) and alcohol (44%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The study reveals the sociodemographic factors, such as age, sex, ethnicity, religion and occupation, which are associated with opium use. Such information is useful for institution of intervention measures to reduce opium use.
Project description:Amblyceps waikhomi sp. nov. is described from the Nongkon stream which drains into the Noa Dehing River, a tributary of the Brahmaputra River, in Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species can be distinguished from congeners (except A. torrentis) in having a deeper body depth at anus. It further differs from congeners (except A. mangois and A. serratum) in having fewer vertebrae, from A. mangois in lacking (vs. having) strongly-developed projections on the proximal lepidotrichia of the median caudal-fin rays, and in having a longer, wider, and deeper head; and from A. serratum in having a posteriorly smooth (vs. with 4-5 serrations) pectoral spine, and unequal jaw length (lower jaw longer and weakly-projecting anteriorly vs. equal upper and lower jaws). It additionally differs from A. murraystuarti, A. torrentis, A. apangi, A. laticeps, and A. cerinum in having a deeply forked (vs. emarginate or truncate) caudal fin. This species is the seventh amblycipitid species known to occur in the Ganga-Brahmaputra River system.
Project description:The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K?=?1 to K?=?20 were tested and population K?=?3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K?=?5 and K?=?4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a valuable resource for future genomic studies and crop improvement strategies.