Design of an allosterically regulated retroaldolase.
ABSTRACT: We employed a minimalist approach for design of an allosterically controlled retroaldolase. Introduction of a single lysine residue into the nonenzymatic protein calmodulin led to a 15,000-fold increase in the second order rate constant for retroaldol reaction with methodol as a substrate. The resulting catalyst AlleyCatR is active enough for subsequent directed evolution in crude cell bacterial lysates. AlleyCatR's activity is allosterically regulated by Ca(2+) ions. No catalysis is observed in the absence of the metal ion. The increase in catalytic activity originates from the hydrophobic interaction of the substrate (∼2000-fold) and the change in the apparent pKa of the active lysine residue.
Project description:Posttranslational modifications, such as N?-lysine acetylation, regulate protein function. N?-lysine acetylation can occur either nonenzymatically or enzymatically. The nonenzymatic mechanism uses acetyl phosphate (AcP) or acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) as acetyl donor to modify an N?-lysine residue of a protein. The enzymatic mechanism uses N?-lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) to specifically transfer an acetyl group from AcCoA to N?-lysine residues on proteins. To date, only one KAT (YfiQ, also known as Pka and PatZ) has been identified in Escherichia coli Here, we demonstrate the existence of 4 additional E. coli KATs: RimI, YiaC, YjaB, and PhnO. In a genetic background devoid of all known acetylation mechanisms (most notably AcP and YfiQ) and one deacetylase (CobB), overexpression of these putative KATs elicited unique patterns of protein acetylation. We mutated key active site residues and found that most of them eliminated enzymatic acetylation activity. We used mass spectrometry to identify and quantify the specificity of YfiQ and the four novel KATs. Surprisingly, our analysis revealed a high degree of substrate specificity. The overlap between KAT-dependent and AcP-dependent acetylation was extremely limited, supporting the hypothesis that these two acetylation mechanisms play distinct roles in the posttranslational modification of bacterial proteins. We further showed that these novel KATs are conserved across broad swaths of bacterial phylogeny. Finally, we determined that one of the novel KATs (YiaC) and the known KAT (YfiQ) can negatively regulate bacterial migration. Together, these results emphasize distinct and specific nonenzymatic and enzymatic protein acetylation mechanisms present in bacteria.IMPORTANCE N?-Lysine acetylation is one of the most abundant and important posttranslational modifications across all domains of life. One of the best-studied effects of acetylation occurs in eukaryotes, where acetylation of histone tails activates gene transcription. Although bacteria do not have true histones, N?-lysine acetylation is prevalent; however, the role of these modifications is mostly unknown. We constructed an E. coli strain that lacked both known acetylation mechanisms to identify four new N?-lysine acetyltransferases (RimI, YiaC, YjaB, and PhnO). We used mass spectrometry to determine the substrate specificity of these acetyltransferases. Structural analysis of selected substrate proteins revealed site-specific preferences for enzymatic acetylation that had little overlap with the preferences of the previously reported acetyl-phosphate nonenzymatic acetylation mechanism. Finally, YiaC and YfiQ appear to regulate flagellum-based motility, a phenotype critical for pathogenesis of many organisms. These acetyltransferases are highly conserved and reveal deeper and more complex roles for bacterial posttranslational modification.
Project description:The Mre11-Rad50 (MR) protein complex, made up of a nuclease and ATPase, respectively, is involved in the processing of double-strand breaks as part of an intricate mechanism for their repair. Although it is clear that the MR complex is subject to allosteric regulation and that there is communication between the nuclease and ATPase active sites, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed statistical coupling analysis on Mre11 and Rad50 to predict linked residues based on their evolutionary correlation. This analysis predicted a coevolving sector of six residues that may be allosterically coupled. The prediction was tested using double-mutant cycle analysis of nuclease and ATPase activity. The results indicate that a tyrosine residue located near the active site of Mre11 is allosterically coupled to several Rad50 residues located over 40 Å away. This allosteric coupling may be the basis for the reciprocal regulation of the ATPase and nuclease activities of the complex.
Project description:In ubiquitination, cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) assist in ubiquitin transfer from ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 to the substrate. Neddylation, which involves NEDD8 transfer from E2 to E3-cullin, stimulates ubiquitination by inducing conformational change in CRLs. However, deneddylation, which removes NEDD8 from cullin, does not suppress ubiquitination in vivo, raising the question of how neddylation/deneddylation exerts its effects. Using molecular-dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that before neddylation occurs, the linker flexibility of Rbx1, a CRL component, leads to conformational changes in CRLs that allow neddylation and initiation of ubiquitination. These large NEDD8-induced conformational changes are retained after deneddylation, allowing both initiation of the ubiquitination process and ubiquitin chain elongation after deneddylation. Furthermore, mutation of lysine, the cullin residue to which NEDD8 covalently attaches, dramatically reduces CRL conformational changes, suggesting that the acceptor lysine allosterically regulates CRLs. Thus, our results imply that neddylation stimulates ubiquitination by CRL conformational control via lysine modification.
Project description:Proline utilization A proteins (PutAs) are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of proline to glutamate using spatially separated proline dehydrogenase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase active sites. Here we use the crystal structure of the minimalist PutA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BjPutA) along with sequence analysis to identify unique structural features of PutAs. This analysis shows that PutAs have secondary structural elements and domains not found in the related monofunctional enzymes. Some of these extra features are predicted to be important for substrate channeling in BjPutA. Multiple sequence alignment analysis shows that some PutAs have a 17-residue conserved motif in the C-terminal 20-30 residues of the polypeptide chain. The BjPutA structure shows that this motif helps seal the internal substrate-channeling cavity from the bulk medium. Finally, it is shown that some PutAs have a 100-200 residue domain of unknown function in the C-terminus that is not found in minimalist PutAs. Remote homology detection suggests that this domain is homologous to the oligomerization beta-hairpin and Rossmann fold domain of BjPutA.
Project description:How do the cullins, with conserved structures, accommodate substrate-binding proteins with distinct shapes and sizes? Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases facilitate ubiquitin transfer from E2 to the substrate, tagging the substrate for degradation. They contain substrate-binding, adaptor, cullin, and Rbx proteins. Previously, we showed that substrate-binding and Rbx proteins are flexible. This allows shortening of the E2-substrate distance for initiation of ubiquitination or increasing the distance to accommodate the polyubiquitin chain. However, the role of the cullin remained unclear. Is cullin a rigid scaffold, or is it flexible and actively assists in the ubiquitin transfer reaction? Why are there different cullins, and how do these cullins specifically facilitate ubiquitination for different substrates? To answer these questions, we performed structural analysis and molecular dynamics simulations based on Cul1, Cul4A, and Cul5 crystal structures. Our results show that these three cullins are not rigid scaffolds but are flexible with conserved hinges in the N-terminal domain. However, the degrees of flexibilities are distinct among the different cullins. Of interest, Cul1 flexibility can also be changed by deletion of the long loop (which is absent in Cul4A) in the N-terminal domain, suggesting that the loop may have an allosteric functional role. In all three cases, these conformational changes increase the E2-substrate distance to a specific range to facilitate polyubiquitination, suggesting that rather than being inert scaffold proteins, cullins allosterically regulate ubiquitination.
Project description:The allosteric mechanism of Hsp70 molecular chaperones enables ATP binding to the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) to alter substrate affinity to the C-terminal substrate-binding domain (SBD) and substrate binding to enhance ATP hydrolysis. Cycling between ATP-bound and ADP/substrate-bound states requires Hsp70s to visit a state with high ATPase activity and fast on/off kinetics of substrate binding. We have trapped this "allosterically active" state for the E. coli Hsp70, DnaK, and identified how interactions among the NBD, the ? subdomain of the SBD, the SBD ?-helical lid, and the conserved hydrophobic interdomain linker enable allosteric signal transmission between ligand-binding sites. Allostery in Hsp70s results from an energetic tug-of-war between domain conformations and formation of two orthogonal interfaces: between the NBD and SBD, and between the helical lid and the ? subdomain of the SBD. The resulting energetic tension underlies Hsp70 functional properties and enables them to be modulated by ligands and cochaperones and "tuned" through evolution.
Project description:We have investigated recently reported computationally designed retroaldolase enzymes with the goal of understanding the extent and the origins of their catalytic power. Direct comparison of the designed enzymes to primary amine catalysts in solution revealed a rate acceleration of 10(5)-fold for the most active of the designed retroaldolases. Through pH-rate studies of the designed retroaldolases and evaluation of a Brønsted correlation for a series of amine catalysts, we found that lysine pK(a) values are shifted by 3-4 units in the enzymes but that the catalytic contributions from the shifted pK(a) values are estimated to be modest, about 10-fold. For the most active of the reported enzymes, we evaluated the catalytic contribution of two other design components: a motif intended to stabilize a bound water molecule and hydrophobic substrate binding interactions. Mutational analysis suggested that the bound water motif does not contribute to the rate acceleration. Comparison of the rate acceleration of the designed substrate relative to a minimal substrate suggested that hydrophobic substrate binding interactions contribute around 10(3)-fold to the enzymatic rate acceleration. Altogether, these results suggest that substrate binding interactions and shifting the pK(a) of the catalytic lysine can account for much of the enzyme's rate acceleration. Additional observations suggest that these interactions are limited in the specificity of placement of substrate and active site catalytic groups. Thus, future design efforts may benefit from a focus on achieving precision in binding interactions and placement of catalytic groups.
Project description:Integrins are heterodimeric cell-adhesion receptors comprising ? and ? subunits that transmit signals allosterically in both directions across the membrane by binding to intra- and extracellular components. The human platelet antigen-1 (HPA-1) polymorphism in ?IIb?3 arises from a Leu ? Pro exchange at residue 33 in the genu of the ?3 subunit, resulting in Leu33 (HPA-1a) or Pro33 (HPA-1b) isoforms. Although clinical investigations have provided conflicting results, some studies have suggested that Pro33 platelets exhibit increased thrombogenicity. Under flow-dynamic conditions, the Pro33 variant displays prothrombotic properties, characterized by increased platelet adhesion, aggregate/thrombus formation, and outside-in signaling. However, the molecular events underlying this prothrombotic phenotype have remained elusive. As residue 33 is located >80 Å away from extracellular binding sites or transmembrane domains, we hypothesized that the Leu ? Pro exchange allosterically shifts the dynamic conformational equilibrium of ?IIb?3 toward an active state. Multiple microsecond-long, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the ectodomain of the Leu33 and Pro33 isoforms provided evidence that the Leu ? Pro exchange weakens interdomain interactions at the genu and alters the structural dynamics of the integrin to a more unbent and splayed state. Using FRET analysis of fluorescent proteins fused with ?IIb?3 in transfected HEK293 cells, we found that the Pro33 variant in its resting state displays a lower energy transfer than the Leu33 isoform. This finding indicated a larger spatial separation of the cytoplasmic tails in the Pro33 variant. Together, our results indicate that the Leu ? Pro exchange allosterically shifts the dynamic conformational equilibrium of ?IIb?3 to a structural state closer to the active one, promoting the fully active state and fostering the prothrombotic phenotype of Pro33 platelets.
Project description:Galpha(q) directly activates p63RhoGEF and closely related catalytic domains found in Trio and Kalirin, thereby linking G(q)-coupled receptors to the activation of RhoA. Although the crystal structure of G alpha(q) in complex with the catalytic domains of p63RhoGEF is available, the molecular mechanism of activation has not yet been defined. In this study, we show that membrane translocation does not appear to play a role in G alpha(q)-mediated activation of p63RhoGEF, as it does in some other RhoGEFs. G alpha(q) instead must act allosterically. We next identify specific structural elements in the PH domain that inhibit basal nucleotide exchange activity, and provide evidence that G alpha(q) overcomes this inhibition by altering the conformation of the alpha 6-alpha N linker that joins the DH and PH domains, a region that forms direct contacts with RhoA. We also identify residues in G alpha(q) that are important for the activation of p63RhoGEF and that contribute to G alpha subfamily selectivity, including a critical residue in the G alpha(q) C-terminal helix, and demonstrate the importance of these residues for RhoA activation in living cells.
Project description:Enzyme-catalyzed addition of biotin to proteins is highly specific. In any single organism one or a small number of proteins are biotinylated and only a single lysine on each of these proteins is modified. A detailed understanding of the structural basis for the selective biotinylation process has not yet been elucidated. Recently certain mutants of the Escherichia coli biotin protein ligase have been shown to mediate "promiscuous" biotinylation of proteins. It was suggested that the reaction involved diffusion of a reactive activated biotin intermediate, biotinoyl-5'-AMP, with nonspecific proteins. In this work the reactivity of this chemically synthesized intermediate toward the natural target of enzymatic biotinylation, the biotin carboxyl carrier protein, was investigated. The results indicate that the intermediate does, indeed, react with target protein, albeit at a significantly slower rate than the enzyme-catalyzed process. Surprisingly, analysis of the products of nonenzymatic biotinylation indicates that of five lysine residues in the protein only the physiological target side chain is modified. These results indicate that either the environment of this lysine residue or its intrinsic properties render it highly reactive to nonenzymatic biotinylation mediated by biotinoyl-5'-AMP. This reactivity may be important for its selective biotinylation in vivo.