Aurantiamide acetate suppresses the growth of malignant gliomas in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting autophagic flux.
ABSTRACT: We aim to investigate the effect of aurantiamide acetate isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis terniflora DC against gliomas. Human malignant glioma U87 and U251 cells were incubated with different concentrations (0-100 ?M) of aurantiamide acetate. Aurantiamide acetate greatly decreased the cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It induced moderate mitochondrial fragmentation and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. No significant difference was found in the alternation of other intracellular organelles, although F-actin structure was slightly disturbed. Apparent ultrastructure alternation with increased autophagosome and autolysosome accumulation was observed in aurantiamide acetate-treated cells. The expression of LC3-II was greatly up-regulated in cells exposed to aurantiamide acetate (P < 0.05 compared with control). The cytoplasmic accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes induced by aurantiamide acetate treatment was confirmed by fluorescent reporter protein labelling. Administration of chloroquine (CQ), which inhibits the fusion step of autophagosomes, further increased the accumulation of autophagosomes in the cytoplasm of U87 cells. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine, Bafilomycin A1 or CQ had no influence on aurantiamide acetate-induced cytotoxicity, whereas autophagy stimulator rapamycin significantly suppressed aurantiamide acetate-induced cell death. The anti-tumour effects of aurantiamide acetate were further evaluated in tumour-bearing nude mice. Intratumoural injection of aurantiamide acetate obviously suppressed tumour growth, and increased number of autophagic vacuoles was observed in tumour tissues of animals receiving aurantiamide acetate. Our findings suggest that aurantiamide acetate may suppress the growth of malignant gliomas by blocking autophagic flux.
Project description:The molecular etiology linking the pathogenic mutations in the Huntingtin (Htt) gene with Huntington's disease (HD) is unknown. Prior work suggests a role for Htt in neuronal autophagic function and mutant HTT protein disrupts autophagic cargo loading. Reductions in the bioavailability of the essential metal manganese (Mn) are seen in models of HD. Excess cellular Mn impacts autophagic function, but the target and molecular basis of these changes are unknown. Thus, we sought to determine if changes in cellular Mn status impact autophagic processes in a wild-type or mutant Htt-dependent manner. We report that the HD genotype is associated with reduced Mn-induced autophagy and that acute Mn exposure increases autophagosome induction/formation. To determine if a deficit in bioavailable Mn is mechanistically linked to the autophagy-related HD cellular phenotypes, we examined autophagosomes by electron microscopy. We observed that a 24 h 100 uM Mn restoration treatment protocol attenuated an established HD 'cargo-recognition failure' in the STHdh HD model cells by increasing the percentage of filled autophagosomes. Mn restoration had no effect on HTT aggregate number, but a 72 h co-treatment with chloroquine (CQ) in GFP-72Q-expressing HEK293 cells increased the number of visible aggregates in a dose-dependent manner. As CQ prevents autophagic degradation this indicates that Mn restoration in HD cell models facilitates incorporation of aggregates into autophagosomes. Together, these findings suggest that defective Mn homeostasis in HD models is upstream of the impaired autophagic flux and provide proof-of-principle support for increasing bioavailable Mn in HD to restore autophagic function and promote aggregate clearance.
Project description:Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are well-known 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial agents. Scientific evidence also supports the use of CQ and HCQ in the treatment of cancer. Overall, preclinical studies support CQ and HCQ use in anti-cancer therapy, especially in combination with conventional anti-cancer treatments since they are able to sensitise tumour cells to a variety of drugs, potentiating the therapeutic activity. Thus far, clinical results are mostly in favour of the repurposing of CQ. However, over 30 clinical studies are still evaluating the activity of both CQ and HCQ in different cancer types and in combination with various standard treatments. Interestingly, CQ and HCQ exert effects both on cancer cells and on the tumour microenvironment. In addition to inhibition of the autophagic flux, which is the most studied anti-cancer effect of CQ and HCQ, these drugs affect the Toll-like receptor 9, p53 and CXCR4-CXCL12 pathway in cancer cells. In the tumour stroma, CQ was shown to affect the tumour vasculature, cancer-associated fibroblasts and the immune system. The evidence reviewed in this paper indicates that both CQ and HCQ deserve further clinical investigations in several cancer types. Special attention about the drug (CQ versus HCQ), the dose and the schedule of administration should be taken in the design of new trials.
Project description:AIMS:Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11), an ocotillol-type ginsenoside, has been reported to exert wide-ranging neuroprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and potential mechanisms of PF11 on the autophagic/lysosomal pathway following ischemic stroke. METHODS:Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Cerebral ischemia outcome, TUNEL staining, Fluoro-Jade B staining were carried out 24 hours poststroke. The autophagic/lysosomal-related proteins were measured. RESULTS:A single administration of PF11 significantly decreased the infarct area, reduced the brain water content, and improved neurological functions, even 4 hours after the onset of pMCAO. Meanwhile, PF11 lessened the ischemic insult-mediated loss of neurons and activation of astrocytes and microglia. Furthermore, PF11 attenuated pMCAO-induced accumulations of autophagosomes and apoptosis. We further observed a remarkable effect of PF11 in reversing the ischemic insult-induced accumulation of autophagosomes (LC3-II) and abnormal aggregation of autophagic proteins (SQSTM1 and ubiquitin). Furthermore, PF11 was capable of improving lysosomal function and lysosome/autophagosome fusion following pMCAO, and this change was reversed by the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine. Also, the improvement of ischemic outcome and the antiapoptotic effect induced by PF11 was reversed by CQ. CONCLUSION:These findings indicate that the autophagic flux is impaired in a rat model of pMCAO, and that PF11 exerts an excellent protective effect against ischemic stroke by alleviating autophagic/lysosomal defects.
Project description:Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a type of malignant cancer, and 85% of metastatic NSCLC patients have a poor prognosis. C₂-ceramide induces G2/M phase arrest and cytotoxicity in NSCLC cells. In this study, the autophagy-inducing effect of C₂-ceramide was demonstrated, and cotreatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) was investigated in NSCLC H460 and H1299 cells. The results suggested that C₂-ceramide exhibited dose-dependent anticancer effects in H460 and H1299 cells and autophagy induction. Zebrafish-based acridine orange staining confirmed the combined effects in vivo. Importantly, the combination of a sublethal dose of C₂-ceramide and CQ resulted in additive cytotoxicity and autophagy in both cell lines. Alterations of related signaling factors, including Src and SIRT1 inhibition and activation of the autophagic regulators LAMP2 and LC3-I/II, contributed to the autophagy-dependent apoptosis. We found that C₂-ceramide continuously initiated autophagy; however, CQ inhibited autophagosome maturation and degradation during autophagy progression. Accumulated and non-degraded autophagosomes increased NSCLC cell stress, eventually leading to cell death. This study sheds light on improvements to NSCLC chemotherapy to reduce the chemotherapy dose and NSCLC patient burden.
Project description:Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), has become, because of the rapid spread of the disease, a serious global problem and cannot be treated. Recent studies indicate that VIF is a protein of HIV to prevent all of human immunity to attack HIV. Molecular compounds of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database filtered through molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations to inhibit VIF can protect against HIV. Glutamic acid, plantagoguanidinic acid, and Aurantiamide acetate based docking score higher with other TCM compounds selected. Molecular dynamics are useful for analysis and detection ligand interactions. According to the docking position, hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding changes, and structure variation, the study try to select the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine compound Aurantiamide acetate is better than the other for protein-ligand interactions to maintain the protein composition, based on changes in the structure.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme, a World Health Organization grade IV glioma, has a poor prognosis in humans despite current treatment options. Here, we present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data regarding the regression of aggressive rat F98 gliomas and human U87 glioma xenografts after treatment with the nitrone compound OKN-007, a disulfonyl derivative of ?-phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone.MRI was used to assess tumor volumes in F98 and U87 gliomas, and bioluminescence imaging was used to measure tumor volumes in F98 gliomas encoded with the luciferase gene (F98(luc)). Immunohistochemistry was used to assess angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] and microvessel density [MVD]), cell differentiation (carbonic anhydrase IX [CA-IX]), hypoxia (hypoxia-inducible factor-1? [HIF-1?]), cell proliferation (glucose transporter 1 [Glut-1] and MIB-1), proliferation index, and apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3) markers in F98 gliomas. VEGF, CA-IX, Glut-1, HIF-1?, and cleaved caspase 3 were assessed in U87 gliomas.Animal survival was found to be significantly increased (P < .001 for F98, P < .01 for U87) in the group that received OKN-007 treatment compared with the untreated groups. After MRI detection of F98 gliomas, OKN-007, administered orally, was found to decrease tumor growth (P < .05). U87 glioma volumes were found to significantly decrease (P < .05) after OKN-007 treatment, compared with untreated animals. OKN-007 administration resulted in significant decreases in tumor hypoxia (HIF-1? [P < .05] in both F98 and U87), angiogenesis (MVD [P < .05], but not VEGF, in F98 or U87), and cell proliferation (Glut-1 [P < .05 in F98, P < .01 in U87] and MIB-1 [P < .01] in F98) and caused a significant increase in apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3 [P < .001 in F98, P < .05 in U87]), compared with untreated animals.OKN-007 may be considered as a promising therapeutic addition or alternative for the treatment of aggressive human gliomas.
Project description:Recent studies have shown that after traumatic brain injury (TBI), the number of autophagosomes is markedly increased in brain cells surrounding the wound; however, whether autophagy is enhanced or suppressed by TBI remains controversial. In our study, we used a controlled cortical impact system to establish models of mild, moderate and severe TBI. In the mild TBI model, the levels of autophagy-related protein 6 (Beclin1) and autophagy-related protein 12 (ATG12)-autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5) conjugates were increased, indicating the enhanced initiation of autophagy. Furthermore, the level of the autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) was decreased in the ipsilateral cortex. This result, together with the results observed in tandem mRFP-GFP-LC3 adeno-associated virus (AAV)-infected mice, indicates that autophagosome clearance was also increased after mild TBI. Conversely, following moderate and severe TBI, there was no change in the initiation of autophagy, and autophagosome accumulation was observed. Next, we used chloroquine (CQ) to artificially impair autophagic flux in the injured cortex of the mild TBI model and found that the severity of trauma was obviously exacerbated. In addition, autophagic flux and trauma severity were significantly improved in adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) knockout (KO) mice subjected to moderate TBI. Thus, A2AR may be involved in regulating the impairment of autophagic flux in response to brain injury. Our findings suggest that whether autophagy is increased after TBI is associated with whether autophagic flux is impaired, and the impairment of autophagic flux exacerbates the severity of trauma. Furthermore, A2AR may be a target for alleviating the impairment in autophagic flux after TBI.
Project description:MicroRNAs are increasingly reported as tumour suppressors that regulate gene expression after transcription. Our results demonstrated that miR-4295 is overexpression in glioma tissues and its level is significantly correlated with clinical stage. We also found that miR-4295 inhibited the cell G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis leading to promoted cell proliferation and activity. The murine modelling study revealed that female nude mice injected with U87/anti-miR-4295 exhibit subcutaneous tumours in the right groin. Compared with anti-NC, the tumour volume was significantly decreased in anti-miR-4295 treatment group. Furthermore, we confirmed miR-4295 mediates the expression of RUNX3 by targeting its 3'untranslation region. In addition, N-myc protein also could bind to the promoter of pri-miR-4295 and inhibit the expression of RUNX3 in glioma cells. These results validate a pathogenetic role of a miR-4295 in gliomas and establish a potentially regulatory and signalling pathway involving N-myc/miR-4295/RUNX3 in gliomas.
Project description:Autophagy, a bidirectional degradative process extensively occurring in eukaryotes, has been revealed as a potential therapeutic target for several cardiovascular diseases. However, its role in atrial fibrillation (AF) remains largely unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of autophagy in atrial electrical remodeling under AF condition. Here, we reported that autophagic flux was markedly activated in atria of persistent AF patients and rabbit model of atrial rapid pacing (RAP). We also observed that the key autophagy-related gene7 (ATG7) significantly upregulated in AF patients as well as tachypacing rabbits. Moreover, lentivirus-mediated ATG7 knockdown and overexpression in rabbits were employed to clarify the effects of autophagy on atrial electrophysiology via intracardiac operation and patch-clamp experiments. Lentivirus-mediated ATG7 knockdown or autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) restored the shortened atrial effective refractory period (AERP) and alleviated the AF vulnerability caused by tachypacing in rabbits. Conversely, ATG7 overexpression significantly promoted the incidence and persistence of AF and decreased L-type calcium channel (Cav1.2 ?-subunits), along with abbreviated action potential duration (APD) and diminished L-type calcium current (ICa,L). Furthermore, the co-localization and interaction of Cav1.2 with LC3B-positive autophagosomes enhanced when autophagy was activated in atrial myocytes. Tachypacing-induced autophagic degradation of Cav1.2 required ubiquitin signal through the recruitment of ubiquitin-binding proteins RFP2 and p62, which guided Cav1.2 to autophagosomes. These findings suggest that autophagy induces atrial electrical remodeling via ubiquitin-dependent selective degradation of Cav1.2 and provide a novel and promising strategy for preventing AF development.
Project description:Autophagic and endocytic pathways are tightly regulated membrane rearrangement processes that are crucial for homeostasis, development and disease. Autophagic cargo is delivered from autophagosomes to lysosomes for degradation through a complex process that topologically resembles endosomal maturation. Here, we report that a Beclin1-binding autophagic tumour suppressor, UVRAG, interacts with the class C Vps complex, a key component of the endosomal fusion machinery. This interaction stimulates Rab7 GTPase activity and autophagosome fusion with late endosomes/lysosomes, thereby enhancing delivery and degradation of autophagic cargo. Furthermore, the UVRAG-class-C-Vps complex accelerates endosome-endosome fusion, resulting in rapid degradation of endocytic cargo. Remarkably, autophagosome/endosome maturation mediated by the UVRAG-class-C-Vps complex is genetically separable from UVRAG-Beclin1-mediated autophagosome formation. This result indicates that UVRAG functions as a multivalent trafficking effector that regulates not only two important steps of autophagy - autophagosome formation and maturation - but also endosomal fusion, which concomitantly promotes transport of autophagic and endocytic cargo to the degradative compartments.