Estimation of GFR in South Asians: a study from the general population in Pakistan.
ABSTRACT: South Asians are at high risk for chronic kidney disease. However, unlike those in the United States and United Kingdom, laboratories in South Asian countries do not routinely report estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) when serum creatinine is measured. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate the performance of existing GFR estimating equations in South Asians, and (2) modify the existing equations or develop a new equation for use in this population.Cross-sectional population-based study.581 participants 40 years or older were enrolled from 10 randomly selected communities and renal clinics in Karachi.eGFR, age, sex, serum creatinine level.Bias (the median difference between measured GFR [mGFR] and eGFR), precision (the IQR of the difference), accuracy (P30; percentage of participants with eGFR within 30% of mGFR), and the root mean squared error reported as cross-validated estimates along with bootstrapped 95% CIs based on 1,000 replications.The CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) creatinine equation performed better than the MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) Study equation in terms of greater accuracy at P30 (76.1% [95% CI, 72.7%-79.5%] vs 68.0% [95% CI, 64.3%-71.7%]; P < 0.001) and improved precision (IQR, 22.6 [95% CI, 19.9-25.3] vs 28.6 [95% CI, 25.8-31.5] mL/min/1.73 m(2); P < 0.001). However, both equations overestimated mGFR. Applying modification factors for slope and intercept to the CKD-EPI equation to create a CKD-EPI Pakistan equation (such that eGFRCKD-EPI(PK) = 0.686 × eGFRCKD-EPI(1.059)) in order to eliminate bias improved accuracy (P30, 81.6% [95% CI, 78.4%-84.8%]; P < 0.001) comparably to new estimating equations developed using creatinine level and additional variables.Lack of external validation data set and few participants with low GFR.The CKD-EPI creatinine equation is more accurate and precise than the MDRD Study equation in estimating GFR in a South Asian population in Karachi. The CKD-EPI Pakistan equation further improves the performance of the CKD-EPI equation in South Asians and could be used for eGFR reporting.
Project description:Background:The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinine equation is routinely used to assess renal function but exhibits varying accuracy depending on patient characteristics and clinical presentation. The overall aim of the present study was to assess if and to what extent glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation based on creatinine can be improved. Methods:In a cross-sectional analysis covering the years 2003-17, CKD-EPI was validated against measured GFR (mGFR; using various tracer methods) in patients with high likelihood of chronic kidney disease (CKD; five CKD cohorts, n?=?8365) and in patients with low likelihood of CKD (six community cohorts, n?=?6759). Comparisons were made with the Lund-Malmö revised equation (LMR) and the Full Age Spectrum equation. Results:7In patients aged 18-39 years old, CKD-EPI overestimated GFR with 5.0-16?mL/min/1.73?m2 in median in both cohort types at mGFR levels <120?mL/min/1.73?m2. LMR had greater accuracy than CKD-EPI in the CKD cohorts (P30, the percentage of estimated GFR within 30% of mGFR, 83.5% versus 76.6%). CKD-EPI was generally the most accurate equation in the community cohorts, but all three equations reached P30 above the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative benchmark of 90%. Conclusions:None of the evaluated equations made optimal use of available data. Prospects for improved GFR estimation procedures based on creatinine exist, particularly in young adults and in settings where patients with suspected or manifest CKD are investigated.
Project description:In the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), ethnicity is an important determinant. However, all existing equations have been built solely from Caucasian and Afro-American populations and they are potentially inaccurate for estimating GFR in African populations. We therefore evaluated the performance of different estimated GFR (eGFR) equations in predicting measured GFR (mGFR).In a cross-sectional study, 93 healthy adults were randomly selected in the general population of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, between June 2015 and April 2016. We compared mGFR by plasma clearance of iohexol with eGFR obtained with the Modified Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation with and without ethnic factor, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) serum creatinine (SCr)-based equation, with and without ethnic factor, the cystatin C-based CKD-EPI equation (CKD-EPI SCys) and with the combined equation (CKD-EPI SCrCys) with and without ethnic factor. The performance of the equations was studied by calculating bias, precision and accuracy within 30% (P30) of mGFR.There were 48 women and 45 men. Their mean age was 45.0±15.7 years and the average body surface area was 1.68±0.16m2. Mean mGFR was 92.0±17.2 mL/min/1.73m2 (range of 57 to 141 mL/min/1.73m2). Mean eGFRs with the different equations were 105.5±30.1 and 87.2±24.8 mL/min/1.73m2 for MDRD with and without ethnic factor, respectively; 108.8±24.1 and 94.3x20.9 mL/min/1.73m2 for CKD-EPI SCr with and without ethnic factor, respectively, 93.5±18.6 mL/min/1.73m2 for CKD-EPI SCys; 93.5±18.0 and 101±19.6 mL/min/ 1.73m2 for CKD-EPI SCrCys with and without ethnic factor, respectively. All equations slightly overestimated mGFR except MDRD without ethnic factor which underestimated by -3.8±23.0 mL/min /1.73m2. Both CKD-EPI SCr and MDRD with ethnic factors highly overestimated mGFR with a bias of 17.9±19.2 and 14.5±27.1 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively. There was a trend for better P30 for MDRD and CKD-EPI SCr without than with the ethnic factor [86.0% versus 79.6% for MDRD (p = 0.21) and 81.7% versus 73.1% for the CKD-EPI SCr equations (p = 0.057)]. CKD-EPI SCrCys and CKD-EPI SCys were more effective than creatinine-based equations.In the Congolese healthy population, MDRD and CKD-EPI equations without ethnic factors had better performance than the same equations with ethnic factor. The equations using Cys C (alone or combined with SCr) performed better than the creatinine-based equations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We aimed to assess the performance of the five creatinine-based equations commonly used for estimates of the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), namely, the creatinine-based Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPIcr), Asian CKD-EPI, revised Lund-Malmö (