Acetylproteomic analysis reveals functional implications of lysine acetylation in human spermatozoa (sperm).
ABSTRACT: Male infertility is a medical condition that has been on the rise globally. Lysine acetylation of human sperm, an essential posttranslational modification involved in the etiology of sperm abnormality, is not fully understood. Therefore, we first generated a qualified pan-anti-acetyllysine monoclonal antibody to characterize the global lysine acetylation of uncapacitated normal human sperm with a proteomics approach. With high enrichment ratios that were up to 31%, 973 lysine-acetylated sites that matched to 456 human sperm proteins, including 671 novel lysine acetylation sites and 205 novel lysine-acetylated proteins, were identified. These proteins exhibited conserved motifs XXXKYXXX, XXXKFXXX, and XXXKHXXX, were annotated to function in multiple metabolic processes, and were localized predominantly in the mitochondrion and cytoplasmic fractions. Between the uncapacitated and capacitated sperm, different acetylation profiles in regard to functional proteins involved in sperm capacitation, sperm-egg recognition, sperm-egg plasma fusion, and fertilization were observed, indicating that acetylation of functional proteins may be required during sperm capacitation. Bioinformatics analysis revealed association of acetylated proteins with diseases and drugs. Novel acetylation of voltage-dependent anion channel proteins was also found. With clinical sperm samples, we observed differed lysine acetyltransferases and lysine deacetylases expression between normal sperm and abnormal sperm of asthenospermia or necrospermia. Furthermore, with sperm samples impaired by epigallocatechin gallate to mimic asthenospermia, we observed that inhibition of sperm motility was partly through the blockade of voltage-dependent anion channel 2 Lys-74 acetylation combined with reduced ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, we obtained a qualified pan-anti-acetyllysine monoclonal antibody, analyzed the acetylproteome of uncapacitated human sperm, and revealed associations between functional protein acetylation and sperm functions.
Project description:Mammalian sperm are unable to fertilize the egg immediately after ejaculation. To gain fertilization competence, they need to undergo a series of modifications inside the female reproductive tract, known as capacitation. Capacitation involves several molecular events such as phosphorylation cascades, hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane and intracellular Ca2+ changes, which prepare the sperm to develop two essential features for fertilization competence: hyperactivation and acrosome reaction. Since sperm cells lack new protein biosynthesis, post-translational modification of existing proteins plays a crucial role to obtain full functionality. Here, we show the presence of acetylated proteins in murine sperm, which increase during capacitation. Pharmacological hyperacetylation of lysine residues in non-capacitated sperm induces activation of PKA, hyperpolarization of the sperm plasma membrane, CatSper opening and Ca2+ influx, all capacitation-associated molecular events. Furthermore, hyperacetylation of non-capacitated sperm promotes hyperactivation and prepares the sperm to undergo acrosome reaction. Together, these results indicate that acetylation could be involved in the acquisition of fertilization competence of mammalian sperm.
Project description:Lysine acetylation is a prevalent post-translational modification in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Whereas this modification is known to play pivotal roles in eukaryotes, the function and extent of this modification in prokaryotic cells remain largely unexplored. Here we report the acetylome of a pair of antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii SK17-S and SK17-R. A total of 145 lysine acetylation sites on 125 proteins was identified, and there are 23 acetylated proteins found in both strains, including histone-like protein HU which was found to be acetylated at Lys13. HU is a dimeric DNA-binding protein critical for maintaining chromosomal architecture and other DNA-dependent functions. To analyze the effects of site-specific acetylation, homogenously Lys13-acetylated HU protein, HU(K13ac) was prepared by genetic code expansion. Whilst not exerting an obvious effect on the oligomeric state, Lys13 acetylation alters both the thermal stability and DNA binding kinetics of HU. Accordingly, this modification likely destabilizes the chromosome structure and regulates bacterial gene transcription. This work indicates that acetyllysine plays an important role in bacterial epigenetics.
Project description:Schistosomiasis is a devastating parasitic disease caused by tremotodes of the genus Schistosoma. Eggs produced by sexually mature schistosomes are the causative agents of for pathogenesis and transmission. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of schistosome development and sexual maturation would facilitate the prevention and control of schistosomiasis. Acetylation of lysine is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification playing keys role in many biological processes including development in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. To investigate the impacts of lysine acetylation on Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) development and sexual maturation, we used immunoaffinity-based acetyllysine peptide enrichment combined with mass spectrometry (MS), to perform the first comparative analysis of proteome-wide lysine acetylation in both female and male, juvenile (18 days post infection, 18 dpi) and adult (28 dpi) schistosome samples. In total, we identified 874 unique acetylated sites in 494 acetylated proteins. The four samples shared 47 acetylated sites and 46 proteins. More acetylated sites and proteins shared by both females and males were identified in 28 dpi adults (189 and 143, respectively) than in 18 dpi schistosomula (76 and 59, respectively). More stage-unique acetylated sites and proteins were also identified in 28 dpi adults (494 and 210, respectively) than in 18 dpi schistosomula (73 and 44, respectively). Functional annotation showed that in different developmental stages and genders, a number of proteins involving in muscle movement, glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, environmental stress resistance, antioxidation, etc., displayed distinct acetylation profiles, which was in accordance with the changes of their biological functions during schistosome development, suggesting that lysine acetylation modification exerted important regulatory roles in schistosome development. Taken together, our data provided the first comparative global survey of lysine acetylation in juvenile and adult S. japonicum, which would deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanism of schistosome development and sexual maturation, and provide clues for the development of new anti-schistosome strategies.
Project description:Protein acetylation plays important roles in many biological processes. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), a key enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, has been identified to be acetylated in bacteria by proteomic studies, but no further characterization has been reported. One challenge for studying protein acetylation is to get purely acetylated proteins at specific positions. Here, we applied the genetic code expansion strategy to site-specifically incorporate N?-acetyllysine into MDH. The acetylation of lysine residues in MDH could enhance its enzyme activity. The Escherichia coli deacetylase CobB could deacetylate acetylated MDH, while the E. coli acetyltransferase YfiQ cannot acetylate MDH efficiently. Our results also demonstrated that acetyl-CoA or acetyl-phosphate could acetylate MDH chemically in vitro. Furthermore, the acetylation level of MDH was shown to be affected by carbon sources in the growth medium.
Project description:N?-lysine acetylation represents a highly dynamic and reversibly regulated post-translational modification widespread in almost all organisms, and plays important roles for regulation of protein function in diverse metabolic pathways. However, little is known about the role of lysine acetylation in photosynthetic eukaryotic microalgae. We integrated proteomic approaches to comprehensively characterize the lysine acetylome in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum In total, 2324 acetylation sites from 1220 acetylated proteins were identified, representing the largest data set of the lysine acetylome in plants to date. Almost all enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis were found to be lysine acetylated. Six putative lysine acetylation sites were identified in a plastid-localized long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. Site-directed mutagenesis and site-specific incorporation of N-acetyllysine in acyl-CoA synthetase show that acetylation at K407 and K425 increases its enzyme activity. Moreover, the nonenzymatically catalyzed overall hyperacetylation of acyl-CoA synthetase by acetyl-phosphate can be effectively deacetylated and reversed by a sirtuin-type NAD+-dependent deacetylase with subcellular localization of both the plastid and nucleus in Phaeodactylum This work indicates the regulation of acyl-CoA synthetase activity by site-specific lysine acetylation and highlights the potential regulation of fatty acid metabolism by lysine actetylation in the plastid of the diatom Phaeodactylum.
Project description:N(ε) -lysine acetylation is an abundant posttranslational modification of thousands of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. In the model bacterium Escherichia coli, the ε-amino group of a lysine residue can be acetylated either catalytically by acetyl-coenzyme A (acCoA) and lysine acetyltransferases, or nonenzymatically by acetyl phosphate (acP). It is well known that catalytic acCoA-dependent N(ε) -lysine acetylation can be reversed by deacetylases. Here, we provide genetic, mass spectrometric, structural and immunological evidence that CobB, a deacetylase of the sirtuin family of NAD(+) -dependent deacetylases, can reverse acetylation regardless of acetyl donor or acetylation mechanism. We analyzed 69 lysines on 51 proteins that we had previously detected as robustly, reproducibly, and significantly more acetylated in a cobB mutant than in its wild-type parent. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses supported the hypothesis that CobB regulates protein function in diverse and often essential cellular processes, most notably translation. Combined mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, and protein structural data provided evidence that the accessibility and three-dimensional microenvironment of the target acetyllysine help determine CobB specificity. Finally, we provide evidence that CobB is the predominate deacetylase in E. coli.
Project description:Protein lysine acetylation is a reversible and dynamic post-translational modification. It plays an important role in regulating diverse cellular processes including chromatin dynamic, metabolic pathways, and transcription in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although studies of lysine acetylome in plants have been reported, the throughput was not high enough, hindering the deep understanding of lysine acetylation in plant physiology and pathology. In this study, taking advantages of anti-acetyllysine-based enrichment and high-sensitive-mass spectrometer, we applied an integrated proteomic approach to comprehensively investigate lysine acetylome in strawberry. In total, we identified 1392 acetylation sites in 684 proteins, representing the largest dataset of acetylome in plants to date. To reveal the functional impacts of lysine acetylation in strawberry, intensive bioinformatic analysis was performed. The results significantly expanded our current understanding of plant acetylome and demonstrated that lysine acetylation is involved in multiple cellular metabolism and cellular processes. More interestingly, nearly 50% of all acetylated proteins identified in this work were localized in chloroplast and the vital role of lysine acetylation in photosynthesis was also revealed. Taken together, this study not only established the most extensive lysine acetylome in plants to date, but also systematically suggests the significant and unique roles of lysine acetylation in plants.
Project description:?-Crystallin is a major protein in the human lens that is perceived to help to maintain the transparency of the lens through its chaperone function. In this study, we demonstrate that many lens proteins including ?A-crystallin are acetylated in vivo. We found that K70 and K99 in ?A-crystallin and, K92 and K166 in ?B-crystallin are acetylated in the human lens. To determine the effect of acetylation on the chaperone function and structural changes, ?A-crystallin was acetylated using acetic anhydride. The resulting protein showed strong immunoreactivity against a N(?)-acetyllysine antibody, which was directly related to the degree of acetylation. When compared to the unmodified protein, the chaperone function of the in vitro acetylated ?A-crystallin was higher against three of the four different client proteins tested. Because a lysine (residue 70; K70) in ?A-crystallin is acetylated in vivo, we generated a protein with an acetylation mimic, replacing Lys70 with glutamine (K70Q). The K70Q mutant protein showed increased chaperone function against three client proteins compared to the Wt protein but decreased chaperone function against ?-crystallin. The acetylated protein displayed higher surface hydrophobicity and tryptophan fluorescence, had altered secondary and tertiary structures and displayed decreased thermodynamic stability. Together, our data suggest that acetylation of ?A-crystallin occurs in the human lens and that it affects the chaperone function of the protein.
Project description:Several enzymes involved in central carbon metabolism such as isocitrate lyase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase are key determinants of pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). In this study, we found that lysine acetylation plays an important role in the modulation of central carbon metabolism in M. tb. Mutant of M. tb defective in sirtuin deacetylase exhibited improved growth in fatty acid-containing media. Global analysis of lysine acetylome of M. tb identified three acetylated lysine residues (K322, K331, and K392) of isocitrate lyase (ICL1). Using a genetically encoding system, we demonstrated that acetylation of K392 increased the enzyme activity of ICL1, whereas acetylation of K322 decreased its activity. Antibodies that specifically recognized acetyllysine at 392 and 322 of ICL1 were used to monitor the levels of ICL1 acetylation in M. tb cultures. The physiological significance of ICL1 acetylation was demonstrated by the observation that M. tb altered the levels of acetylated K392 in response to changes of carbon sources, and that acetylation of K392 affected the abundance of ICL1 protein. Our study has uncovered another regulatory mechanism of ICL1.
Project description:The YEATS domain, found in a number of chromatin-associated proteins, has recently been shown to have the capacity to bind histone lysine acetylation. Here, we show that the YEATS domain of Taf14, a member of key transcriptional and chromatin-modifying complexes in yeast, is a selective reader of histone H3 Lys9 acetylation (H3K9ac). Structural analysis reveals that acetylated Lys9 is sandwiched in an aromatic cage formed by F62 and W81. Disruption of this binding in cells impairs gene transcription and the DNA damage response. Our findings establish a highly conserved acetyllysine reader function for the YEATS domain protein family and highlight the significance of this interaction for Taf14.