Comparative Modeling and Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Substrate Binding in Human Fatty Acid Synthase: Enoyl Reductase and ?-Ketoacyl Reductase Catalytic Domains.
ABSTRACT: Fatty acid synthase (FASN, EC 22.214.171.124), is a multi-enzyme dimer complex that plays a critical role in lipogenesis. This lipogenic enzyme has gained importance beyond its physiological role due to its implications in several clinical conditions-cancers, obesity, and diabetes. This has made FASN an attractive pharmacological target. Here, we have attempted to predict the theoretical models for the human enoyl reductase (ER) and ?-ketoacyl reductase (KR) domains based on the porcine FASN crystal structure, which was the structurally closest template available at the time of this study. Comparative modeling methods were used for studying the structure-function relationships. Different validation studies revealed the predicted structures to be highly plausible. The respective substrates of ER and KR domains-namely, trans-butenoyl and ?-ketobutyryl-were computationally docked into active sites using Glide in order to understand the probable binding mode. The molecular dynamics simulations of the apo and holo states of ER and KR showed stable backbone root mean square deviation trajectories with minimal deviation. Ramachandran plot analysis showed 96.0% of residues in the most favorable region for ER and 90.3% for the KR domain, respectively. Thus, the predicted models yielded significant insights into the substrate binding modes of the ER and KR catalytic domains and will aid in identifying novel chemical inhibitors of human FASN that target these domains.
Project description:Aurantiochytrium limacinum has received attention because of its abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). DHA is synthesized through the polyketide synthase (PKS) pathway in A. limacinum. The related enzymes of the PKS pathway are mainly expressed by three gene clusters, called pks1, pks2 and pks3. In this study, the full-length pks3 gene was obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification and Genome Walking technology. Based on a domain analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the pks3 gene, 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (KR) and dehydratase (DH) enzyme domains were identified. Herein, A. limacinum OUC168 was engineered by gene knock-in of KR and DH using the 18S rDNA sequence as the homologous recombination site. Total fatty acid contents and the degree of unsaturation of total fatty acids increased after the kr or dh gene was knocked in. The cloning and functional study of the pks3 gene of A. limacinum establishes a foundation for revealing the DHA synthetic pathway. Gene knock-in of the enzyme domain associated with PKS synthesis has the potential to provide effective recombinant strains with higher DHA content for industrial applications.
Project description:The dehydratase domain FosDH1 from module 1 of the fostriecin polyketide synthase (PKS) catalyzed the stereospecific interconversion of (3R)-3-hydroxybutyryl-FosACP1 (5) and (E)-2-butenoyl-FosACP1 (11), as established by a combination of direct LC-MS/MS and chiral GC-MS. FosDH1 did not act on either (3S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-FosACP1 (6) or (Z)-2-butenoyl-FosACP1 (12). FosKR2, the ketoreductase from module 2 of the fostriecin PKS that normally provides the natural substrate for FosDH2, was shown to catalyze the NADPH-dependent stereospecific reduction of 3-ketobutyryl-FosACP2 (23) to (3S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-FosACP2 (8). Consistent with this finding, FosDH2 catalyzed the interconversion of the corresponding triketide substrates (3R,4E)-3-hydroxy-4-hexenoyl-FosACP2 (18) and (2Z,4E)-2,4-hexadienoyl-FosACP2 (21). FosDH2 also catalyzed the stereospecific hydration of (Z)-2-butenoyl-FosACP2 (14) to (3S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-FosACP2 (8). Although incubation of FosDH2 with (3S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-FosACP2 (8) did not result in detectable accumulation of (Z)-2-butenoyl-FosACP2 (14), FosDH2 catalyzed the slow exchange of the 3-hydroxy group of 8 with [18O]-water. FosDH2 unexpectedly could also support the stereospecific interconversion of (3R)-3-hydroxybutyryl-FosACP2 (7) and (E)-2-butenoyl-FosACP2 (13).
Project description:The polyketide signaling metabolites bacillaene and dihydrobacillaene are biosynthesized in Bacillus subtilis on an enzymatic assembly line with both nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) modules acting along with catalytic domains servicing the assembly line in trans. These signaling metabolites possess the unusual starter unit alpha-hydroxyisocaproate (alpha-HIC). We show here that it arises from initial activation of alpha-ketoisocaproate (alpha-KIC) by the first adenylation domain of PksJ (a hybrid PKS/NRPS) and installation on the pantetheinyl arm of the adjacent thiolation (T) domain. The alpha-KIC unit is elongated to alpha-KIC-Gly by the second NRPS module in PksJ as demonstrated by mass spectrometric analysis. The third module of PksJ uses PKS logic and contains an embedded ketoreductase (KR) domain along with two adjacent T domains. We show that this KR domain reduces canonical 3-ketobutyryl chains but also the alpha-keto group of alpha-KIC-containing intermediates on the PksJ T-domain doublet. This KR activity accounts for the alpha-HIC moiety found in the dihydrobacillaene/bacillaene pair and represents an example of an assembly-line dual-function alpha- and beta-KR acting on disparate positions of a growing chain intermediate.
Project description:The role of the conserved active site tyrosine and serine residues in epimerization catalyzed by polyketide synthase ketoreductase (PKS KR) domains has been investigated. Both mutant and wild-type forms of epimerase-active KR domains, including the intrinsically redox-inactive EryKR3° and PicKR3° as well as redox-inactive mutants of EryKR1, were incubated with [2-(2)H]-(2R,3S)-2-methyl-3-hydroxypentanoyl-SACP ([2-(2)H]-2) and 0.05 equiv of NADP(+) in the presence of the redox-active, epimerase-inactive EryKR6 domain. The residual epimerase activity of each mutant was determined by tandem equilibrium isotope exchange, in which the first-order, time-dependent washout of isotope from 2 was monitored by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with quantitation of the deuterium content of the diagnostic pantetheinate ejection fragment (4). Replacement of the active site Tyr or Ser residues, alone or together, significantly reduced the observed epimerase activity of each KR domain with minimal effect on substrate binding. Our results demonstrate that the epimerase and reductase activities of PKS KR domains share a common active site, with both reactions utilizing the same pair of Tyr and Ser residues.
Project description:Kr-pok (kidney cancer-related POZ domain and Krüppel-like protein) is a new proto-oncogenic POZ-domain transcription factor. Fatty acid synthase gene (FASN) encodes one of the key enzymes in fatty acids synthesis and is the only enzyme that synthesizes fatty acids in cancer cells. Sp1 and SREBP-1c are the two major transcription activators of FASN. We investigated whether Kr-pok modulates transcription of the FASN. FASN expression is significantly decreased in Kr-pok knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts. Coimmunoprecipitation, GST fusion protein pull-down, and immunocytochemistry assays show that the zinc-finger domain of Kr-pok interacts directly with the bZIP DNA binding domain of SREBP-1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, oligonucleotide pull-down, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Kr-pok changes the transcription factor binding dynamics of Sp1 and SREBP-1c to the SRE/E-box elements of the proximal promoter. We found that Kr-pok expression increased during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and that FASN expression is decreased by the knockdown of Kr-pok. Kr-pok facilitates the SREBP-1c-mediated preadipocyte differentiation and/or fatty acid synthesis. Kr-pok may act as an important regulator of fatty acid synthesis and may induce rapid cancer cell proliferation by increasing palmitate synthesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Modular polyketide synthases are multifunctional megasynthases which biosynthesize a variety of secondary metabolites using various combinations of dehydratase (DH), ketoreductase (KR) and enoyl-reductase (ER) domains. During the catalysis of various reductive steps these domains act on a substrate moiety which is covalently attached to the phosphopantetheine (P-pant) group of the holo-Acyl Carrier Protein (holo-ACP) domain, thus necessitating the formation of holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes. Even though three dimensional structures are available for DH, KR and ACP domains, no structures are available for DH or KR domains in complex with ACP or substrate moieties. Since Ser of holo-ACP is covalently attached to a large phosphopantetheine group, obtaining complexes involving holo-ACP by standard protein-protein docking has been a difficult task. RESULTS: We have modeled the holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes for identifying specific residues on DH and KR domains which are involved in interaction with ACP, phosphopantetheine and substrate moiety. A novel combination of protein-protein and protein-ligand docking has been used to first model complexes involving apo-ACP and then dock the phosphopantetheine and substrate moieties using covalent connectivity between ACP, phosphopantetheine and substrate moiety as constraints. The holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes obtained from docking have been further refined by restraint free explicit solvent MD simulations to incorporate effects of ligand and receptor flexibilities. The results from 50?ns MD simulations reveal that substrate enters into a deep tunnel in DH domain while in case of KR domain the substrate binds a shallow surface exposed cavity. Interestingly, in case of DH domain the predicted binding site overlapped with the binding site in the inhibitor bound crystal structure of FabZ, the DH domain from E.Coli FAS. In case of KR domain, the substrate binding site identified by our simulations was in proximity of the known stereo-specificity determining residues. CONCLUSIONS: We have modeled the holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes and identified the specific residues on DH and KR domains which are involved in interaction with ACP, phosphopantetheine and substrate moiety. Analysis of the conservation profile of binding pocket residues in homologous sequences of DH and KR domains indicated that, these results can also be extrapolated to reductive domains of other modular PKS clusters.
Project description:In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a number of thioredoxin (Trx) superfamily proteins are present to enable correct disulfide bond formation of secretory and membrane proteins via Trx-like domains. Here, we identified a novel transmembrane Trx-like protein 4 (TMX4), in the ER of mammalian cells. TMX4, a type I transmembrane protein, was localized to the ER and possessed a Trx-like domain that faced the ER lumen. A maleimide alkylation assay showed that a catalytic CXXC motif in the TMX4 Trx-like domain underwent changes in its redox state depending on cellular redox conditions, and, in the normal state, most of the endogenous TMX4 existed in the oxidized form. Using a purified recombinant protein containing the Trx-like domain of TMX4 (TMX4-Trx), we confirmed that this domain had reductase activity in vitro. The redox potential of this domain (-171.5 mV; 30 degrees C at pH 7.0) indicated that TMX4 could work as a reductase in the environment of the ER. TMX4 had no effect on the acceleration of ER-associated degradation. Because TMX4 interacted with calnexin and ERp57 by co-immunoprecipitation assay, the role of TMX4 may be to enable protein folding in cooperation with these proteins consisting of folding complex in the ER.
Project description:The enoylreductase (ER) is the final common enzyme from modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) to be structurally characterized. The 3.0 Å-resolution structure of the didomain comprising the ketoreductase (KR) and ER from the second module of the spinosyn PKS reveals that ER shares an ?600-Å(2) interface with KR distinct from that of the related mammalian fatty acid synthase (FAS). In contrast to the ER domains of the mammalian FAS, the ER domains of the second module of the spinosyn PKS do not make contact across the two-fold axis of the synthase. This monomeric organization may have been necessary in the evolution of multimodular PKSs to enable acyl carrier proteins to access each of their cognate enzymes. The isolated ER domain showed activity toward a substrate analog, enabling us to determine the contributions of its active site residues.
Project description:The membrane domain of eukaryotic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) has the conserved capacity to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proliferation and membrane association into Organized Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (OSER) structures. These formations develop in response to overexpression of particular proteins, but also occur naturally in cells of the three eukaryotic kingdoms. Here, we characterize OSER structures induced by the membrane domain of <i>Arabidopsis</i> HMGR (1S domain). Immunochemical confocal and electron microscopy studies demonstrate that the 1S:GFP chimera co-localizes with high levels of endogenous HMGR in several ER compartments, such as the ER network, the nuclear envelope, the outer and internal membranes of HMGR vesicles and the OSER structures, which we name ER-HMGR domains. After high-pressure freezing, ER-HMGR domains show typical crystalloid, whorled and lamellar ultrastructural patterns, but with wide heterogeneous luminal spaces, indicating that the native OSER is looser and more flexible than previously reported. The formation of ER-HMGR domains is reversible. OSER structures grow by incorporation of ER membranes on their periphery and progressive compaction to the inside. The ER-HMGR domains are highly dynamic in their formation versus their disassembly, their variable spherical-ovoid shape, their fluctuating borders and their rapid intracellular movement, indicating that they are not mere ER membrane aggregates, but active components of the eukaryotic cell.
Project description:Fatty acid biosynthesis is an attractive target for anti-cancer therapeutics. The ocular cancer, retinoblastoma cells were treated with fatty acid synthase (FASN) enzyme inhibitors: cerulenin, triclosan and orlistat. The IC(50) and dose-dependent sensitivity of cancer cells to FASN inhibitors decrease in biologic enzyme activity, and cell morphology alterations were analysed. Molecular interactions of enzyme-inhibitor complexes were studied by molecular modelling and docking simulations. The crystal structures of ketoacyl synthase (PDB ID:3HHD) (cerulenin) and thioesterase (PDB ID:2PX6) (orlistat) domains of human FASN were utilized for docking, while for the non-crystallised human FASN enoyl reductase domain (triclosan), homology model was built and used for docking. All three inhibitors showed significant binding energy indicating stable complex formation with their respective FASN subunits. The predicted Ki value of the FASN inhibitors corroborated well with their corresponding anti-cancer effects.