Direct intramyocardial transthoracic transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells for non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy: INTRACELL, a prospective randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:We tested the hypothesis that direct intramyocardial injection of bone marrow mononuclear cells in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy can improve left ventricular function and physical capacity. METHODS:Thirty non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <35% were randomized at a 1:2 ratio into two groups, control and treated. The bone marrow mononuclear cells group received 1.06±108 bone marrow mononuclear cells through mini-thoracotomy. There was no intervention in the control group. Assessment was carried out through clinical evaluations as well as a 6-min walk test, nuclear magnectic resonance imaging and echocardiogram. RESULTS:The bone marrow mononuclear cells group showed a trend toward left ventricular ejection fraction improvement, with magnectic resonance imaging - at 3 months, showing an increase from 27.80±6.86% to 30.13±9.06% (P=0.08) and returning to baseline at 9 months (28.78%, P=0.77). Magnectic resonance imaging showed no changes in left ventricular ejection fraction during follow-up of the control group (28.00±4.32%, 27.42±7.41%, and 29.57±4.50%). Echocardiogram showed left ventricular ejection fraction improved in the bone marrow mononuclear cells group at 3 months, 25.09±3.98 to 30.94±9.16 (P=0.01), and one year, 30.07±7.25% (P=0.001). The control group showed no change (26.1±4.4 vs 26.5±4.7 and 30.2±7.39%, P=0.25 and 0.10, respectively). Bone marrow mononuclear cells group showed improvement in New York Heart Association functional class, from 3.40±0.50 to 2.41±0.79 (P=0.002); patients in the control group showed no change (3.37±0.51 to 2.71±0.95; P=0.17). Six-minute walk test improved in the bone marrow mononuclear cells group (348.00±93.51m at baseline to 370.41±91.56m at 12 months, P=0.66) and there was a non-significant decline in the control group (361.25±90.78m to 330.00±123.42m after 12 months, P=0.66). Group comparisons were non-significant. CONCLUSION:The trend of intragroup functional and subjective improvement was not confirmed when compared to the control group. Direct intramyocardial application of bone marrow mononuclear cells in non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy was not associated with significant changes in left ventricular function. Differences observed within the bone marrow mononuclear cells group could be due to placebo effect or low statistical power.
Project description:Most studies on intracoronary bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation for acute myocardial infarction involve treatment 3-7 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); however, the optimal timing is unknown. The present study assessed the therapeutic effect at different times after ST-elevation myocardial infarction.The present trial was not blinded. A total of 104 patients with a first ST-elevation myocardial infarction and a left ventricular ejection fraction below 50 %, who had PCI of the infarct-related artery, were randomly assigned to receive intracoronary infusion of bone marrow mononuclear cells within 24 hours (group A, n = 27), 3 to 7 days after PCI (group B, n = 26), or 7 to 30 days after PCI (group C, n = 26), or to the control group (n = 25), which received saline infusion performed immediately after emergency PCI. All patients in groups A, B and C received an injection of 15 ml cell suspension containing approximately 4.9 × 10(8) bone marrow mononuclear cells into the infarct-related artery after successful PCI.Compared to control and group C patients, group A and B patients had a significantly higher absolute increase in left ventricular ejection fraction from baseline to 12 months (change: 3.4 ± 5.7 % in control, 7.9 ± 4.9 % in group A, 6.9 ± 3.9 % in group B, 4.7 ± 3.7 % in group C), a greater decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volumes (change: -6.4 ± 15.9 ml in control, -20.5 ± 13.3 ml in group A, -19.6 ± 11.1 ml in group B, -9.4 ± 16.3 ml in group C), and significantly greater myocardial perfusion (change from baseline: -4.7 ± 5.7 % in control, -7.8 ± 4.5 % in group A, -7.5 ± 2.9 % in group B, -5.0 ± 4.0 % in group C). Group A and B patients had similar beneficial effects on cardiac function (p = 0.163) and left ventricular geometry (left ventricular end-distolic volume: p = 0.685; left ventricular end-systolic volume: p = 0.622) assessed by echocardiography, whereas group C showed similar results to those of the control group. Group B showed more expensive care (p < 0.001) and longer hospital stays during the first month after emergency PCI (p < 0.001) than group A, with a similar improvement after repeat cardiac catheterization following emergency PCI.Cell therapy in acute myocardial infarction patients that is given within 24 hours is similar to 3-7 days after the primary PCI.NCT02425358 , registered 30 April 2015.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>We hypothesized that systemic administration of high-mobility group box 1 fragment attenuates the progression of myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction in a hamster model of dilated cardiomyopathy by recruiting bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells thus causing enhancement of a self-regeneration system.<h4>Methods</h4>Twenty-week-old J2N-k hamsters, which are ?-sarcoglycan-deficient, were treated with systemic injection of high-mobility group box 1 fragment (HMGB1, n = 15) or phosphate buffered saline (control, n = 11). Echocardiography for left ventricular function, cardiac histology, and molecular biology were analyzed. The life-prolonging effect was assessed separately using the HMGB1 and control groups, in addition to a monthly HMGB1 group which received monthly systemic injections of high-mobility group box 1 fragment, 3 times (HMGB1, n = 11, control, n = 9, monthly HMGB1, n = 9).<h4>Results</h4>The HMGB1 group showed improved left ventricular ejection fraction, reduced myocardial fibrosis, and increased capillary density. The number of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha and CD106 positive mesenchymal stem cells detected in the myocardium was significantly increased, and intra-myocardial expression of tumor necrosis factor ? stimulating gene 6, hepatic growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor were significantly upregulated after high-mobility group box 1 fragment administration. Improved survival was observed in the monthly HMGB1 group compared with the control group.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Systemic high-mobility group box 1 fragment administration attenuates the progression of left ventricular remodeling in a hamster model of dilated cardiomyopathy by enhanced homing of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into damaged myocardium, suggesting that high-mobility group box 1 fragment could be a new treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy.
Project description:Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death in the world. Current treatments have not been able to reverse this scenario, creating the need for the development of new therapies. Cell therapies have emerged as an alternative for cardiac diseases of distinct causes in experimental animal studies and more recently in clinical trials.We have designed clinical trials to test for the efficacy of autologous bone marrow derived mononuclear cell therapies in four different cardiopathies: acute and chronic ischemic heart disease, and Chagasic and dilated cardiomyopathy. All trials are multicenter, randomized, double-blind and placebo controlled. In each trial 300 patients will be enrolled and receive optimized therapy for their specific condition. Additionally, half of the patients will receive the autologous bone marrow cells while the other half will receive placebo (saline with 5% autologous serum). For each trial there are specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and the method for cell delivery is intramyocardial for the chronic ischemic heart disease and intracoronary for all others. Primary endpoint for all studies will be the difference in ejection fraction (determined by Simpson's rule) six and twelve months after intervention in relation to the basal ejection fraction. The main hypothesis of this study is that the patients who receive the autologous bone-marrow stem cell implant will have after a 6 month follow-up a mean increase of 5% in absolute left ventricular ejection fraction in comparison with the control group.Many phase I clinical trials using cell therapy for cardiac diseases have already been performed. The few randomized studies have yielded conflicting results, rendering necessary larger well controlled trials to test for efficacy of cell therapies in cardiopathies. The trials registration numbers at the NIH registry are the following: Chagasic cardiomyopathy (NCT00349271), dilated cardiomyopathy (NCT00333827), acute myocardial infarction (NCT00350766) and Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease (NCT00362388).
Project description:BACKGROUND:It has been suggested that bone marrow cell injection may have beneficial effects in patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease. However, previous trials have led to discrepant results of cell-based therapy in patients with chronic heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramyocardial injection of mononuclear bone marrow cells in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure with limited stress-inducible myocardial ischaemia. METHODS AND RESULTS:This multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial included 39 patients with no-option chronic ischaemic heart failure with a follow-up of 12 months. A total of 19 patients were randomised to autologous intramyocardial bone marrow cell injection (cell group) and 20 patients received a placebo injection (placebo group). The primary endpoint was the group difference in change of left ventricular ejection fraction, as determined by single-photon emission tomography. On follow-up at 3 and 12 months, change of left ventricular ejection fraction in the cell group was comparable with change in the placebo group (P = 0.47 and P = 0.08, respectively). Also secondary endpoints, including left ventricle volumes, myocardial perfusion, functional and clinical parameters did not significantly change in the cell group as compared to placebo. Neither improvement was demonstrated in a subgroup of patients with stress-inducible ischaemia (P = 0.54 at 3‑month and P = 0.15 at 12-month follow-up). CONCLUSION:Intramyocardial bone marrow cell injection does not improve cardiac function, nor functional and clinical parameters in patients with severe chronic ischaemic heart failure with limited stress-inducible ischaemia. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:NTR2516.
Project description:Over the past 13 years bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) have been widely investigated for clinical efficacy in patients following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). These early phase II trials have used various surrogate markers to judge efficacy and, although promising, the results have been inconsistent. The phase III BAMI trial has therefore been designed to demonstrate that intracoronary infusion of BM-MNCs is safe and will significantly reduce the time to first occurrence of all-cause death in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction after successful reperfusion for ST-elevation AMI (powered with the aim of detecting a 25% reduction in all-cause mortality). This is a multinational, multicentre, randomized, open-label, controlled, parallel-group phase III study aiming to enrol approximately 3000 patients in 11 European countries with at least 17 sites. Eligible patients who have impaired left ventricular ejection (?45%) following successful reperfusion for AMI will be randomized to treatment or control group in a 1:1 ratio. The treatment group will receive intracoronary infusion of BM-MNCs 2-8 days after successful reperfusion for AMI added on top of optimal standard of care. The control group will receive optimal standard of care. The primary endpoint is time from randomization to all-cause death. The BAMI trial is pivotal and the largest trial to date of BM-MNCs in patients with impaired left ventricular function following AMI. The aim of the trial is to provide a definitive answer as to whether BM-MNCs reduce all-cause mortality in this group of patients.
Project description:A realistic goal for cardiac cell therapy may be to attenuate left ventricular remodeling following acute myocardial infarction to prevent the development of congestive heart failure. Initial clinical trials of cell therapy have delivered cells 1 to 7 days after acute myocardial infarction. However, many patients at risk of developing congestive heart failure may not be ready for cell delivery at that time-point because of clinical instability or hospitalization at facilities without access to cell therapy. Experience with cell delivery 2 to 3 weeks after acute myocardial infarction has not to date been explored in a clinical trial. The objective of the LateTIME study is to evaluate by cardiac magnetic resonance the effect on global and regional left ventricular function, between baseline and 6 months, of a single intracoronary infusion of 150 × 106 autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (compared with placebo) when that infusion is administered 2 to 3 weeks after moderate-to-large acute myocardial infarction. The 5 clinical sites of the Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network (CCTRN) will enroll a total of 87 eligible patients in a 2:1 bone marrow mononuclear cells-to-placebo patient ratio; these 87 will have undergone successful percutaneous coronary intervention of a major coronary artery and have left ventricular ejection fractions ≤0.45 by echocardiography. When the results become available, this study should provide insight into the clinical feasibility and appropriate timing of autologous cell therapy in high-risk patients after acute myocardial infarction and percutaneous coronary intervention.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) fragment enhances bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) recruitment to damaged tissue to promote tissue regeneration. This study aimed to evaluate whether systemic injection of HMGB1 fragment could promote tissue repair in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS:HMGB1 (n = 14) or phosphate buffered saline (n = 12, control) was administered to MI rats for 4 days. Cardiac performance and left ventricular remodeling were evaluated using ultrasonography and immunostaining. BM-MSC recruitment to damaged tissue in green fluorescent protein-bone marrow transplantation (GFP-BMT) models was evaluated using immunostaining. RESULTS:At four weeks post-treatment, the left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly improved in the HMGB1 group compared to that in the control. Interstitial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy were also significantly attenuated in the HMGB1 group compared to the control. In the peri-infarction area, VEGF-A mRNA expression was significantly higher and TGF? expression was significantly attenuated in the HMGB1 group than in the control. In GFP-BMT rats, GFP+/PDGFR?+ cells were significantly mobilized to the peri-infarction area in the HMGB1 group compared to that in the control, leading to the formation of new vasculature. In addition, intravital imaging revealed that more GFP+/PDGFR?+ cells were recruited to the peri-infarction area in the HMGB1 group than in the control 12 h after treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Systemic administration of HMGB1 induced angiogenesis and reduced fibrosis by recruiting PDGFR?+ mesenchymal cells from the bone marrow, suggesting that HMGB1 administration might be a new therapeutic approach for heart failure after MI.
Project description:Initial clinical trials from Europe have demonstrated that the administration of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMCs) may improve left ventricular (LV) function in patients following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, results from trials performed in the United States have not yet been presented.We developed a phase 1, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to investigate the effects of BMC administration in patients following STEMI on recovery of LV function using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI). Forty patients with moderate to large anterior STEMIs were randomized to 100 million intracoronary BMCs versus placebo 3 to 10 days following successful primary angioplasty and stenting (percutaneous coronary intervention) of the left anterior descending coronary artery.Administration of BMC was safely performed in a high-risk cohort with minimal major adverse clinical event rates, and all patients remain alive to date. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 49.0% +/- 9.5% at baseline to 55.2% +/- 9.8% at 6 months by cMRI in the BMC group (P < .05), which was not different from the increase in the placebo group (48.6% +/- 8.5% to 57.0% +/- 13.4%, P < .05). Left ventricular end-diastolic volume decreased by 4 mL/m(2) in the BMC group at 6 months but increased significantly in the placebo group (17 mL/m(2), P < .01).This phase 1 study from the United States confirms the ongoing safety profile of BMC administration in patients following STEMI. The improvement in LV ejection fraction at 6 months by cMRI in the cell therapy group was not different than the placebo group. However, BMC administration had a favorable effect on LV remodeling at 6 months.
Project description:We know that endocardial mapping reports left ventricular electrical activity (voltage) and that these data can predict outcomes in patients undergoing traditional revascularization. Because the mapping data from experimental models have also been linked with myocardial viability, we hypothesized an association between increased unipolar voltage in patients undergoing intramyocardial injections and their subsequent improvement in left ventricular performance. For this exploratory analysis, we evaluated 86 patients with left ventricular dysfunction, heart-failure symptoms, possible angina, and no revascularization options, who were undergoing endocardial mapping. Fifty-seven patients received bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMC) injections and 29 patients received cell-free injections of a placebo. The average mapping site voltage was 9.7 ± 2 mV, and sites with voltage of ?6.9 mV were engaged by needle and injected (with BMC or placebo). For all patients, at 6 months, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improved, and after covariate adjustment this improvement was best predicted by injection-site voltage. For every 2-mV increase in baseline voltage, we detected a 1.3 increase in absolute LVEF units for all patients (P=0.038). Multiple linear regression analyses confirmed that voltage and the CD34(+) count present in bone marrow (but not treatment assignment) were associated with improved LVEF (P=0.03 and P=0.014, respectively). In an exploratory analysis, higher endocardial voltage and bone marrow CD34(+) levels were associated with improved left ventricular function among ischemic cardiomyopathy patients. Intramyocardial needle injections, possibly through stimulation of angiogenesis, might serve as a future therapy in patients with reduced left ventricular function and warrants investigation.
Project description:The REGENERATE-DCM trial is the first phase II randomized, placebo-controlled trial aiming to assess if granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration with or without adjunctive intracoronary (IC) delivery of autologous bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) improves global left ventricular (LV) function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and significant cardiac dysfunction.Sixty patients with DCM and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at referral of ?45%, New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification ?2 and no secondary cause for the cardiomyopathy were randomized equally into four groups: peripheral placebo (saline), peripheral G-CSF, peripheral G-CSF and IC serum, and peripheral G-CSF and IC BMC. All patients, except the peripheral placebo group, received 5 days of G-CSF. In the IC groups, this was followed by bone marrow harvest and IC infusion of cells or serum on Day 6. The primary endpoint was LVEF change from baseline to 3 months, determined by advanced cardiac imaging. At 3 months, peripheral G-CSF combined with IC BMC therapy was associated with a 5.37% point increase in LVEF (38.30% ± 12.97 from 32.93% ± 16.46 P = 0.0138), which was maintained to 1 year. This was associated with a decrease in NYHA classification, reduced NT-pro BNP, and improved exercise capacity and quality of life. No significant change in LVEF was seen in the remaining treatment groups.This is the first randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a novel combination of G-CSF and IC cell therapy that demonstrates an improvement in cardiac function, symptoms, and biochemical parameters in patients with DCM.