Fibrin gel as an injectable biodegradable scaffold and cell carrier for tissue engineering.
ABSTRACT: Due to the increasing needs for organ transplantation and a universal shortage of donated tissues, tissue engineering emerges as a useful approach to engineer functional tissues. Although different synthetic materials have been used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds, they have many limitations such as the biocompatibility concerns, the inability to support cell attachment, and undesirable degradation rate. Fibrin gel, a biopolymeric material, provides numerous advantages over synthetic materials in functioning as a tissue engineering scaffold and a cell carrier. Fibrin gel exhibits excellent biocompatibility, promotes cell attachment, and can degrade in a controllable manner. Additionally, fibrin gel mimics the natural blood-clotting process and self-assembles into a polymer network. The ability for fibrin to cure in situ has been exploited to develop injectable scaffolds for the repair of damaged cardiac and cartilage tissues. Additionally, fibrin gel has been utilized as a cell carrier to protect cells from the forces during the application and cell delivery processes while enhancing the cell viability and tissue regeneration. Here, we review the recent advancement in developing fibrin-based biomaterials for the development of injectable tissue engineering scaffold and cell carriers.
Project description:Scaffolds are physical substrates for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation, ultimately leading to the regeneration of tissues. They must be designed according to specific biomechanical requirements, i.e., certain standards in terms of mechanical properties, surface characteristics, porosity, degradability, and biocompatibility. The optimal design of a scaffold for a specific tissue strongly depends on both materials and manufacturing processes, as well as surface treatment. Polymeric scaffolds reinforced with electro-active particles could play a key role in tissue engineering by modulating cell proliferation and differentiation. This paper investigates the use of an extrusion-based additive manufacturing system to produce poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/pristine graphene scaffolds for bone tissue applications and the influence of chemical surface modification on their biological behaviour. Scaffolds with the same architecture but different concentrations of pristine graphene were evaluated from surface property and biological points of view. Results show that the addition of pristine graphene had a positive impact on cell viability and proliferation, and that surface modification leads to improved cell response.
Project description:Polymeric scaffolds such as hydrogels can be engineered to restore, maintain, or improve impaired tissues and organs. However, most hydrogels require surgical implantation that can cause several complications such as infection and damage to adjacent tissues. Therefore, developing minimally invasive strategies is of critical importance for these purposes. Herein, we developed several injectable cryogels made out of hyaluronic acid and gelatin for tissue-engineering applications. The physicochemical properties of hyaluronic acid combined with the intrinsic cell-adhesion properties of gelatin can provide suitable physical support for the attachment, survival, and spreading of cells. The physical characteristics of pure gelatin cryogels, such as mechanics and injectability, were enhanced once copolymerized with hyaluronic acid. Reciprocally, the adhesion of 3T3 cells cultured in hyaluronic acid cryogels was enhanced when formulated with gelatin. Furthermore, cryogels had a minimal effect on bone marrow dendritic cell activation, suggesting their cytocompatibility. Finally, in vitro studies revealed that copolymerizing gelatin with hyaluronic acid did not significantly alter their respective intrinsic biological properties. These findings suggest that hyaluronic acid-co-gelatin cryogels combined the favorable inherent properties of each biopolymer, providing a mechanically robust, cell-responsive, macroporous, and injectable platform for tissue-engineering applications.
Project description:Fibrin and alginate hydrogels have been widely used to support chondrogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) for articular cartilage and fibrocartilage tissue engineering, with each material offering distinct advantages and disadvantages. Attempting to produce a gel scaffold exhibiting beneficial characteristics of both materials, we fabricated fibrin/alginate blended hydrogels at various blend ratios and evaluated the gel morphology, mechanical properties and their support for BM-MSC chondrogenesis. Results show that when the fibrin/alginate ratio decreased, the fibrin architecture transitioned from uniform to interconnected fibrous and finally to disconnected islands against an alginate background, with opposing trends in the alginate architecture. Fibrin maintained gel extensibility and promoted cell proliferation, while alginate improved the gel biostability and better supported glycosaminoglycan and collagen II production and chondrogenic gene expression. Blended gels had physical and biological characteristics intermediate between fibrin and alginate. Of the blends examined, FA 40:8 (40 mg ml(-1) fibrinogen blended with 8 mg ml(-1) alginate) was found to be the most appropriate group for future studies on tension-driven BM-MSC fibrochondrogenesis. As BM-MSC differentiation appeared to vary between fibrin and alginate regions of blended scaffolds, this study also highlighted the potential to develop spatially heterogeneous tissues through manipulating the heterogeneity of scaffold composition.
Project description:Due to their improved biocompatibility and specificity over synthetic materials, protein-based biomaterials, either derived from natural sources or genetically engineered, have been widely fabricated into nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. However, their inferior mechanical properties often require the reinforcement of protein-based tissue scaffolds using synthetic polymers. In this study, we report the electrospinning of a completely recombinant silk-elastinlike protein-based tissue scaffold with excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. In particular, SELP-47K containing tandemly repeated polypeptide sequences derived from native silk and elastin was electrospun into nanofibrous scaffolds, and stabilized via chemical vapor treatment and mechanical preconditioning. When fully hydrated in 1× PBS at 37 °C, mechanically preconditioned SELP-47K scaffolds displayed elastic moduli of 3.4-13.2 MPa, ultimate tensile strengths of 5.7-13.5 MPa, deformabilities of 100-130% strain, and resilience of 80.6-86.9%, closely matching or exceeding those of protein-synthetic blend polymeric scaffolds. Additionally, SELP-47K nanofibrous scaffolds promoted cell attachment and growth, demonstrating their in vitro biocompatibility.
Project description:Solubilized cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) is being developed as an injectable therapeutic that offers promise for promoting cardiac repair. However, the ECM alone forms a hydrogel that is very soft compared to the native myocardium. As both the stiffness and composition of the ECM are important in regulating cell behavior and can have complex synergistic effects, we sought to develop an ECM-based scaffold with tunable biochemical and mechanical properties. We used solubilized rat cardiac ECM from two developmental stages (neonatal, adult) combined with fibrin hydrogels that were cross-linked with transglutaminase. We show that ECM was retained within the gels and that the Young's modulus could be tuned to span the range of the developing and mature heart. C-kit+ cardiovascular progenitor cells from pediatric patients with congenital heart defects were seeded into the hybrid gels. Both the elastic modulus and composition of the scaffolds impacted the expression of endothelial and smooth muscle cell genes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the hybrid gels are injectable, and thus have potential for minimally invasive therapies. ECM-fibrin hybrid scaffolds offer new opportunities for exploiting the effects of both composition and mechanical properties in directing cell behavior for tissue engineering.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Biodegradable polyurethanes have found widespread use in soft tissue engineering due to their suitable mechanical properties and biocompatibility. METHODS: In this study, polyurethane samples were synthesized from polycaprolactone, hexamethylene diisocyanate, and a copolymer of 1,4-butanediol as a chain extender. Polyurethane scaffolds were fabricated by a combination of liquid-liquid phase separation and salt leaching techniques. The effect of the NCO:OH ratio on porosity content and pore morphology was investigated. RESULTS: Scanning electron micrographs demonstrated that the scaffolds had a regular distribution of interconnected pores, with pore diameters of 50-300 ?m, and porosities of 64%-83%. It was observed that, by increasing the NCO:OH ratio, the average pore size, compressive strength, and compressive modulus increased. L929 fibroblast and chondrocytes were cultured on the scaffolds, and all samples exhibited suitable cell attachment and growth, with a high level of biocompatibility. CONCLUSION: These biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds demonstrate potential for soft tissue engineering applications.
Project description:Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix components have been proposed to repair and reconstruct a variety of tissues in clinical and pre-clinical studies. Injectable gels can fill and conform any three-dimensional shape and can be delivered to sites of interest by minimally invasive techniques. In this study, a biological gel was produced from a decellularized porcine urinary bladder by enzymatic digestion with pepsin. The enzymatic digestion was confirmed by visual inspection after dissolution in phosphate-buffered saline solution and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The rheological and biological properties of the gel were characterized and compared to those of the Matrigel<sup>TM</sup> chosen as a reference material. The storage modulus G' reached 19.4 ± 3.7 Pa for the 30 mg/mL digested decellularized bladder gels after ca. 3 h at 37 °C. The results show that the gel formed of the porcine urinary bladder favored the spontaneous differentiation of human and rabbit adipose-derived stem cells in vitro into smooth muscle cells to the detriment of cell proliferation. The results support the potential of the developed injectable gel for tissue engineering applications to reconstruct for instance the detrusor muscle part of the human urinary bladder.
Project description:Myocardial infarction (MI) causes significant cell loss and damage to myocardium. Cell-based therapies for treatment of MI aim to remuscularize the resultant scar tissue, but the majority of transplanted cells do not survive or integrate with the host tissue. Scaffolds can improve cell retention following construct implantation, but often do little to enhance host-graft integration and/or show limited biodegradation. Fibrin is an ideal biomaterial for cardiac tissue engineering as it is a natural, biodegradable polymer that can induce neovascularization, promote cell attachment, and has tunable mechanical properties. Here we describe a novel, high-density microtemplated fibrin scaffold seeded with a tri-cell mixture of cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells (ECs), and fibroblasts to mimic native cardiac tissue in structure and cellular composition to improve cell retention and promote integration with the host tissue. Scaffolds were designed with uniform architecture of parallel 60 ?m microchannels surrounded by an interconnected microporous network of 27-?m-diameter pores and mechanical stiffness comparable to native cardiac tissues (70-90kPa). Scaffold degradation was controlled with the addition of Factor XIII (FXIII) and/or protease inhibitor (aprotinin). Unmodified scaffolds had a fast degradation profile both in vitro (19.9%±3.9% stiffness retention after 10 days) and in vivo. Scaffolds treated with FXIII showed an intermediate degradation profile in vitro (45.8%±5.9%), while scaffolds treated with aprotinin or both FXIII and aprotinin showed significantly slowed degradation in vitro (60.9%±5.2% and 76.4%±7.6%, respectively, p<0.05). Acellular aprotinin scaffold myocardial implants showed decreased collagen deposition after 7 days. Unmodified and aprotinin implants could not be located by 14 days, while 2 of 8 FXIII implants were found, but were significantly degraded. Constructs supported seeded cell survival and organization in vitro, promoting EC-lined lumen structure formation in construct channels and colocalization of viable ECs and cardiomyocytes. In addition, constructs promoted extracellular matrix deposition by seeded cells, as shown by collagen staining within construct channels and by significant increases in construct stiffness over 10 days in vitro (209%±32%, p<0.05). The data suggest our fibrin scaffolds are ideally designed to promote graft cell survival and organization, thus improving chances of promoting construct integration with the host tissue upon implantation.
Project description:Bioactivity and biocompatibility are crucial for tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, hydroxyapatite (HAP) was incorporated into polyetheretherketone/polyglycolicacid (PEEK/PGA) hybrid to improve its biological properties, and the composite scaffolds were developed via selective laser sintering (SLS). The effects of HAP on physical and chemical properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated. The results demonstrated that HAP particles were distributed evenly in PEEK/PGA matrix when its content was no more than 10 wt %. Furthermore, the apatite-forming ability became better with increasing HAP content after immersing in simulated body fluid (SBF). Meanwhile, the composite scaffolds presented a greater degree of cell attachment and proliferation than PEEK/PGA scaffolds. These results highlighted the potential of (PEEK/PGA)-HAP scaffolds for tissue regeneration.
Project description:Scaffolds, three-dimensional (3D) substrates providing appropriate mechanical support and biological environments for new tissue formation, are the most common approaches in tissue engineering. To improve scaffold properties such as mechanical properties, surface characteristics, biocompatibility and biodegradability, different types of fillers have been used reinforcing biocompatible and biodegradable polymers. This paper investigates and compares the mechanical and biological behaviors of 3D printed poly(?-caprolactone) scaffolds reinforced with graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) at different concentrations. Results show that contrary to G which improves mechanical properties and enhances cell attachment and proliferation, GO seems to show some cytotoxicity, particular at high contents.