Epstein-Barr virus infection in chronically inflamed periapical granulomas.
ABSTRACT: Periapical granulomas are lesions around the apex of a tooth caused by a polymicrobial infection. Treatment with antibacterial agents is normally performed to eliminate bacteria from root canals; however, loss of the supporting alveolar bone is typically observed, and tooth extraction is often selected if root canal treatment does not work well. Therefore, bacteria and other microorganisms could be involved in this disease. To understand the pathogenesis of periapical granulomas more precisely, we focused on the association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) using surgically removed periapical granulomas (n = 32). EBV DNA was detected in 25 of 32 periapical granulomas (78.1%) by real-time PCR, and the median number of EBV DNA copies was approximately 8,688.01/?g total DNA. In contrast, EBV DNA was not detected in healthy gingival tissues (n = 10); the difference was statistically significant according to the Mann-Whitney U test (p = 0.0001). Paraffin sections were also analyzed by in situ hybridization to detect EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER)-expressing cells. EBER was detected in the cytoplasm and nuclei of B cells and plasma cells in six of nine periapical granulomas, but not in healthy gingival tissues. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis for latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) of EBV using serial tissue sections showed that LMP-1-expressing cells were localized to the same areas as EBER-expressing cells. These data suggest that B cells and plasma cells in inflamed granulomas are a major source of EBV infection, and that EBV could play a pivotal role in controlling immune cell responses in periapical granulomas.
Project description:We studied 48 cases of invasive breast carcinoma for evidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is associated with many human malignancies. In situ hybridization studies to detect the presence of EBV-encoded small nonpolyadenylated RNA (EBER)-1 were performed in paraffin sections. Immunohistochemical studies to detect EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)-1, latent membrane protein (LMP)-1, and the transactivating immediate-early BZLF1 (ZEBRA) protein were also performed in paraffin sections. The presence of EBV genomic DNA was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using sets of primers flanking the EBNA-4 and the EBV-LMP-1 genes in frozen tissues. Southern blot analysis using a probe flanking the EBV terminal repeat region was then attempted in cases that were PCR-positive. Five of 48 cases (10%) of breast carcinoma showed focal EBER-positive tumor cells. Twelve cases (25%) were positive for EBNA-1 by immunohistochemistry, all but one different from the EBER-positive cases. None of the cases were positive for LMP-1 or ZEBRA protein by immunohistochemistry. PCR studies for EBNA-4 and LMP-1 were each positive in five cases (including three cases in common). However, Southern blot studies successfully performed in all but one of the PCR-positive cases were completely negative. The identification of EBV by any methodology was not correlated with tumor size, grade, or lymph node status. This study demonstrated evidence of EBV infection in tissues involved by invasive breast carcinomas in a significant subset of cases. However, the lack of localization of EBV infection to a significant population of the tumor cells in any case, the negativity by Southern blot hybridization, and the lack of expression of multiple antigens in any case strongly argue against a significant role for EBV in the pathogenesis of breast carcinoma.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection causes both Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The present study reveals that EBV-induced HL and NHL are intriguingly associated with a repopulated immune cell profile in humanized mice. Newborn immunodeficient NSG mice were engrafted with human cord blood CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for a 8- or 15-wk reconstitution period (denoted (8w)hN and (15w)hN, respectively), resulting in human B-cell and T-cell predominance in peripheral blood cells, respectively. Further, novel humanized mice were established via engraftment of hCD34(+) HSCs together with nonautologous fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or MSCs expressing an active notch ligand DLK1, resulting in mice skewed with human B or T cells, respectively. After EBV infection, whereas NHL developed more frequently in B-cell-predominant humanized mice, HL was seen in T-cell-predominant mice (P = 0.0013). Whereas human splenocytes from NHL-bearing mice were positive for EBV-associated NHL markers (hBCL2(+), hCD20(+), hKi67(+), hCD20(+)/EBNA1(+), and EBER(+)) but negative for HL markers (LMP1(-), EBNA2(-), and hCD30(-)), most HL-like tumors were characterized by the presence of malignant Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg (HRS)-like cells, lacunar RS (hCD30(+), hCD15(+), IgJ(-), EBER(+)/hCD30(+), EBNA1(+)/hCD30(+), LMP(+)/EBNA2(-), hCD68(+), hBCL2(-), hCD20(-/weak,) Phospho STAT6(+)), and mummified RS cells. This study reveals that immune cell composition plays an important role in the development of EBV-induced B-cell lymphoma.
Project description:Some EBV-directed therapies are predicted to be effective only when lytic viral replication occurs. We studied whether cyclophosphamide chemotherapy induces EBV to switch from latent to lytic phases of infection in a series of EBV-associated Burkitt lymphomas.Children with first presentation of an expanding, solid maxillary or mandibular mass consistent with Burkitt lymphoma underwent fine-needle aspiration just prior to the initiation of cyclophosphamide therapy and again 1 to 5 days later. Aspirated cells were examined for latent and lytic EBV infection using in situ hybridization to EBV-encoded RNA (EBER), immunohistochemical analysis of the lytic EBV proteins BZLF1 and BMRF1, reverse transcription PCR targeting BZLF1 transcripts, and EBV viral load measurement by quantitative PCR.Among 21 lymphomas expressing EBER prior to chemotherapy, 9 of 10 still expressed EBER on day 1 after therapy whereas only 2 of 11 (18%) specimens still expressed EBER at days 3 to 5, implying that chemotherapy was fairly effective at eliminating latently infected cells. Neither of the lytic products, BZLF1 or BMRF1, were significantly upregulated at the posttherapy time points examined. However, EBV genomic copy number increased in 5 of 10 samples 1 day after treatment began, suggesting that viral replication occurs within the first 24 hours.Cyclophosphamide may induce the lytic phase of EBV infection and is fairly effective in diminishing EBER-expressing tumor cells within 5 days. These findings provide the rationale for a trial testing synergistic tumor cell killing using cyclophosphamide with a drug like ganciclovir targeting lytically infected cells.
Project description:Gastric adenocarcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in the malignant cells of approximately 10% of cases. It is unclear whether EBV is being missed in some gastric adenocarcinomas due to insensitive test methods or partial EBV genome loss. In this study, we screened 113 gastric adenocarcinomas from low- and high-incidence regions (United States and Central America) for the presence of EBV using a battery quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assays targeting disparate segments of the EBV genome (BamH1W, EBNA1, LMP1, LMP2, BZLF1, EBER1) and histochemical stains targeting EBV-encoded RNA (EBER), the latent proteins LMP1 and LMP2, and the lytic proteins BMRF1 and BZLF1. EBV DNA was detected by Q-PCR in 48/75 United States cancers (64%) and in 38/38 Central American cancers (100%), which was a significant difference. EBER was localized to malignant epithelial cells in 8/48 (17%) United States and 3/38 (8%) Central American cancers. Viral loads were considerably higher for EBER-positive vs EBER-negative cancers (mean 162 986 vs 62 EBV DNA copies per 100,000 cells). A viral load of 2000 copies per 100,000 cells is recommended as the threshold distinguishing EBER-positive from EBER-negative tumors. One infected cancer selectively failed to amplify the LMP2 gene because of a point mutation, whereas another cancer had an atypical pattern of Q-PCR positivity suggesting deletion of large segments of the EBV genome. Three different viral latency profiles were observed in the cancers based on constant expression of EBER and focal or variable expression of LMP1 or LMP2, without lytic protein expression. We conclude that EBV DNA levels generally reflect EBER status, and a panel of at least two Q-PCR assays is recommended for sensitive identification of infected cancers.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and can be detected by in situ hybridization (ISH) of viral nucleic acid (EBER) in tumor cells. We sought to determine whether plasma EBV-DNA could serve as a surrogate for EBER-ISH and to explore its prognostic utility in HL. Specimens from the Cancer Cooperative Intergroup Trial E2496 were used to compare pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA quantification with EBV tumor status by EBER-ISH. A cutoff of >60 viral copies/100 µL plasma yielded 96% concordance with EBER-ISH. Pretreatment and month 6 plasma specimens were designated EBV(-) or EBV(+) by this cutoff. Patients with pretreatment EBV(+) plasma (n = 54) had inferior failure-free survival (FFS) compared with those with pretreatment EBV(-) plasma (n = 274), log-rank P = .009. By contrast, no difference in FFS was observed when patients were stratified by EBER-ISH. Pretreatment plasma EBV positivity was an independent predictor of treatment failure on multivariate analyses. At month 6, plasma EBV(+) patients (n = 7) had inferior FFS compared with plasma EBV(-) patients (n = 125), log-rank P = .007. These results confirm that plasma EBV-DNA is highly concordant with EBER-ISH in HL and suggest that it may have prognostic utility both at baseline and after therapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00003389.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is closely linked to several human malignancies including endemic Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). Latent membrane protein 2 (LMP-2) of EBV plays a pivotal role in pathogenesis of EBV-related tumors and thus, is a potential target for diagnosis and targeted therapy of EBV LMP-2+ malignant cancers. Affibody molecules are developing as imaging probes and tumor-targeted delivery of small molecules. In this study, four EBV LMP-2-binding affibodies (ZEBV LMP-212, ZEBV LMP-2132, ZEBV LMP-2137, and ZEBV LMP-2142) were identified by screening a phage-displayed LMP-2 peptide library for molecular imaging and targeted therapy in EBV xenograft mice model. ZEBV LMP-2 affibody has high binding affinity for EBV LMP-2 and accumulates in mouse tumor derived from EBV LMP-2+ xenografts for 24 h after intravenous (IV) injection. Subsequent fusion of Pseudomonas exotoxin PE38KDEL to the ZEBV LMP-2 142 affibody led to production of Z142X affitoxin. This fused Z142X affitoxin exhibits high cytotoxicity specific for EBV+ cells in vitro and significant antitumor effect in mice bearing EBV+ tumor xenografts by IV injection. The data provide the proof of principle that EBV LMP-2-speicifc affibody molecules are useful for molecular imaging diagnosis and have potentials for targeted therapy of LMP-2-expressing EBV malignancies.
Project description:Background:Endodontic treatment on dental caries with dental granuloma on the periapical has the potential to flare. The symptoms of acute flare in dental granuloma are strongly related to the activation of macrophages that produce pro-inflammatory cytokine through nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B). However, the role of NF?B in dental granuloma has not been widely explained. Purpose:To compare NF?B expression in dental granuloma and dental nongranuloma in the periapical of dental caries. Methods:The periapical lesion of dental granuloma and dental nongranuloma was obtained from patients with dental caries who were subjected to tooth extraction. The periapical lesion was confirmed by periapical radiography and then differentiated by histological and immunohistochemistry by analyzing the NF?B expression. Results:Most dental granulomas were found in females (66.67%) between the ages 36 and 45 (61.11%). Dental granuloma showed higher NF?B expression compared to dental nongranuloma lesions in tooth caries (p=0.021). Conclusion:The dental granuloma tissue of dental caries showed an increase in NF?B expression. Understanding the role of NF?B might provide additional insights into the process of periapical lesion development.
Project description:Background:Opportunistic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) has attracted increasing attention. This study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes of UC with intestinal EBV infection and to explore the predictive value of blood EBV DNA for the presence of EBV in the intestine. Methods:Both peripheral blood and intestinal biopsies from 92 consecutive UC inpatients were included in this study. Normal colonic mucosal tissues from 20 colon cancer patients were used as controls. EBV testing and assessment were performed by EBV-DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), EBV-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization (EBER-ISH) and immunohistochemistry. Results:A total of 36 patients (39.1%) had UC with superimposed EBV colitis [EBER greater than 2/high-power field (HPF)]. EBER counts and disease activity were significantly correlated (p?<?0.05). The major endoscopic findings revealed more irregular and longitudinal ulcers in patients with superimposed EBV colitis (p?=?0.016, p?=?0.021, respectively). Age, steroid dependence, and irregular ulcerations were identified as possible risk factors. The best EBER cut-off point for outcome prediction was 2.5/HPF. At a cut-off value of 2035 copies/ml, the sensitivity and specificity of the blood EBV-DNA PCR analysis for predicting EBV presence in the intestine were 76.5% and 68.5%, respectively. EBV-infected cells in UC with high EBV concentrations mainly included B lymphocytes by clinicopathology, and the infection might have progressed from the latent to the lytic phase of the EBV life cycle. Conclusion:The EBER count is positively correlated with disease activity. The best cut-off point for outcome prediction is 2.5/HPF. A high EBV viremia load may effectively predict EBV presence in the colonic mucosa.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with a number of human malignancies of epithelial and lymphoid origin. However, the mechanism of oncogenesis is unclear. A number of viral products, including EBV latent proteins and non-protein coding RNAs have been implicated. Recently it was reported that EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are released from EBV infected cells and they can induce biological changes in cells via signaling from toll-like receptor 3. Here, we investigated if these abundantly expressed non-protein coding EBV RNAs (EBER-1 and EBER-2) are excreted from infected cells in exosomal fractions. Using differential ultracentrifugation we isolated exosomes from three EBV positive cell lines (B95-8, EBV-LCL, BL30-B95-8), one EBER-1 transfected cell line (293T-pHEBo-E1) and two EBV-negative cell lines (BL30, 293T-pHEBo). The identity of purified exosomes was determined by electron microscopy and western blotting for CD63. The presence of EBERs in cells, culture supernatants and purified exosomal fractions was determined using RT-PCR and confirmed by sequencing. Purified exosomal fractions were also tested for the presence of the EBER-1-binding protein La, using western blotting. Both EBER-1 and EBER-2 were found to be present not only in the culture supernatants, but also in the purified exosome fractions of all EBV-infected cell lines. EBER-1 could also be detected in exosomal fractions from EBER-1 transfected 293T cells whilst the fractions from vector only transfectants were clearly negative. Furthermore, purified exosomal fractions also contained the EBER-binding protein (La), supporting the notion that EBERs are most probably released from EBV infected cells in the form of EBER-La complex in exosomes.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection leads to Hodgkin's disease (HD) in some immunocompetent hosts. The malignant Reed-Sternberg cells of HD only express a limited array of subdominant EBV antigens to evade pre-existing immune responses to EBV. The EBV-encoded latent membrane proteins (LMP1 and LMP2), which are expressed by HD and various EBV-associated malignancies, have been proposed as a potential target for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-based therapy. However, the precursor frequency for LMP-specific CTL is generally low in healthy EBV-infected hosts, and immunotherapy based on these antigens is often compromised by the poor immunogenicity and the oncogenic potential. In the present study, we report that transiently expressing an inhibitor of A20, a key negative regulator of inflammatory signaling pathways, together with the LMP antigens (truncated LMP1 and full-length LMP2) greatly enhances maturation and cytokine production of human (h) monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). As a consequence, LMP1/2-expressed, A20-silenced hDCs have an enhanced potency to prime LMP-specific T-cell response. When the in vitro primed T cells are adoptively transferred into tumor-xenografted, severe-combined immunodeficient mice, some of the xenografted tumors approach complete regression. Thus, the study may provide an available resource of LMP-specific T cells for T-cell immunotherapy.