Smoking normalizes cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption after 12-hour abstention.
ABSTRACT: Acute nicotine administration stimulates [(14)C]deoxyglucose trapping in thalamus and other regions of rat brain, but acute effects of nicotine and smoking on energy metabolism have rarely been investigated in human brain by positron emission tomography (PET). We obtained quantitative PET measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in 12 smokers who had refrained from smoking overnight, and in a historical group of nonsmokers, testing the prediction that overnight abstinence results in widespread, coupled reductions of CBF and CMRO2. At the end of the abstention period, global grey-matter CBF and CMRO2 were both reduced by 17% relative to nonsmokers. At 15 minutes after renewed smoking, global CBF had increased insignificantly, while global CMRO2 had increased by 11%. Regional analysis showed that CMRO2 had increased in the left putamen and thalamus, and in right posterior cortical regions at this time. At 60 and 105 minutes after smoking resumption, CBF had increased by 8% and CMRO2 had increased by 11-12%. Thus, we find substantial and global impairment of CBF/CMRO2 in abstaining smokers, and acute restoration by resumption of smoking. The reduced CBF and CMRO2 during acute abstention may mediate the cognitive changes described in chronic smokers.
Project description:RATIONALE:Microglia are the main immune cells in the central nervous system and participate in neuroinflammation. When activated, microglia express increased levels of the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), thereby making TSPO availability a marker for neuroinflammation. Using positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, our group recently demonstrated that smokers in the satiated state had 16.8% less binding of the radiotracer [11C]DAA1106 (a radioligand for TSPO) in the brain than nonsmokers. OBJECTIVES:We sought to determine the effect of overnight smoking abstinence on [11C]DAA1106 binding in the brain. METHODS:Forty participants (22 smokers and 18 nonsmokers) completed the study (at one of two sites) and had usable data, which included images from a dynamic [11C]DAA1106 PET scanning session (with smokers having been abstinent for 17.9?±?2.3 h) and a blood sample for TSPO genotyping. Whole brain standardized uptake values (SUVs) were determined, and analysis of variance was performed, with group (overnight abstinent smoker vs. nonsmoker), site, and TSPO genotype as factors, thereby controlling for site and genotype. RESULTS:Overnight abstinent smokers had lower whole brain SUVs (by 15.5 and 17.0% for the two study sites) than nonsmokers (ANCOVA, P?=?0.004). The groups did not significantly differ in injected radiotracer dose or body weight, which were used to calculate SUV. CONCLUSIONS:These results in overnight abstinent smokers are similar to those in satiated smokers, indicating that chronic cigarette smoking leads to global impairment of microglial activation which persists into early abstinence. Other explanations for study results, such as smoking leading to reduced numbers of microglia or smokers having more rapid metabolism of the radiotracer than nonsmokers, are also possible.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of degenerative dementia in the aging population. Patients with AD have alterations in cerebral hemodynamic function including reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate. Therefore, improved cerebrovascular function may be an attractive goal for pharmaceutical intervention in AD.We wished to observe the acute effects of sildenafil on cerebrovascular function and brain metabolism in patients with AD.We used several novel non-invasive MRI techniques to investigate the alterations of CBF, cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) after a single dose of sildenafil administration in order to assess its physiological effects in patients with AD. CBF, CMRO2, and CVR measurements using MRI were performed before and one hour after the oral administration of 50?mg sildenafil. Baseline Montreal Cognitive Assessment score was also obtained.Complete CBF and CMRO2 data were obtained in twelve patients. Complete CVR data were obtained in eight patients. Global CBF and CMRO2 significantly increased (p?=?0.03, p?=?0.05, respectively) following sildenafil administration. Voxel-wise analyses of CBF maps showed that increased CBF was most pronounced in the bilateral medial temporal lobes. CVR significantly decreased after administration of sildenafil.Our data suggest that a single dose of sildenafil improves cerebral hemodynamic function and increases cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with AD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although nicotine alters serotonergic neurochemistry, clinical trials of serotonergic medications for smoking cessation have provided mixed results. Understanding the role of serotonergic dysfunction in tobacco use disorder may advance development of novel pharmacotherapies.<h4>Methods</h4>Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure resting-state functional connectivity of the raphe nuclei as an indicator of serotonergic function. Connectivity of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei was compared between 18 young smokers (briefly abstinent, ~40 minutes post-smoking) and 19 young nonsmokers (16-21 years old); connectivity was also examined in a separate sample of overnight-abstinent smokers (18-25 years old), before and after smoking the first cigarette of the day. Relationships between connectivity of the raphe nuclei with psychological withdrawal and craving were tested in smokers.<h4>Results</h4>Connectivity of the median raphe nucleus with the right hippocampal complex was weaker in smokers than in nonsmokers and was negatively correlated with psychological withdrawal in smokers. In overnight-abstinent smokers, smoking increased connectivity of the median raphe nucleus with the right hippocampal complex, and the increase was positively correlated with the decrease in psychological withdrawal.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Relief of withdrawal due to smoking is potentially linked to the serotonergic pathway that includes the median raphe nucleus and hippocampal complex. These results suggest that serotonergic medications may be especially beneficial for smokers who endorse strong psychological withdrawal during abstinence from smoking.
Project description:The habenula, an epithalamic nucleus involved in reward and aversive processing, may contribute to negative reinforcement mechanisms maintaining nicotine use. We used a performance feedback task that differentially activates the striatum and habenula and administered nicotine and varenicline (versus placebos) to overnight-abstinent smokers and nonsmokers to delineate feedback-related functional brain alterations both as a function of smoking trait (smokers versus nonsmokers) and drug administration state (drug versus placebo). Smokers showed less striatal responsivity to positive feedback, an alteration not mitigated by drug administration, but rather correlated with trait-level addiction severity. Conversely, nicotine administration reduced habenula activity following both positive and negative feedback among abstinent smokers, but not nonsmokers, and increased habenula activity among smokers correlated with elevated state-level tobacco cravings. These outcomes highlight a dissociation between neurobiological processes linked with the dependence severity trait and the nicotine withdrawal state. Interventions simultaneously targeting both aspects may improve currently poor cessation outcomes.
Project description:MRI-based oxygen extraction fraction imaging has a great potential benefit in the selection of clinical strategies for ischemic stroke patients. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a challenge-free oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) mapping in a cohort of acute and subacute ischemic stroke patients. Consecutive ischemic stroke patients (a total of 30 with 5 in the acute stage, 19 in the early subacute stage, and 6 in the late subacute stage) were recruited. All subjects underwent MRI including multi-echo gradient echo (mGRE), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and 3D-arterial spin labeling (ASL). OEF maps were generated from mGRE phase + magnitude data, which were processed using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) + quantitative blood oxygen level-dependent (qBOLD) imaging with cluster analysis of time evolution. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were reconstructed from 3D-ASL and DWI, respectively. Further, cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) was calculated as the product of CBF and OEF. OEF, CMRO2, CBF, and ADC values in the ischemic cores (absolute values) and their contrasts to the contralateral regions (relative values) were evaluated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare OEF, CMRO2, CBF, and ADC values and their relative values among different stroke stages. The OEF value of infarct core showed a trend of decrease from acute, to early subacute, and to late subacute stages of ischemic stroke. Significant differences among the three stroke stages were only observed in the absolute OEF (F = 6.046, p = 0.005) and relative OEF (F = 5.699, p = 0.009) values of the ischemic core, but not in other measurements (absolute and relative CMRO2, CBF, ADC values, all values of p > 0.05). In conclusion, the challenge-free QSM + qBOLD-generated OEF mapping can be performed on stroke patients. It can provide more information on tissue viability that was not available with CBF and ADC and, thus, may help to better manage ischemic stroke patients.
Project description:We investigated ATP-binding cassette transporters A1/G1 expression and function in mediating cholesterol efflux by examining the macrophages of cigarette-smoking patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) before and after smoking abstinence. Peripheral blood monocyte cells were collected from nonsmokers (n = 17), non-CAD (NCAD) smokers (n = 35), and CAD smokers (n = 32) before and after 3 months of smoking cessation. We found that the ABCA1 expression level was lower in macrophages from NCAD and CAD smokers than from nonsmokers at baseline. The ABCA1 function of mediating cholesterol efflux was reduced in NCAD and CAD smokers as compared with nonsmokers. After 3 months of smoking cessation, ABCA1 expression and function were improved in CAD smokers. However, ABCG1 expression and function did not change after smoking cessation. Furthermore, ABCA1 expression was inhibited by tar in human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1-derived macrophages through the inhibition of liver X receptors. Nicotine and carbon monoxide did not inhibit ABCA1 expression. Our results indicate that chronic cigarette smoking impaired ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux in macrophages and that tobacco abstinence reversed the function and expression of ABCA1, especially in CAD patients. It was tobacco tar, rather than nicotine or carbon monoxide, that played a major role in the tobacco-induced disturbance of cellular cholesterol homeostasis.
Project description:Oxygen extraction (OEF), oxidative metabolism (CMRO2), and blood flow (CBF) in the brain, as well as the coupling between CMRO2 and CBF due to cerebral autoregulation are fundamental to brain's health. We used a clinically feasible MRI protocol to assess impairments of these parameters in the perfusion territories of stenosed carotid arteries. Twenty-nine patients with unilateral high-grade carotid stenosis and thirty age-matched healthy controls underwent multi-modal MRI scans. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) yielded absolute CBF, whereas multi-parametric quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (mqBOLD) modeling allowed imaging of relative OEF and CMRO2. Both CBF and CMRO2 were significantly reduced in the stenosed territory compared to the contralateral side, while OEF was evenly distributed across both hemispheres similarly in patients and controls. The CMRO2-CBF coupling was significantly different between both hemispheres in patients, i.e. significant interhemispheric flow-metabolism uncoupling was observed in patients compared to controls. Given that CBF and CMRO2 are intimately linked to brain function in health and disease, the proposed easily applicable MRI protocol of pCASL and mqBOLD imaging might serve as a valuable tool for early diagnosis of potentially harmful cerebral hemodynamic and metabolic states with the final aim to select clinically asymptomatic patients who would benefit from carotid revascularization therapy.
Project description:The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) is the rate of oxygen consumption by the brain, and is thought to be a direct index of energy homeostasis and brain health. However, in vivo measurement of CMRO2 is challenging, in particular for the neonatal population, in whom conventional radiotracer methods are not applicable because of safety concerns. In this study, we propose a method to quantify global CMRO2 in neonates based on arteriovenous differences in oxygen content, and employ separate measurements of oxygenation and cerebral blood flow (CBF) parameters. Specifically, arterial and venous oxygenation levels were determined with pulse oximetry and the novel T2 relaxation under spin tagging (TRUST) MRI, respectively. Global CBF was measured with phase contrast (PC) flow velocity MRI. The proposed method was implemented on a standard 3-T MRI scanner without the need for any exogenous tracers, and the total scan duration was less than 5?min. We demonstrated the feasibility of this method in 12 healthy neonates within an age range of 35-42 gestational weeks. CMRO2 values were successfully obtained from 10 neonates. It was found that the average CMRO2 in this age range was 38.3?±?17.7?µmol/100?g/min and was positively correlated with age (p?=?0.007; slope, 5.2?µmol/100?g/min per week), although the highest CMRO2 value in this age range was still less than half of the adult level. Test-retest studies showed a coefficient of variation of 5.8?±?2.2% between repeated CMRO2 measurements. In addition, given the highly variable blood flow velocity within this age range, it is recommended that the TRUST labeling thickness and position should be determined on a subject-by-subject basis, and an automatic algorithm was developed for this purpose. Although this method provides a global CMRO2 measure only, the clinical significance of an energy consumption marker and the convenience of this technique may make it a useful tool in the functional assessment of the neonatal population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>According to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017, smoking is one of the leading four risk factors contributing to deaths in China. We aimed to evaluate the associations of smoking with all-cause mortality in a Chinese rural population.<h4>Methods</h4>Male participants over age 45 (n = 5367) from a large familial aggregation study in rural China, were included in the current analyses. A total of 528 former smokers and 3849 current smokers accounted for 10 and 71.7% of the cohort, respectively. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to evaluate the association between baseline smoking status and mortality, adjusting for pertinent covariates.<h4>Results</h4>There were 579 recorded deaths during the 15-year follow-up. Current smokers (odds ratio [OR],1.60; 95% CI,1.23-2.08) had higher all-cause mortality risks than nonsmokers. Relative to nonsmokers, current smokers of more than 40 pack-years ([OR],1.85; 95% CI,1.33-2.56) had a higher all-cause mortality risk. Compared to nonsmokers, current smokers who started smoking before age 20 ([OR],1.91; 95% CI,1.43-2.54) had a higher all-cause mortality risk, and former smokers in the lower pack-year group who quit after age 41 (median) ([OR],3.19; 95% CI,1.83-5.56) also had a higher risk of death after adjustment. Furthermore, former smokers who were also former drinkers had the highest significant risk of mortality than never smokers or drinkers. (P for interaction = 0.034).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study provides evidence that current smokers and former smokers have a higher mortality risk than nonsmokers and would benefit from cessation at a younger age.
Project description:Tobacco smoke exposure contributes to the global burden of communicable and chronic diseases. To identify immune cells affected by smoking, we use single-cell RNA sequencing on peripheral blood from smokers and nonsmokers. Transcriptomes reveal a subpopulation of <i>FCGR3A</i> (CD16)-expressing Natural Killer (NK)-like CD8 T lymphocytes that increase in smokers. Mass cytometry confirms elevated CD16<sup>+</sup> CD8 T cells in smokers. Inferred as highly differentiated by pseudotime analysis, NK-like CD8 T cells express markers characteristic of effector memory re-expressing CD45RA T (T<sub>EMRA</sub>) cells. Indicative of immune aging, smokers' CD8 T cells are biased toward differentiated cells and smokers have fewer naïve cells than nonsmokers. DNA methylation-based models show that smoking dose is associated with accelerated aging and decreased telomere length, a biomarker of T cell senescence. Immune aging accompanies T cell senescence, which can ultimately lead to impaired immune function. This suggests a role for smoking-induced, senescence-associated immune dysregulation in smoking-mediated pathologies.