Doxorubicin impairs the insulin-like growth factor-1 system and causes insulin-like growth factor-1 resistance in cardiomyocytes.
ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes the survival of cardiomyocytes by activating type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R). Within the myocardium, IGF-1 action is modulated by IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which sequesters IGF-1 away from IGF-1R. Since cardiomyocyte apoptosis is implicated in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, we investigated the effects of the anthracycline, doxorubicin, on the IGF-1 system in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.Besides inducing apoptosis, concentrations of doxorubicin comparable to those observed in patients after bolus infusion (0.1-1 µM) caused a progressive decrease in IGF-1R and increase in IGFBP-3 expression. Exogenous IGF-1 was capable to rescue cardiomyocytes from apoptosis triggered by 0.1 and 0.5 µM, but not 1 µM doxorubicin. The loss of response to IGF-1 was paralleled by a significant reduction in IGF-1 availability and signaling, as assessed by free hormone levels in conditioned media and Akt phosphorylation in cell lysates, respectively. Doxorubicin also dose-dependently induced p53, which is known to repress the transcription of IGF1R and induce that of IGFBP3. Pre-treatment with the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-?, prevented apoptosis and the changes in IGF-1R and IGFBP-3 elicited by doxorubicin. The decrease in IGF-1R and increase in IGFBP-3, as well as apoptosis, were also antagonized by pre-treatment with the antioxidant agents, N-acetylcysteine, dexrazoxane, and carvedilol.Doxorubicin down-regulates IGF-1R and up-regulates IGFBP-3 via p53 and oxidative stress in H9c2 cells. This leads to resistance to IGF-1 that may contribute to doxorubicin-initiated apoptosis. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in human cardiomyocytes and explore the possibility of manipulating the IGF-1 axis to protect against anthracycline cardiotoxicity.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Iron aggravates the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin, a widely used anticancer anthracycline, and the iron chelator dexrazoxane is the only agent protecting against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity; however, the mechanisms underlying the role of iron in doxorubicin-mediated cardiotoxicity and the protective role of dexrazoxane remain to be established. As iron is required for the degradation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF), which control the expression of antiapoptotic and protective genes, we tested the hypothesis that dexrazoxane-dependent HIF activation may mediate the cardioprotective effect of dexrazoxane. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cell death, protein levels (by immunoblotting) and HIF-mediated transcription (using reporter constructs) were evaluated in the rat H9c2 cardiomyocyte cell line exposed to low doses of doxorubicin with or without dexrazoxane pretreatment. HIF levels were genetically manipulated by transfecting dominant-negative mutants or short hairpin RNA. KEY RESULTS: Treatment with dexrazoxane induced HIF-1? and HIF-2? protein levels and transactivation capacity in H9c2 cells. It also prevented the induction of cell death and apoptosis by exposure of H9c2 cells to clinically relevant concentrations of doxorubicin. Suppression of HIF activity strongly reduced the protective effect of dexrazoxane. Conversely, HIF-1? overexpression protected against doxorubicin-mediated cell death and apoptosis also in cells not exposed to the chelator. Exposure to dexrazoxane increased the expression of the HIF-regulated, antiapoptotic proteins survivin, Mcl1 and haem oxygenase. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our results showing HIF-dependent prevention of doxorubicin toxicity in dexrazoxane-treated H9c2 cardiomyocytes suggest that HIF activation may be a mechanism contributing to the protective effect of dexrazoxane against anthracycline cardiotoxicity.
Project description:Chronic cardiotoxicity is less common in male than in female patients receiving doxorubicin and other anthracyclines at puberty and adolescence. We hypothesized that this sex difference might be secondary to distinct activities of sex hormones on cardiomyocyte senescence, which is thought to be central to the development of long-term anthracycline cardiomyopathy.H9c2 cells and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes were exposed to doxorubicin with or without prior incubation with testosterone or 17β-estradiol, the main androgen and estrogen, respectively. Testosterone, but not 17β-estradiol, counteracted doxorubicin-elicited senescence. Downregulation of telomere binding factor 2, which has been pinpointed previously as being pivotal to doxorubicin-induced senescence, was also prevented by testosterone, as were p53 phosphorylation and accumulation. Pretreatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester abrogated the reduction in senescence and the normalization of telomere binding factor 2 levels attained by testosterone. Consistently, testosterone enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT and nitric oxide synthase 3. In H9c2 cells, doxorubicin-stimulated senescence was still observed up to 21 days after treatment and increased further when cells were rechallenged with doxorubicin 14 days after the first exposure to mimic the schedule of anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Remarkably, these effects were also inhibited by testosterone.Testosterone protects cardiomyocytes against senescence caused by doxorubicin at least in part by modulating telomere binding factor 2 via a pathway involving the androgen receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, AKT, and nitric oxide synthase 3. This is a potential mechanism by which pubescent and adolescent boys are less prone to chronic anthracycline cardiotoxicity than girls.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is important in cancer cell growth and survival and has been implicated in cancer pathophysiology and treatment. Here we report a novel function for IGF-1R in p53-dependent apoptotic response. We show that inhibition or loss of IGF-1R activity reduces translational synthesis of p53 and Mdm2 protein. Notably, IGF-1R inhibition increases p53 protein stability by reducing p53 ubiquitination and maintains p53 at low levels by decreasing p53 synthesis, thus rendering p53 insensitive to stabilization after DNA damage. The accumulation and apoptosis of DNA-damage-induced p53 is therefore reduced in Igf-1r(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts or tumor cells treated with the IGF-1R inhibitor. Furthermore, we find that inhibition of IGF-1R reduces p53 and Mdm2 translation through a gene-specific mechanism mediated by the respective 5' untranslated region of p53 and mdm2 messenger RNA. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F complex is also involved in this translational inhibition. These results demonstrate an unexpected role for translational control by IGF-1R in p53-mediated apoptosis.
Project description:The insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is part of the receptor tyrosine kinase superfamily. The activation of IGF-1R regulates several key signaling pathways responsible for maintaining cellular homeostasis, including survival, growth, and proliferation. In addition to mediating signal transduction at the plasma membrane, in serum-based models, IGF-1R undergoes SUMOylation by SUMO 1 and translocates to the nucleus in response to IGF-1. In corneal epithelial cells grown in serum-free culture, however, IGF-1R has been shown to accumulate in the nucleus independent of IGF-1. In this study, we report that the insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) mediates nuclear translocation of IGF-1R in response to growth factor withdrawal. This occurs via SUMOylation by SUMO 2/3. Further, IGF-1R and IGFBP-3 undergo reciprocal regulation independent of PI3k/Akt signaling. Thus, under healthy growth conditions, IGFBP-3 functions as a gatekeeper to arrest the cell cycle in G0/G1, but does not alter mitochondrial respiration in cultured cells. When stressed, IGFBP-3 functions as a caretaker to maintain levels of IGF-1R in the nucleus. These results demonstrate mutual regulation between IGF-1R and IGFBP-3 to maintain cell survival under stress. This is the first study to show a direct relationship between IGF-1R and IGFBP-3 in the maintenance of corneal epithelial homeostasis.
Project description:Doxorubicin-based chemotherapy induces cardiotoxicity, which limits its clinical application. We previously reported the protective effects of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we tested the effects of quercetin on the expression of Bmi-1, a protein regulating mitochondrial function and ROS generation, as a mechanism underlying quercetin-mediated protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.Effects of quercetin on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity was evaluated using H9c2 cardiomyocytes and C57BL/6 mice. Changes in apoptosis, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and related signalling were evaluated in H9c2 cells. Cardiac function, serum enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured in mice after a single injection of doxorubicin with or without quercetin pre-treatment.In H9c2 cells, quercetin reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS generation and DNA double-strand breaks. The quercetin-mediated protection against doxorubicin toxicity was characterized by decreased expression of Bid, p53 and oxidase (p47 and Nox1) and by increased expression of Bcl-2 and Bmi-1. Bmi-1 siRNA abolished the protective effect of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, quercetin protected mice from doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction that was accompanied by reduced ROS levels and lipid peroxidation, but enhanced the expression of Bmi-1 and anti-oxidative superoxide dismutase.Our results demonstrate that quercetin decreased doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo by reducing oxidative stress by up-regulation of Bmi-1 expression. The findings presented in this study have potential applications in preventing doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.
Project description:Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various cancers. Its clinical use is often limited due to its potentially fatal cardiotoxic side effect. Increasing evidence indicates that tumour protein p53 (p53), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), nucleoporin p62 (p62), and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are critical mediators of Dox-induced apoptosis, and subsequent dysregulation of autophagy. Aspalathin, a polyphenolic dihydrochalcone C-glucoside has been shown to activate AMPK while decreasing the expression of p53. However, the role that aspalathin could play in the inhibition of Dox-induced cardiotoxicity through increased autophagy flux remained unexplored. H9c2 cardiomyocytes and Caov-3 ovarian cancer cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium and treated with or without Dox for five days. Thereafter, cells exposed to 0.2 µM Dox were co-treated with either 20 µM Dexrazozane (Dexra) or 0.2 µM aspalathin (ASP) daily for 5 days. Results obtained showed that ASP mediates its cytoprotective effect in a p53-dependent manner, by increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and decreasing apoptosis. The latter effect was diminished through ASP-induced activation of autophagy-related genes (Atgs) with an associated decrease in p62 through induction of AMPK and Fox01. Furthermore, we showed that ASP was able to potentiate this effect without decreasing the anti-cancer efficacy of Dox, as could be observed in Caov-3 ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, the data presented in this study provides a credible mechanism by which ASP co-treatment could protect the myocardium from Dox-induced cardiotoxicity.
Project description:The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in multiple cancers and can promote proliferation and chemotherapy resistance. Multiple IGF-1R inhibitors have been developed as potential therapeutics. However, these inhibitors have failed to increase patient survival when given alone or in combination with chemotherapy agents. The reason(s) for the disappointing clinical effect of these inhibitors is not fully understood. Cisplatin (CP) activated the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway and stabilized p53 in osteosarcoma (OS) cells. p53 knockdown reduced IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 activation by CP, and IGF-1R inhibition reduced the accumulation of p53. These data demonstrate positive crosstalk between p53 and the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway in response to CP. Further studies showed the effect of IGF-1R inhibition on CP response is dependent on p53 status. In p53 wild-type cells treated with CP, IGF-1R inhibition increased p53s apoptotic function but reduced p53-dependent senescence, and had no effect on long term survival. In contrast, in p53-null/knockdown cells, IGF-1R inhibition reduced apoptosis in response to CP and increased long term survival. These effects were due to p27 since IGF-1R inhibition stabilized p27 in CP-treated cells, and p27 depletion restored apoptosis and reduced long term survival. Together, the results demonstrate 1) p53 expression determines the effect of IGF-1R inhibition on cancer cell CP response, and 2) crosstalk between the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway and p53 and p27 can reduce cancer cell responsiveness to chemotherapy and may ultimately limit the effectiveness of IGF-1R pathway inhibitors in the clinic.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are essential for growth and survival that suppress apoptosis and promote cell cycle progression, angiogenesis, and metastatic activities in various cancers. The IGFs actions are mediated through the IGF-1 receptor that is involved in cell transformation induced by tumour. These effects depend on the bioavailability of IGFs, which is regulated by IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). We describe here the role of the IGF system in cancer, proposing new strategies targeting this system. We have attempted to expand the general viewpoint on IGF-1R, its inhibitors, potential limitations of IGF-1R, antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and IGFBP actions. This review discusses the emerging view that blocking IGF via IGFBP is a better option than blocking IGF receptors. This can lead to the development of novel cancer therapies.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is essential to hippocampal neurogenesis and the neuronal response to hypoxia/ischemia injury. IGF (IGF-1 and -2) signaling is mediated primarily by the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) and modulated by six high-affinity binding proteins (IGFBP) and the type 2 IGF receptor (IGF-2R), collectively termed IGF system proteins. Defining the precise cells that express each is essential to understanding their roles. With the exception of IGFBP-1, we found that mouse hippocampus expresses mRNA for each of these proteins during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Compared to postnatal day 14 (P14), mRNA abundance at P5 was higher for IGF-1, IGFBP-2, -3, and -5 (by 71%, 108%, 100%, and 98%, respectively), lower for IGF-2, IGF-2R, and IGFBP-6 (by 65%, 78%, and 44%, respectively), and unchanged for IGF-1R and IGFBP-4. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM), we found that granule neurons and pyramidal neurons exhibited identical patterns of expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R, IGF-2R, IGFBP-2, and -4, but did not express other IGF system genes. We then compared IGF system expression in mature granule neurons and their progenitors. Progenitors exhibited higher mRNA levels of IGF-1 and IGF-1R (by 130% and 86%, respectively), lower levels of IGF-2R (by 72%), and similar levels of IGFBP-4. Our data support a role for IGF in hippocampal neurogenesis and provide evidence that IGF actions are regulated within a defined in vivo milieu.