Base-enhanced catalytic water oxidation by a carboxylate-bipyridine Ru(II) complex.
ABSTRACT: In aqueous solution above pH 2.4 with 4% (vol/vol) CH3CN, the complex [Ru(II)(bda)(isoq)2] (bda is 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate; isoq is isoquinoline) exists as the open-arm chelate, [Ru(II)(CO2-bpy-CO2(-))(isoq)2(NCCH3)], as shown by (1)H and (13)C-NMR, X-ray crystallography, and pH titrations. Rates of water oxidation with the open-arm chelate are remarkably enhanced by added proton acceptor bases, as measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV). In 1.0 M PO4(3-), the calculated half-time for water oxidation is ?7 ?s. The key to the rate accelerations with added bases is direct involvement of the buffer base in either atom-proton transfer (APT) or concerted electron-proton transfer (EPT) pathways.
Project description:Visible light excitation of the ligand-bridged assembly [(bpy)(2)Ru(a)(II)(L)Ru(b)(II)(bpy)(OH(2))(4+)] (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine; L is the bridging ligand, 4-phen-tpy) results in emission from the lowest energy, bridge-based metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state (L(-•))Ru(b)(III)-OH(2) with an excited-state lifetime of 13 ± 1 ns. Near-diffusion-controlled quenching of the emission occurs with added HPO(4)(2-) and partial quenching by added acetate anion (OAc(-)) in buffered solutions with pH control. A Stern-Volmer analysis of quenching by OAc(-) gave a quenching rate constant of k(q) = 4.1 × 10(8) M(-1) • s(-1) and an estimated pK(a)* value of ~5 ± 1 for the [(bpy)(2)Ru(a)(II)(L(•-))Ru(b)(III)(bpy)(OH(2))(4+)]* excited state. Following proton loss and rapid excited-state decay to give [(bpy)(2)Ru(a)(II)(L)Ru(b)(II)(bpy)(OH)(3+)] in a H(2)PO(4)(-)/HPO(4)(2-) buffer, back proton transfer occurs from H(2)PO(4)(-) to give [(bpy)(2)Ru(a)(II)(L)Ru(b)(bpy)(OH(2))(4+)] with k(PT,2) = 4.4 × 10(8) M(-1) • s(-1). From the intercept of a plot of k(obs) vs. [H(2)PO(4)(-)], k = 2.1 × 10(6) s(-1) for reprotonation by water providing a dramatic illustration of kinetically limiting, slow proton transfer for acids and bases with pK(a) values intermediate between pK(a)(H(3)O(+)) = -1.74 and pK(a)(H(2)O) = 15.7.
Project description:The molecular structure of a catalytically active key intermediate is determined in solution by employing 2D IR spectroscopy measuring vibrational cross-angles. The formate intermediate (2) in the formic acid dehydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a phosphorus-nitrogen PN3P-Ru catalyst is elucidated. Our spectroscopic studies show that the complex features a formate ion directly attached to the Ru center as a ligand, and a proton added to the imine arm of the dearomatized PN3P* ligand. During the catalytic process, the imine arms are not only reversibly protonated and deprotonated, but also interacting with the protic substrate molecules, effectively serving as the local proton buffer to offer remarkable stability with a turnover number (TON) over one million.
Project description:Metal complexes that release ligands upon photoexcitation are important tools for biological research and show great potential as highly specific therapeutics. Upon excitation with visible light, [Ru(TQA)(MeCN)2](2+) [TQA = tris(2-quinolinylmethyl)amine] exchanges one of the two acetonitriles (MeCNs), whereas [Ru(DPAbpy)MeCN](2+) [DPAbpy = N-(2,2'-bipyridin-6-yl)-N,N-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amine] does not release MeCN. Furthermore, [Ru(TQA)(MeCN)2](2+) is highly selective for release of the MeCN that is perpendicular to the plane of the two axial quinolines. Density functional theory calculations provide a clear explanation for the photodissociation behavior of these two complexes. Excitation by visible light and intersystem crossing leads to a six-coordinate (3)MLCT state. Dissociation of acetonitrile can occur after internal conversion to a dissociative (3)MC state, which has an occupied d?* orbital that interacts in an antibonding fashion with acetonitrile. For [Ru(TQA)(MeCN)2](2+), the dissociative (3)MC state is lower than the (3)MLCT state. In contrast, the (3)MC state of [Ru(DPAbpy)MeCN](2+) that releases acetonitrile has an energy higher than that of the (3)MLCT state, indicating dissociation is unfavorable. These results are consistent with the experimental observations that efficient photodissociation of acetonitrile occurs for [Ru(TQA)(MeCN)2](2+) but not for [Ru(DPAbpy)MeCN](2+). For the release of the MeCN ligand in [Ru(TQA)(MeCN)2](2+) that is perpendicular to the axial quinoline rings, the (3)MLCT state has an occupied quinoline ?* orbital that can interact with a d?* Ru-NCCH3 antibonding orbital as the Ru-NCCH3 bond is stretched and the quinolines bend toward the departing acetonitrile. This reduces the barrier for the formation of the dissociative (3)MC state, leading to the selective photodissociation of this acetonitrile. By contrast, when the acetonitrile is in the plane of the quinolines or bpy, no interaction occurs between the ligand ?* orbital and the d?* Ru-NCCH3 orbital, resulting in high barriers for conversion to the corresponding (3)MC structures and no release of acetonitrile.
Project description:In 1982, an oxo-bridged dinuclear ruthenium(III) complex, known as "blue dimer," was discovered to be active for water oxidation. In this work, a new amphiphilic ruthenium "green dimer" 2, obtained from an amphiphilic mononuclear Ru(bda) (N-OTEG) (L1) (1; N-OTEG = 4-(2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)-pyridine; L1 = vinylpyridine) is reported. An array of mechanistic studies identifies "green dimer" 2 as a mixed valence of Ru<sup>II</sup>-O-Ru<sup>III</sup> oxo-bridged structure. Bearing the same bda<sup>2-</sup> and amphiphilic axial ligands, monomer 1 and green dimer 2 can be reversibly converted by ascorbic acid and oxygen, respectively, in aqueous solution. More importantly, the oxo-bridged "green dimer" 2 was found to take water nucleophilic attack for oxygen evolution, in contrast to monomer 1 via radical coupling pathway for O-O bond formation. This is the first report of an amphiphilic oxo-bridged catalyst, which possesses a new oxygen evolution pathway of Ru-bda catalysts.
Project description:As the terminal step in photosystem II, and a potential half-reaction for artificial photosynthesis, water oxidation (2H(2)O --> O(2) + 4e(-) + 4H(+)) is key, but it imposes a significant mechanistic challenge with requirements for both 4e(-)/4H(+) loss and O-O bond formation. Significant progress in water oxidation catalysis has been achieved recently by use of single-site Ru metal complex catalysts such as [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH(2))](2+) [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine]. When oxidized from to Ru(V) = O(3+), these complexes undergo O-O bond formation by O-atom attack on a H(2)O molecule, which is often the rate-limiting step. Microscopic details of O-O bond formation have been explored by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations the results of which provide detailed insight into mechanism and a strategy for enhancing catalytic rates. It utilizes added bases as proton acceptors and concerted atom-proton transfer (APT) with O-atom transfer to the O atom of a water molecule in concert with proton transfer to the base (B). Base catalyzed APT reactivity in water oxidation is observed both in solution and on the surfaces of oxide electrodes derivatized by attached phosphonated metal complex catalysts. These results have important implications for catalytic, electrocatalytic, and photoelectrocatalytic water oxidation.
Project description:Water oxidation catalysts are essential components of light-driven water splitting systems, which could convert water to H(2) driven by solar radiation (H(2)O + h? ? 1/2O(2) + H(2)). The oxidation of water (H(2)O ? 1/2O(2) + 2H(+) + 2e(-)) provides protons and electrons for the production of dihydrogen (2H(+) + 2e(-) ? H(2)), a clean-burning and high-capacity energy carrier. One of the obstacles now is the lack of effective and robust water oxidation catalysts. Aiming at developing robust molecular Ru-bda (H(2)bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid) water oxidation catalysts, we carried out density functional theory studies, correlated the robustness of catalysts against hydration with the highest occupied molecular orbital levels of a set of ligands, and successfully directed the synthesis of robust Ru-bda water oxidation catalysts. A series of mononuclear ruthenium complexes [Ru(bda)L(2)] (L = pyridazine, pyrimidine, and phthalazine) were subsequently synthesized and shown to effectively catalyze Ce(IV)-driven [Ce(IV) = Ce(NH(4))(2)(NO(3))(6)] water oxidation with high oxygen production rates up to 286 s(-1) and high turnover numbers up to 55,400.
Project description:Understanding and controlling the properties of water-splitting assemblies in dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells is a key to the exploitation of their properties. We demonstrate here that, following surface loading of a [Ru(bpy)<sub>3</sub>]<sup>2+</sup> (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) chromophore on nanoparticle electrodes, addition of the molecular catalysts, Ru(bda)(L)<sub>2</sub> (bda ?=? 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate) with phosphonate or pyridyl sites for water oxidation, gives surfaces with a 5:1 chromophore to catalyst ratio. Addition of the surface-bound phosphonate derivatives with L?=?4-pyridyl phosphonic acid or diethyl 3-(pyridin-4-yloxy)decyl-phosphonic acid, leads to well-defined surfaces but, following oxidation to Ru(III), they undergo facile, on-surface dimerization to give surface-bound, oxo-bridged dimers. The dimers have a diminished reactivity toward water oxidation compared to related monomers in solution. By contrast, immobilization of the Ru-bda catalyst on TiO<sub>2</sub> with the 4,4'-dipyridyl anchoring ligand can maintain the monomeric structure of catalyst and gives relatively stable photoanodes with photocurrents that reach to 1.7?mA?cm<sup>-2</sup> with an optimized, applied bias photon-to-current efficiency of 1.5%.
Project description:MIL-101(Cr) has drawn much attention due to its high stability compared with other metal-organic frameworks. In this study, three trace flue gas contaminants (H2O, NO, SO2) were each added to a 10 vol% CO2/N2 feed flow and found to have a minimal impact on the adsorption capacity of CO2. In dynamic CO2 regeneration experiments, complete regeneration occurred in 10 min at 328 K for temperature swing adsorption-N2-stripping under a 50 cm(3)/min N2 flow and at 348 K for vacuum-temperature swing adsorption at 20 KPa. Almost 99% of the pre-regeneration adsorption capacity was preserved after 5 cycles of adsorption/desorption under a gas flow of 10 vol% CO2, 100 ppm SO2, 100 ppm NO, and 10% RH, respectively. Strong resistance to flue gas contaminants, mild recovery conditions, and excellent recycling efficiency make MIL-101(Cr) an attractive adsorbent support for CO2 capture.
Project description:The novel tridentate PNNOH pincer ligand LH features a reactive 2-hydroxypyridine functionality as well as a bipyridyl-methylphosphine skeleton for meridional coordination. This proton-responsive ligand coordinates in a straightforward manner to RuCl(CO)(H)(PPh3)3 to generate complex 1. The methoxy-protected analogue LMe was also coordinated to Ru(II) for comparison. Both species have been crystallographically characterized. Site-selective deprotonation of the 2-hydroxypyridine functionality to give 1' was achieved using both mild (DBU) and strong bases (KOtBu and KHMDS), with no sign of involvement of the phosphinomethyl side arm that was previously established as the reactive fragment. Complex 1' is catalytically active in the dehydrogenation of formic acid to generate CO-free hydrogen in three consecutive runs as well as for the dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols, giving high conversions to different esters and outperforming structurally related PNN ligands lacking the NOH fragment. DFT calculations suggest more favorable release of H2 through reversible reactivity of the hydroxypyridine functionality relative to the phosphinomethyl side arm.
Project description:The molecular water oxidation catalyst [Ru(bda)(L)2] has been incorporated into pyridine-decorated MIL-101(Cr) metal-organic frameworks. The resulting MIL-101@Ru materials exhibit turnover frequencies (TOFs) up to ten times higher compared to the homogenous reference. An unusual dependence of the formal TOFs on oxidant concentration is observed that ultimately arises from differing amounts of catalysts in the MOF crystals being active.