Paracrine effects of transplanted myoblasts and relaxin on post-infarction heart remodelling.
ABSTRACT: In the post-infarcted heart, grafting of precursor cells may partially restore heart function but the improvement is modest and the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. Here, we explored this issue by transplanting C2C12 myoblasts, genetically engineered to express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or eGFP and the cardiotropic hormone relaxin (RLX) through coronary venous route to swine with experimental chronic myocardial infarction. The rationale was to deliver constant, biologically effective levels of RLX at the site of cell engraftment. One month after engraftment, histological analysis showed that C2C12 myoblasts selectively settled in the ischaemic scar and were located around blood vessels showing an activated endothelium (ICAM-1-,VCAM-positive). C2C12 myoblasts did not trans-differentiate towards a cardiac phenotype, but did induce extracellular matrix remodelling by the secretion of matrix metalloproteases (MMP) and increase microvessel density through the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Relaxin-producing C2C12 myoblasts displayed greater efficacy to engraft the post-ischaemic scar and to induce extracellular matrix re-modelling and angiogenesis as compared with the control cells. By echocardiography, C2C12-engrafted swine showed improved heart contractility compared with the ungrafted controls, especially those producing RLX. We suggest that the beneficial effects of myoblast grafting on cardiac function are primarily dependent on the paracrine effects of transplanted cells on extracellular matrix remodelling and vascularization. The combined treatment with myoblast transplantation and local RLX production may be helpful in preventing deleterious cardiac remodelling and may hold therapeutic possibility for post-infarcted patients.
Project description:PURPOSE:Relaxin (RLX) is a transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) antagonist that is believed to function as a potent collagen re-arranger and a major suppressor of extracellular matrix components. Adenoviruses (Ads) are accepted vectors for cancer gene therapy. However, repeated treatments of Ad are limited by short-term biological activity in vivo. The efficacy of sustained RLX expression to scar remodeling was assessed using an injectable alginate gel-matrix system. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Pig scar tissue was treated with relaxin-expressing Ad loaded in alginate gel (gel/Ad-RLX). Surface areas, color, and pliability of scars were compared, and various factors influencing scar formation and collagen arrangement were analyzed. RESULTS:Gel/Ad-RLX decreased scar size, color index, and pliability. Immunohistochemistry showed decreased levels of major extracellular matrix proteins in the gel/Ad-RLX-treated group. Furthermore, treatment with gel/Ad-RLX reduced expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin and markedly increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in pig scar tissues. Gel/Ad-RLX also significantly downregulated TGF-β1 and upregulated TGF-β3 mRNAs in pig scar tissues. CONCLUSION:These results support a prominent role for RLX in scar remodeling and suggest that gel/Ad-RLX may have therapeutic effects on scar formation.
Project description:The Igfn1 gene produces multiple proteins by alternative splicing predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. Igfn1 deficient clones derived from C2C12 myoblasts show reduced fusion index and morphological differences compared to control myotubes. Here, we first show that G:F actin ratios are significantly higher in differentiating IGFN1-deficient C2C12 myoblasts, suggesting that fusion and differentiation defects are underpinned by deficient actin remodelling. We obtained pull-downs from skeletal muscle with IGFN1 fragments and applied a proteomics approach. The proteomic composition of IGFN1 complexes identified the cytoskeleton and an association with the proteasome as the main networks. The actin nucleating protein COBL was selected for further validation. COBL is expressed in C2C12 myoblasts from the first stages of myoblast fusion but not in proliferating cells. COBL is also expressed in adult muscle and, as IGFN1, localizes to the Z-disc. We show that IGFN1 interacts, stabilizes and colocalizes with COBL and prevents the ability of COBL to form actin ruffles in COS7 cells. COBL loss of function C2C12-derived clones are able to fuse, therefore indicating that COBL or the IGFN1/COBL interaction are not essential for myoblast fusion.
Project description:Smoking is regarded as a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study investigates whether serelaxin (RLX, recombinant human relaxin-2) endowed with promising therapeutic properties in CVD, can be credited of a protective effect against cigarette smoke (CS)-induced vascular damage and dysfunction. Guinea pigs exposed daily to CS for 8 weeks were treated with vehicle or RLX, delivered by osmotic pumps at daily doses of 1 or 10 ?g. Controls were non-smoking animals. Other studies were performed on primary guinea pig aortic endothelial (GPAE) cells, challenged with CS extracts (CSE) in the absence and presence of 100 ng/ml (17 nmol/l) RLX. In aortic specimens from CS-exposed guinea pigs, both the contractile and the relaxant responses to phenylephrine and acetylcholine, respectively, were significantly reduced in amplitude and delayed, in keeping with the observed adverse remodelling of the aortic wall, endothelial injury and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) down-regulation. RLX at both doses maintained the aortic contractile and relaxant responses to a control-like pattern and counteracted aortic wall remodelling and endothelial derangement. The experiments with GPAE cells showed that CSE significantly decreased cell viability and eNOS expression and promoted apoptosis by sparkling oxygen free radical-related cytotoxicity, while RLX counterbalanced the adverse effects of CSE. These findings demonstrate that RLX is capable of counteracting CS-mediated vascular damage and dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress, thus adding a tile to the growing mosaic of the beneficial effects of RLX in CVD.
Project description:Decellularisation of skeletal muscle provides a system to study the interactions of myoblasts with muscle extracellular matrix (ECM). This study describes the efficient decellularisation of quadriceps muscle with the retention of matrix components and the use of this matrix for myoblast proliferation and differentiation under serum free culture conditions. Three decellularisation approaches were examined; the most effective was phospholipase A2 treatment, which removed cellular material while maximizing the retention of ECM components. Decellularised muscle matrices were then solubilized and used as substrates for C2C12 mouse myoblast serum free cultures. The muscle matrix supported myoblast proliferation and differentiation equally as well as collagen and fibronectin. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that myoblasts seeded on muscle matrix and fibronectin differentiated to form long, well-aligned myotubes, while myoblasts seeded on collagen were less organized. qPCR analyses showed a time dependent increase in genes involved in skeletal muscle differentiation and suggested that muscle-derived matrix may stimulate an increased rate of differentiation compared to collagen and fibronectin. Decellularized whole muscle three-dimensional scaffolds also supported cell adhesion and spreading, with myoblasts aligning along specific tracts of matrix proteins within the scaffolds. Thus, under serum free conditions, intact acellular muscle matrices provided cues to direct myoblast adhesion and migration. In addition, myoblasts were shown to rapidly secrete and organise their own matrix glycoproteins to create a localized ECM microenvironment. This serum free culture system has revealed that the correct muscle ECM facilitates more rapid cell organisation and differentiation than single matrix glycoprotein substrates.
Project description:Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a cytokine with pleiotropic effects associated with several inflammatory diseases. Although elevated levels of IL-17 have been described in inflammatory myopathies, its role in muscle remodeling and regeneration is still unknown. Excessive extracellular matrix degradation in skeletal muscle is an important pathological consequence of many diseases involving muscle wasting. In this study, the role of IL-17 on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 in myoblast cells was investigated. The expression of MMP-9 after IL-17 treatment was analyzed in mouse myoblasts C2C12 cell line. The increase in MMP-9 production by IL-17 was concomitant with its capacity to inhibit myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. Doxycycline (Doxy) treatment protected the myogenic capacity of myoblasts from IL-17 inhibition and, moreover, increased myotubes hypertrophy. Doxy blocked the capacity of IL-17 to stimulate MMP-9 production by regulating IL-17-induced ERK1/2 MAPK activation. Our results imply that MMP-9 mediates IL-17's capacity to inhibit myoblast differentiation during inflammatory diseases and indicate that Doxy can modulate myoblast response to inflammatory induction by IL-17.
Project description:Skeletal myoblasts are used in repair of ischaemic myocardium. However, a large fraction of grafted myoblasts degenerate upon engraftment. Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) accelerates myoblast proliferation and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that CSF-1 overexpression improves myoblast survival and cardiac function in ischaemia-induced heart failure.Three weeks following myocardial infarction, rats developed heart failure and received intramyocardial injections of mouse CSF-1-transfected or untransfected primary autologous rat myoblasts, recombinant human CSF-1, mouse CSF-1 expressing plasmids, or culture medium. Tissue gene and protein expression was measured by quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and western blotting. Fluorescence imaging and immunocytochemistry were used to analyse myoblasts, endothelial cells, macrophages, and infarct wall thickening. Electrocardiograms were recorded online using a telemetry system. Left ventricular function was assessed by echocardiography over time, and improved significantly only in the CSF-1-overexpressing myoblast group. CSF-1-overexpression enhanced myoblast numbers and was associated with an increased infarct wall thickness, enhanced angiogenesis, increased macrophage recruitment and upregulated matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-2 and -12 in the zone bordering the infarction. Transplantation of CSF-1-overexpressing myoblasts did not result in major arrhythmias.Autologous intramyocardial transplantation of CSF-1 overexpressing myoblasts might be a novel strategy in the treatment of ischaemia-induced heart failure.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is an important metabolic organ of the body, and impaired skeletal muscle differentiation can result in a wide range of metabolic diseases. It has been shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in skeletal muscle differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of mmu-miR-324-5p in the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts and lipid droplet deposition in myotubes for future targeted therapies. We found that mmu-miR-324-5p was highly expressed in mouse skeletal muscle. Overexpression of miR-324-5p significantly inhibited C2C12 myoblast differentiation while promoting oleate-induced lipid accumulation and ?-oxidation in C2C12 myoblasts. Conversely, inhibition of mmu-miR-324-5p promoted C2C12 myoblast differentiation and inhibited lipid deposition in myotubes. Mechanistically, mmu-miR-324-5p negatively regulated the expression of long non-coding Dum (lncDum) and peptidase M20 domain containing 1 (Pm20d1) in C2C12 myoblasts. Reduced lncDum expression was associated with a significant decrease in the expression of myogenesis-related genes. Knockdown of mmu-miR-324-5p increased the levels of lncDum and myogenesis-related gene expression. Following oleate-induced lipid deposition in C2C12 myoblasts, overexpression of mmu-miR-324-5p decreased the expression of Pm20d1 while increasing the expression of mitochondrial ?-oxidation and long-chain fatty acid synthesis-related genes. In conclusion, we provide evidence that miR-324-5p inhibits C2C12 myoblast differentiation and promotes intramuscular lipid deposition by targeting lncDum and Pm20d1, respectively. Graphical Abstract This study identified miR-324-5p as a key factor that inhibits the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts by targeting lncDum and promotes intramuscular lipid deposition in myotubes by inhibiting the expression of PM20D1, and it revealed a potential target for the future therapy of muscle-related diseases.
Project description:Oncolytic adenovirus (oAd)-mediated gene therapy is a promising approach for cancer treatment because of its cancer cell-restricted replication and therapeutic gene expression. However, systemic administration of oAd is severely restricted by their immunogenic nature and poor tumor homing ability, thus oAd cannot be utilized to treat disseminated metastases. In this study, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSCs) was used as a viral replication-permissive carrier for oAd with an aim to improve the systemic delivery of the virus to tumor tissues. To overcome the poor delivery of oAd into hMSCs, a relaxin (RLX)-expressing oncolytic Ad (oAd/RLX), which degrades dense tumor extracellular matrix of highly desmoplastic pancreatic cancer, was complexed with biodegradable polymer (poly (ethyleneimine)-conjugated poly(CBA-DAH); PCDP), generating oAd/RLX-PCDP complex. oAd/RLX-PCDP complex enhanced the internalization of oAd into hMSC, leading to superior viral production and release from hMSCs, along with high RLX expression. Furthermore, systemic administration of oAd/RLX-PCDP-treated hMSCs elicited more potent antitumor effect compared to naked oAd/RLX or oAd/RLX-treated hMSC in pancreatic tumor model. This potent antitumor effect of systemically administered oAd/RLX-PCDP-treated hMSCs was achieved by superior viral replication in tumor tissues than any other treatment group. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that hMSCs are effective carriers for the systemic delivery of oAd to tumor sites and treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Project description:Skeletal myogenesis is a highly ordered and complex biological process that is mediated by numerous regulatory factors. In previous studies, it has been demonstrated that microRNAs (miRs) and long non?coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve key roles in skeletal myogenesis. The present study showed that the expression levels of miR?23a?5p showed a dynamic change from decrease to increase during C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Functional analysis using 5?ethynyl?2'?deoxyuridine proliferation and Cell Counting Kit?8 detection assays indicated that overexpression of miR?23a?5p significantly promoted C2C12 myoblast proliferation compared with the negative control. In addition, in C2C12 myoblasts transfected with miR?23a?5p mimics, increased expression levels of regulators associated with cell proliferation (Cyclin E, CCND1 and Cyclin B) were observed compared with the negative control. By contrast, overexpression of miR?23a?5p decreased the expression levels of specific?myogenesis factors (MyoD, MyoG and Myf5) and decreased C2C12 myoblast differentiation. Luciferase activity assays indicated that miR?23a?5p suppressed the luciferase activity of lncDum. Further analysis demonstrated that miR?23a?5p not only showed an opposite expression level pattern compared with lncDum, which was first increased and then decreased, but also had an opposite effect on the proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts compared with lncDum which inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell differentiation. Taken together, these results indicated that miR?23a?5p may mediate the proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts, which may be involved in lncDum regulation.
Project description:p38MAPK plays an essential role in the transition of myoblasts to differentiated myotubes through the activation of MyoD family transcription factors. A promyogenic cell surface molecule, Cdo, promotes myogenic differentiation mainly through activation of the p38MAPK pathway. Two MAP3Ks, TAK1 and ASK1, can activate p38MAPK via MKK6 in various cell systems. Moreover TAK1 has been shown to promote myogenic differentiation via p38MAPK activation. In this study, we hypothesized that TAK1 and ASK1 might function as MAP3Ks in Cdo-mediated p38MAPK activation during myoblast differentiation. Both ASK1 and TAK1 were expressed in myoblasts and interacted with the cytoplasmic tail of Cdo and a scaffold protein, JLP. The depletion of TAK1 or ASK1 in C2C12 cells decreased myoblast differentiation, whereas overexpression of TAK1 or ASK1 in C2C12 cells enhanced myotube formation. In agreement with this, overexpression of ASK1 or TAK1 resulted in enhanced p38MAPK activation, and their knockdown inhibited p38MAPK in C2C12 cells. Overexpression of TAK1 or ASK1 in Cdo(-/-) myoblasts and Cdo-depleted C2C12 cells restored p38MAPK activation as well as myotube formation. Furthermore, ASK1 and TAK1 compensated for each other in p38MAPK activation and myoblast differentiation. Taken together, these findings suggest that ASK1 and TAK1 function as MAP3Ks in Cdo-mediated p38MAPK activation to promote myogenic differentiation.