Rab8, POSH, and TAK1 regulate synaptic growth in a Drosophila model of frontotemporal dementia.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in genes essential for protein homeostasis have been identified in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Why mature neurons should be particularly sensitive to such perturbations is unclear. We identified mutations in Rab8 in a genetic screen for enhancement of an FTD phenotype associated with ESCRT-III dysfunction. Examination of Rab8 mutants or motor neurons expressing a mutant ESCRT-III subunit, CHMP2B(Intron5), at the Drosophila melanogaster neuromuscular junction synapse revealed synaptic overgrowth and endosomal dysfunction. Expression of Rab8 rescued overgrowth phenotypes generated by CHMP2B(Intron5). In Rab8 mutant synapses, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 and TGF-? signaling were overactivated and acted synergistically to potentiate synaptic growth. We identify novel roles for endosomal JNK-scaffold POSH (Plenty-of-SH3s) and a JNK kinase kinase, TAK1, in regulating growth activation in Rab8 mutants. Our data uncover Rab8, POSH, and TAK1 as regulators of synaptic growth responses and point to recycling endosome as a key compartment for synaptic growth regulation during neurodegenerative processes.
Project description:The highly conserved ESCRT-III complex is responsible for deformation and cleavage of membranes during endosomal trafficking and other cellular activities. In humans, dominant mutations in the ESCRT-III subunit CHMP2B cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The decade-long process leading to this cortical degeneration is not well understood. One possibility is that, akin to other neurodegenerative diseases, the pathogenic protein affects the integrity of dendritic spines and synapses before any neuronal death. Using confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction, we examined whether expressing the FTD-linked mutants CHMP2B(intron5) and CHMP2B(Delta10) in cultured hippocampal neurons modified the number or structure of spines. Both mutants induced a significant decrease in the proportion of large spines with mushroom morphology, without overt degeneration. Furthermore, CHMP2B(Delta10) induced a drop in frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents, suggesting that the more potent synapses were lost. These effects seemed unrelated to changes in autophagy. Depletion of endogenous CHMP2B by RNAi resulted in morphological changes similar to those induced by mutant CHMP2B, consistent with dominant-negative activity of pathogenic mutants. Thus, CHMP2B is required for spine growth. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a mutant ESCRT-III subunit linked to a human neurodegenerative disease can disrupt the normal pattern of spine development.
Project description:Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) mediate sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins into multivesicular bodies en route to lysosomes for degradation. A mutation in CHMP2B (CHMP2B(Intron5), an ESCRT-III component) that is associated with a hereditary form of frontotemporal dementia (FTD3) disrupts the endosomal-lysosomal pathway and causes accumulation of autophagosomes and multilamellar structures. We previously demonstrated that expression of CHMP2B(Intron5) in the Drosophila eye using GMR-Gal4 causes misregulation of the Toll receptor pathway. Here, we show that ectopic expression of CHMP2B(Intron5) using eyeless-Gal4 (ey>CHMP2B(Intron5)), a driver with different spatiotemporal expression attributes than GMR-Gal4 in the Drosophila eye, causes eye deformities when compared to expression of wild-type CHMP2B (CHMP2B(WT)) and the Drosophila homologue of CHMP2B (CG4618). In addition, ey>CHMP2B(Intron5) flies showed defects in photoreceptor cell patterning and phototactic behavior. Furthermore, ey>CHMP2B(Intron5) flies showed accumulation of Notch in enlarged endosomes and up-regulation of Notch activity. Partial loss of Notch activity in ey>CHMP2B(Intron5) flies significantly rescued eye deformities, photoreceptor patterning defect, and phototactic behavior defect, indicating that these defects are primarily due to Notch misregulation. These results demonstrate that CHMP2B(Intron5) preferentially affects different receptor signaling pathways in a cellular and developmental context-dependent manner.
Project description:POSH (Plenty of SH3 domains) is a scaffold for signaling proteins regulating cell survival. Specifically, POSH promotes assembly of a complex including Rac GTPase, mixed lineage kinase (MLK), MKK7, and Jun kinase (JNK). In Drosophila, genetic analysis implicated POSH in Tak1-dependent innate immune response, in part through regulation of JNK signaling. Homologs of the POSH signaling complex components, MLK and MKK7, are essential in Drosophila embryonic dorsal closure. Using a gain-of-function approach, we tested whether POSH plays a role in this process. Ectopic expression of POSH in the embryo causes dorsal closure defects due to apoptosis of the amnioserosa, but ectodermal JNK signaling is normal. Phenotypic consequences of POSH expression were found to be dependent on Drosophila Nc, the caspase-9 homolog, but only partially on Tak1 and not at all on Slpr and Hep. These results suggest that POSH may use different signaling complexes to promote cell death in distinct contexts.
Project description:Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the most common form of dementia before 60 years of age. Rare pathogenic mutations in CHMP2B, which encodes a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT-III), are associated with FTD linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). Animal models of FTD3 have not yet been reported, and what signaling pathways are misregulated by mutant CHMP2B in vivo is unknown. Here we report the establishment of a Drosophila model of FTD3 and show the genetic interactions between mutant CHMP2B and other components of ESCRT. Through an unbiased genome-wide screen, we identified 29 modifier loci and found that serpin5 (Spn5), a largely uncharacterized serine protease inhibitor, suppresses the melanization phenotype induced by mutant CHMP2B in the fly eye. We also found that Spn5 is a negative regulator of the Toll pathway and functions extracellularly, likely by blocking the proteolytic activation of Spaetzle, the Toll receptor ligand. Moreover, Spn5 inhibited activation of the Toll pathway by mutant CHMP2B. Our findings identify Spn5 as a regulator of the Toll pathway and CHMP2B toxicity and show that the Toll pathway is a major signaling pathway misregulated by mutant CHMP2B in vivo. This fly model will be useful to further dissect genetic pathways that are potentially relevant to the pathogenesis and treatment of FTD.
Project description:Mutations in CHMP2B cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in a large Danish pedigree, which is termed FTD linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3), and also in an unrelated familial FTD patient. CHMP2B is a component of the ESCRT-III complex, which is required for function of the multivesicular body (MVB), an endosomal structure that fuses with the lysosome to degrade endocytosed proteins. We report a novel endosomal pathology in CHMP2B mutation-positive patient brains and also identify and characterize abnormal endosomes in patient fibroblasts. Functional studies demonstrate a specific disruption of endosome-lysosome fusion but not protein sorting by the MVB. We provide evidence for a mechanism for impaired endosome-lysosome fusion whereby mutant CHMP2B constitutively binds to MVBs and prevents recruitment of proteins necessary for fusion to occur, such as Rab7. The fusion of endosomes with lysosomes is required for neuronal function and the data presented therefore suggest a pathogenic mechanism for FTD caused by CHMP2B mutations.
Project description:Imd-mediated innate immunity is activated in response to infection by Gram-negative bacteria and leads to the activation of Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and Relish, a nuclear factor-kappaB transcription factor responsible for the expression of antimicrobial peptides. Plenty of SH3s (POSH) has been shown to function as a scaffold protein for JNK activation, leading to apoptosis in mammals. Here, we report that POSH controls Imd-mediated immunity signalling in Drosophila. In POSH-deficient flies, JNK activation and Relish induction were delayed and sustained, which indicated that POSH is required for properly timed activation and termination of the cascade. The RING finger of POSH, possessing ubiquitin-ligase activity, was essential for termination of JNK activation. We show that POSH binds to and degrades TAK1, a crucial activator of both the JNK and the Relish signalling pathways. These results establish a novel role for POSH in the Drosophila immune system.
Project description:Transmembrane protein 106B (TMEM106B) has been identified as a risk factor for frontotemporal lobar degeneration, which is the second most common form of progressive dementia in people under 65 years of age. Mutations in charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B), which is involved in endosomal protein trafficking, have been found in chromosome 3-linked frontotemporal dementia. Despite the number of studies on both CHMP2B and TMEM106B in the endolysosomal pathway, little is known about the relationship between CHMP2B and TMEM106B in the endosomal/autophagy pathway.This study found that endogenous TMEM106B was partially sequestered in CHMP2B-positive structures, suggesting its possible involvement in endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-associated pathways. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms of TMEM106B (T185, S185, or S134N) in the ESCRT-associated pathways were characterized. The T185 and S185 variants were more localized to Rab5-/Rab7-positive endosomes compared with S134N, while all of the variants were more localized to Rab7-positive endosomes compared to Rab5-positive endosomes. T185 was more associated with CHMP2B compared to S185. Autophagic flux was slightly reduced in the T185-expressing cells compared to the control or S185-expressing cells. Moreover, T185 slightly enhanced the accumulation of EGFR, impairments in autophagic flux, and neurotoxicity that were caused by CHMP2B(Intron5) compared to S185-expressing cells.These findings suggest that the T185 variant functions as a risk factor in neurodegeneration with endolysosomal defects. This study provides a better understanding of pathogenic functions of TMEM106B, which is a risk factor for the progression of neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with endosomal defects in the aged brain.
Project description:Mutations in CHMP2B, encoding a protein in the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, causes frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). FTD, the second most common form of pre-senile dementia, can also be caused by genetic mutations in other genes, including TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). How FTD-causing disease genes interact is largely unknown. We found that partial loss function of Ik2, the fly homologue of TBK1 also known as I-kappaB kinase ? (IKK?), enhanced the toxicity of mutant CHMP2B in the fly eye and that Ik2 overexpression suppressed the effect of mutant CHMP2B in neurons. Partial loss of function of Spn-F, a downstream phosphorylation target of Ik2, greatly enhanced the mutant CHMP2B phenotype. An interactome analysis to understand cellular processes regulated by Spn-F identified a network of interacting proteins including Spn-F, Ik2, dynein light chain, and Hook, an adaptor protein in early endosome transport. Partial loss of function of dynein light chain or Hook also enhanced mutant CHMP2B toxicity. These findings identify several evolutionarily conserved genes, including ik2/TBK1, cut up (encoding dynein light chain) and hook, as genetic modifiers of FTD3-associated mutant CHMP2B toxicity and implicate early endosome transport as a potential contributing pathway in FTD.
Project description:Autophagy is a conserved lysosomal protein degradation pathway whose precise roles in age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases remain largely unknown. Here we show that the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine delays neuronal cell loss caused by dysfunctional endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III), either through loss of its essential component mSnf7-2 or ectopic expression of the disease protein CHMP2B(Intron5), which is associated with frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3. Neuronal loss was also delayed by reduced activity of the autophagy genes atg5 and atg7. However, the endosomal accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins induced by dysfunctional ESCRT-III was not significantly affected, further confirming the essential contribution of dysregulated autophagy pathway in neurodegeneration. These findings show that autophagic stress by excess accumulation of autophagosomes is detrimental to neuronal survival under certain neurodegenerative conditions.
Project description:The charged multivesicular body proteins (Chmp1-7) are an evolutionarily conserved family of cytosolic proteins that transiently assembles into helical polymers that change the curvature of cellular membrane domains. Mutations in human CHMP2B cause frontotemporal dementia, suggesting that this protein may normally control some neuron-specific process. Here, we examined the function, localization, and interactions of neuronal Chmp2b. The protein was highly expressed in mouse brain and could be readily detected in neuronal dendrites and spines. Depletion of endogenous Chmp2b reduced dendritic branching of cultured hippocampal neurons, decreased excitatory synapse density in vitro and in vivo, and abolished activity-induced spine enlargement and synaptic potentiation. To understand the synaptic effects of Chmp2b, we determined its ultrastructural distribution by quantitative immuno-electron microscopy and its biochemical interactions by coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. In the hippocampus in situ, a subset of neuronal Chmp2b was shown to concentrate beneath the perisynaptic membrane of dendritic spines. In synaptoneurosome lysates, Chmp2b was stably bound to a large complex containing other members of the Chmp family, as well as postsynaptic scaffolds. The supramolecular Chmp assembly detected here corresponds to a stable form of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III (ESCRT-III), a ubiquitous cytoplasmic protein complex known to play a central role in remodeling of lipid membranes. We conclude that Chmp2b-containing ESCRT-III complexes are also present at dendritic spines, where they regulate synaptic plasticity. We propose that synaptic ESCRT-III filaments may function as a novel element of the submembrane cytoskeleton of spines.