Variation in Type 2 Diabetes-Related Phenotypes among Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mouse Strains.
ABSTRACT: We recently have found that apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice with the C57BL/6 background develop type 2 diabetes when fed a Western diet for 12 weeks. In the present study we constructed multiple Apoe(-/-) mouse strains to find diabetes-related phenotyptic variations that might be linked to atherosclerosis development. Evaluation of both early and advanced lesion formation in aortic root revealed that C57BL/6, SWR/J, and SM/J Apoe(-/-) mice were susceptible to atherosclerosis and that C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ Apoe(-/-) mice were relatively resistant. On a chow diet, fasting plasma glucose varied among strains with C3H/HeJ having the highest (171.1 ± 9.7 mg/dl) and BALB/cJ the lowest level (104.0 ± 6.6 mg/dl). On a Western diet, fasting plasma glucose rose significantly in all strains, with C57BL/6, C3H/HeJ and SWR/J exceeding 250 mg/dl. BALB/cJ and C3H/HeJ were more tolerant to glucose loading than the other 3 strains. C57BL/6 was sensitive to insulin while other strains were not. Non-fasting blood glucose was significantly lower in C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ than C57BL/6, SM/J, and SWR/J. Glucose loading induced the 1st and the 2nd phase of insulin secretion in BALB/cJ, but the 2nd phase was not observed in other strains. Morphological analysis showed that BALB/cJ had the largest islet area (1,421,493 ± 61,244 ?m(2)) and C57BL/6 had the smallest one (747,635 ± 41,798 ?m(2)). This study has demonstrated strain-specific variations in the metabolic and atherosclerotic phenotypes, thus laying the basis for future genetic characterization.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Improved animal models are needed to understand the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to food allergy. OBJECTIVE:We sought to assess food allergy phenotypes in a genetically diverse collection of mice. METHODS:We selected 16 Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse strains, as well as the classic inbred C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, and BALB/cJ strains, for screening. Female mice were sensitized to peanut intragastrically with or without cholera toxin and then challenged with peanut by means of oral gavage or intraperitoneal injection and assessed for anaphylaxis. Peanut-specific immunoglobulins, T-cell cytokines, regulatory T cells, mast cells, and basophils were quantified. RESULTS:Eleven of the 16 CC strains had allergic reactions to intraperitoneal peanut challenge, whereas only CC027/GeniUnc mice reproducibly experienced severe symptoms after oral food challenge (OFC). CC027/GeniUnc, C3H/HeJ, and C57BL/6J mice all mounted a TH2 response against peanut, leading to production of IL-4 and IgE, but only the CC027/GeniUnc mice reacted to OFC. Orally induced anaphylaxis in CC027/GeniUnc mice was correlated with serum levels of Ara h 2 in circulation but not with allergen-specific IgE or mucosal mast cell protease 1 levels, indicating systemic allergen absorption is important for anaphylaxis through the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, CC027/GeniUnc, but not C3H/HeJ or BALB/cJ, mice can be sensitized in the absence of cholera toxin and react on OFC to peanut. CONCLUSIONS:We have identified and characterized CC027/GeniUnc mice as a strain that is genetically susceptible to peanut allergy and prone to severe reactions after OFC. More broadly, these findings demonstrate the untapped potential of the CC population in developing novel models for allergy research.
Project description:Inbred mouse strains play a critical role in biomedical research. Genetic homogeneity within inbred strains and their general amenability to genetic manipulation have made them an ideal resource for dissecting the physiological function(s) of individual genes. However, the inbreeding that makes inbred mice so useful also results in genetic divergence between them. This genetic divergence is often unaccounted for but may be a confounding factor when comparing studies that have utilized distinct inbred strains. Here, we compared the cardiac function of C57BL/6J mice to seven other commonly used inbred mouse strains: FVB/NJ, DBA/2J, C3H/HeJ, BALB/cJ, 129X1/SvJ, C57BL/10SnJ, and 129S1/SvImJ. The assays used to compare cardiac function were the ex vivo isolated Langendorff heart preparation and in vivo real-time hemodynamic analysis using conductance micromanometry. We report significant strain-dependent differences in cardiac function between C57BL/6J and other commonly used inbred strains. C57BL/6J maintained better cardiac function than most inbred strains after ex vivo ischemia, particularly compared with 129S1/SvImJ, 129X1/SvJ, and C57BL/10SnJ strains. However, during in vivo acute hypoxia 129X1/SvJ and 129S1/SvImJ maintained relatively normal cardiac function, whereas C57BL/6J animals showed dramatic cardiac decompensation. Additionally, C3H/HeJ showed rapid and marked cardiac decompensation in response to esmolol infusion compared with effects of other strains. These findings demonstrate the complex effects of genetic divergence between inbred strains on cardiac function. These results may help inform analysis of gene ablation or transgenic studies and further demonstrate specific quantitative traits that could be useful in discovery of genetic modifiers relevant to cardiac health and disease.
Project description:Iron overload causes inhibition of hepatic uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) and uroporphyria in C57BL/10ScSn but not DBA/2 mice [Smith, Cabral, Carthew, Francis and Manson (1989) Int. J. Cancer 43, 492-496]. We have investigated the induction of uroporphyria in 12 inbred strains of mice 25 weeks after iron treatment (600 mg/kg) to determine if there was any correlation with the Ah locus. Under these conditions, inhibition of UROD occurred to varying degrees in Ahd mice (SWR and AKR) as well as nominally Ahb-1 (C57BL/6J, C57BL/10ScSn and C57BL/10-cc) and Ahb-2 strains (BALB/c and C3H/HeJ). Five other Ahb or Ahd strains (C57BL/Ks, A/J, CBA/J, LP and DBA/2) were unaffected. Thus there appeared to be no correlation with the Ah phenotype and this illustrated that some other variable inherited factors are involved. Comparisons between another susceptible strain, A2G, and the congenic A2G-hr/+strain (carrying the recessive hr gene) showed a modulating influence associated with the hr locus. In contrast with individual mice of inbred strains, which showed consistent responses to iron, those of the outbred MF1 strain showed a spectrum of sensitivities as might be expected for a heterogeneic stock. The rate of porphyria development was accelerated by administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA) in the drinking water, but this did not overcome strain differences. Among four strains the order of susceptibility was SWR > C57BL/10ScSn > C57B1/6J > DBA/2 (the last strain was completely resistant). With degrees of iron loading greater than 600 mg of Fe/kg (1200-1800 mg of Fe/kg) C57BL/10ScSn mice (after 20 weeks) and SWR mice (after 5 weeks which included 4 weeks of 5-ALA treatment) had less inhibition of UROD and a lower uroporphyric response, showing that there was an optimum level of liver iron concentration. Studies on selected microsomal enzyme activities associated with cytochrome P-450 showed no correlation with the propensities of strains to develop porphyria. These activities included the NADPH-dependent oxidation of uroporphyrinogen I to uroporphyrin I.
Project description:Retroviruses are believed to induce tumors by acting as insertional mutagens that activate expression of cellular protooncogenes. Indeed, almost 90% of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-induced mammary tumors in C3H/He mice show upregulation of Int protooncogenes. We have analyzed three different MMTV variants [MMTV(C3H), MMTV(HeJ), and a genetically engineered MMTV hybrid provirus (HP)] for tumorigenicity in mice from two distinct genetic backgrounds. All three viruses were tumor causing in BALB/cJ mice. However, only MMTV(C3H), but not MMTV(HeJ) or HP, induced mammary tumors in C3H/He mice. All of the viruses were infectious on either background and up-regulated expression of Int genes in tumors they induced. Like HP, MMTV(HeJ) was found to be a genetic recombinant between endogenous Mtv1 provirus and exogenous MMTV(C3H). Sequence comparison of MMTV variants linked the tumorigenicity of MMTV(C3H) to the gag region of the retrovirus.
Project description:Atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries is a major cause of ischemic stroke, which accounts for 85% of all stroke cases. Genetic factors contributing to carotid atherosclerosis remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify chromosomal regions harboring genes contributing to carotid atherosclerosis in mice. From an intercross between BALB/cJ (BALB) and SM/J (SM) apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice, 228 female F2 mice were generated and fed a "Western" diet for 12 wk. Atherosclerotic lesion sizes in the left carotid artery were quantified. Across the entire genome, 149 genetic markers were genotyped. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis revealed eight loci for carotid lesion sizes, located on chromosomes 1, 5, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 18. Combined cross-linkage analysis using data from this cross, and two previous F2 crosses derived from BALB, C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ strains, identified five significant QTL on chromosomes 5, 9, 12, and 13, and nine suggestive QTL for carotid atherosclerosis. Of them, the QTL on chromosome 12 had a high LOD score of 9.95. Bioinformatic analysis prioritized Arhgap5, Akap6, Mipol1, Clec14a, Fancm, Nin, Dact1, Rtn1, and Slc38a6 as probable candidate genes for this QTL. Atherosclerotic lesion sizes were significantly correlated with non-HDL cholesterol levels (r = 0.254; p = 0.00016) but inversely correlated with HDL cholesterol levels (r = -0.134; p = 0.049) in the current cross. Thus, we demonstrated the polygenic control of carotid atherosclerosis in mice. The correlations of carotid lesion sizes with non-HDL and HDL suggest that genetic factors exert effects on carotid atherosclerosis partially through modulation of lipoprotein homeostasis.
Project description:Murine hepatocarcinogenesis requires growth hormone (GH). To determine if the GH-responsive transcription factor STAT5b (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b) is also required, we compared the hepatic gene expression profiles of global Stat5b null mice to cancer-resistant mice mutant in the GH pathway-GH-deficient little and androgen receptor-null Tfm males. We found a high degree of overlap among Tfm, little, and Stat5b null males. The liver cancer susceptibility of global Stat5b null mice was assessed on three distinct genetic backgrounds: BALB/cJ (BALB), C57BL/6J (B6), and C3H/HeJ (C3H). The effect of Stat5b on hepatocarcinogenesis depended on the genetic background. B6 Stat5b null congenic males and females developed 2.4 times as many tumors as wild-type (WT) controls (P?<?0.002) and the tumors were larger (P?<?0.003). In BALB/c congenics, loss of STAT5b had no effect on either sex. C3H Stat5b null congenic males and females were resistant to liver cancer, developing 2.7- and 6-fold fewer tumors, respectively (P?<?0.02, 0.01). These results provide the first example of a single gene behaving as both oncogene and tumor suppressor in a given tissue, depending only on the endogenous modifier alleles carried by different genetic backgrounds.
Project description:Inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) exhibit a marked difference in their susceptibility to atherosclerosis and the arterial wall has proven to be a source of the difference in atherosclerosis susceptibility. Genome-wide gene expression analysis was conducted in aortic walls of the two strains. Total RNA was extracted from aortas of 6-week-old female B6 and C3H apoE-deficient (apoE-/-) mice fed a chow or Western diet. 1514 genes in chow fed mice and 590 genes in Western fed mice were found to be differentially expressed between the two strains. RNA was extracted from aorta using a Trizol protocol. Total RNA was pooled in an equal amount from 4 mice for each group. Standard Affymetrix procedures were performed using 8ug of total RNA. Microarrays were used to detect gene expression in aortic walls of two apoE-deficient mouse strains when fed a chow or western diet. Keywords: atherosclerosis, arterial walls, C57BL/6, C3H/HeJ, Inbred strains, Hyperlipidemia, and Western diet Overall design: 4 groups of mice were studied: C57BL/6 apoE-/- mice on chow diet (03-62_BC), C57BL/6 apoE-/- mice on Western diet (03-62_BW), C3H/HeJ apoE-/- mice on chow diet (03-62_CC), and C3H/HeJ apoE-/- mice on Western diet (03-62_CW). Mice were weaned at 3 weeks of age onto a chow diet. At 4 weeks of age, mice were switched onto a western diet or continued the chow diet for 2 additional weeks.
Project description:Autoresuscitation (AR) is a highly conserved response among mammals, which allows survival from transient extreme hypoxia. During hypoxia, bradycardia, and hypoxic gasping develop after a brief period of hyperactivity. Normally, AR occurs if oxygen is restored during the gasping period where an initial heart rate increase is rapidly followed resumption or eupneic breathing. Humans and other mammals can survive multiple immediately repeated AR. A defective AR capacity has been implicated in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. We had reported earlier that inbred strains of mice such as BALB/cJ could survive a characteristic number of immediately repeated AR trials, but that SWR/J mice failed to AR from a single hypoxic episode. We now report that strains closely related to SWR/J, FVB/N and SJL/J exhibit partial resuscitation defects relative to BALB/cJ or other mouse strains, establishing a genetic basis for variation in AR failure. The AR trial phenotype of BALB/cJ x SWR/J intercross F(1) and F(2) mice was consistent with BALB/cJ dominance and a discrete number of loci. Genome-wide mapping conducted with 60 intercross F(2) animals linked two loci to the number of AR trials survived, including one sex-specific locus with male expression, consistent with the observed 50% male bias for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in humans. A locus carried on SWR/J chromosome 10 seems to be particularly important in AR failure and was confirmed in a partial consomic line. These results establish a genetic basis for AR failure phenotype in mice, with relevance to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.
Project description:Sex and genetic factors determine skeletal mass, and we tested whether bone histomorphometric parameters were sexually dimorphic in femurs from 1 to 6 month old C57BL/6 mice. Trabecular bone volume declined more rapidly in female mice than in male littermates because of enhanced bone resorption. Although bone formation was not different between sexes, female mice exhibited a higher number of osteoblasts than male littermates, suggesting that osteoblasts from female mice may have a reduced ability to form bone. To determine the impact of sex on osteoblastogenesis, we investigated the potential for osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells from C57BL/6, Friend leukemia virus-B (FVB), C3H/HeJ and BALB/c mice of both sexes. Bone marrow stromal cells from female FVB, C57BL/6 and C3H/HeJ mice exhibited lower Alpl and Osteocalcin expression and alkaline phosphatase activity, and formed fewer mineralized nodules than cells from male littermates. Proliferative capacity was greater in cells from male than female C57BL/6, but not FVB, mice. Sorting of bone marrow stromal cells from mice expressing an ?-Smooth muscle actin-green fluorescent protein transgene, revealed a higher yield of mesenchymal stem cells in cultures from male mice than in those from female littermates. Sex had a modest impact on osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. To determine the influence of sex and genetic factors on osteoblast function, calvarial osteoblasts were harvested from C57BL/6, FVB, C3H/HeJ and BALB/c mice. Alpl expression and activity were lower in osteoblasts from C57BL/6 and C3H/HeJ, but not FVB or BALB/c, female mice than in cells from littermates. Sex had no effect on osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow cultures of C57BL/6 mice, but osteoblasts from female mice exhibited higher Rankl and lower Opg expression than cells from male littermates. In conclusion, osteoblastogenesis is sexually dimorphic and influenced by genetic factors.
Project description:Numerous studies support the fact that a genetically diverse mouse population may be useful as an animal model to understand and predict toxicity in humans. We hypothesized that cultures of hepatocytes obtained from a large panel of inbred mouse strains can produce data indicative of inter-individual differences in in vivo responses to hepato-toxicants. In order to test this hypothesis and establish whether in vitro studies using cultured hepatocytes from genetically distinct mouse strains are feasible, we aimed to determine whether viable cells may be isolated from different mouse inbred strains, evaluate the reproducibility of cell yield, viability and functionality over subsequent isolations, and assess the utility of the model for toxicity screening. Hepatocytes were isolated from 15 strains of mice (A/J, B6C3F1, BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, CAST/EiJ, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, BALB/cByJ, AKR/J, MRL/MpJ, NOD/LtJ, NZW/LacJ, PWD/PhJ and WSB/EiJ males) and cultured for up to 7 days in traditional 2-dimensional culture. Cells from B6C3F1, C57BL/6J, and NOD/LtJ strains were treated with acetaminophen, WY-14,643 or rifampin and concentration-response effects on viability and function were established. Our data suggest that high yield and viability can be achieved across a panel of strains. Cell function and expression of key liver-specific genes of hepatocytes isolated from different strains and cultured under standardized conditions are comparable. Strain-specific responses to toxicant exposure have been observed in cultured hepatocytes and these experiments open new opportunities for further developments of in vitro models of hepatotoxicity in a genetically diverse population.