Neutrophil adherence to isolated adult cardiac myocytes. Induction by cardiac lymph collected during ischemia and reperfusion.
ABSTRACT: Canine neutrophils can be induced to adhere in vitro to isolated adult cardiac myocytes by stimulation of the neutrophils with chemotactic factors such as zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) only if the myocytes have been previously exposed to cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These cytokines induce synthesis and surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the myocyte, and neutrophil adhesion is almost entirely CD18 and ICAM-1 dependent. The present study examines cardiac-specific lymph collected from awake dogs during 1-h coronary occlusion and 3 d of reperfusion for its ability to induce both ICAM-1 expression in cardiac myocytes, and neutrophil-myocyte adherence. Reperfusion lymph induced ICAM-1 expression in isolated myocytes, and myocyte adherence to ZAS-stimulated neutrophils that was completely inhibited by anti-CD18 and anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies. This activity peaked at 90 min of reperfusion and persisted for up to 72 h. Preischemic lymph was not stimulatory. IL-1 appeared not to be a stimulating factor in lymph in that dilutions of lymph were found to inhibit the stimulatory effects of recombinant IL-1 beta. However, investigation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) revealed that recombinant IL-6 stimulated myocyte adhesiveness for ZAS-stimulated neutrophils (ED50 = 0.002 U/ml) and expression of ICAM-1 by isolated myocytes. IL-6 neutralizing antibody markedly reduced the ability of reperfusion lymph to stimulate adhesion and ICAM-1 expression, and estimates of levels of IL-6 in reperfusion lymph ranged from 0.035 to 0.14 U/ml. These results indicate that cytokines capable of promoting neutrophil-myocyte adhesion occur in extracellular fluid during reperfusion of ischemic myocardium, and that one of these cytokines is IL-6. Neutrophil-myocyte adhesion may be of pathogenic significance because it may enhance the cytotoxic activity of the neutrophil.
Project description:The adhesiveness of isolated canine cardiac myocytes for neutrophils is greatly increased by stimulation with cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). Since this adhesion is significantly inhibited by an anti-CD18 MAb, experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the newly expressed adhesion molecule on the cardiac myocytes was intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). A newly developed MAb, CL18/6, was found to exhibit the functional and binding characteristics with canine neutrophils and canine jugular vein endothelial cells expected of an antibody recognizing ICAM-1. MAb CL18/6 also bound to isolated cardiac myocytes after stimulation of the myocytes with cytokines, and it blocked by greater than 90% the adhesion of neutrophils to stimulated myocytes. A partial cDNA clone for canine ICAM-1 was isolated, and ICAM-1 mRNA was found to be increased in both endothelial cells and cardiac myocytes after cytokine stimulation. Cytokines that both increased the CL18/6-inhibitable adhesion of neutrophils to myocytes and induced expression of ICAM-1 were IL-1 beta, TNF alpha, and LPS. These results are consistent with the conclusion that canine endothelial cells and cardiac myocytes express ICAM-1 in response to cytokine stimulation, and that ICAM-1 functions as an adhesive molecule for neutrophils on both cell types.
Project description:The recruitment of neutrophils to sites of inflammatory insult is a hallmark of the innate immune response. Neutrophil recruitment is regulated by a multistep process that includes cell rolling, activation, adhesion, and transmigration through the endothelium commonly referred to as the leukocyte adhesion cascade. After selectin-mediated braking, neutrophils migrate along the activated vascular endothelium on which ligands, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), are expressed. Previous studies have shown that two cells that commonly home from blood vessel to tissue-T cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells-use the integrin lymphocyte functional antigen-1 (LFA-1) to migrate against the direction of shear flow once adherent on ICAM-1 surfaces. Like T cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, neutrophils express LFA-1, but they also express macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1), which binds to ICAM-1. Previous reports have shown that neutrophils will not migrate against the direction of flow on ICAM-1, but we hypothesized this was due to the influence of Mac-1. Here, we report that both the HL-60 neutrophil-like cell line and primary human neutrophils can migrate against the direction of fluid flow on ICAM-1 surfaces via LFA-1 if Mac-1 is blocked; otherwise, they migrate downstream. We demonstrate this both on ICAM-1 surfaces and on activated endothelium. In sum, both LFA-1 and Mac-1 binding ICAM-1 play a critical role in determining the direction of neutrophil migration along the endothelium, and their interaction may play an important role in controlling neutrophil trafficking during inflammation.
Project description:Here we report a novel role for TRPC6, a member of the transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel family, in the CXCL1-dependent recruitment of murine neutrophil granulocytes. Representing a central element of the innate immune system, neutrophils are recruited from the blood stream to a site of inflammation. The recruitment process follows a well-defined sequence of events including adhesion to the blood vessel walls, migration, and chemotaxis to reach the inflammatory focus. A common feature of the underlying signaling pathways is the utilization of Ca2+ ions as intracellular second messengers. However, the required Ca2+ influx channels are not yet fully characterized. We used WT and TRPC6-/- neutrophils for in vitro and TRPC6-/- chimeric mice (WT mice with WT or TRPC6-/- bone marrow cells) for in vivo studies. After renal ischemia and reperfusion injury, TRPC6-/- chimeric mice had an attenuated TRPC6-/- neutrophil recruitment and a better outcome as judged from the reduced increase in the plasma creatinine concentration. In the cremaster model CXCL1-induced neutrophil adhesion, arrest and transmigration were also decreased in chimeric mice with TRPC6-/- neutrophils. Using atomic force microscopy and microfluidics, we could attribute the recruitment defect of TRPC6-/- neutrophils to the impact of the channel on adhesion to endothelial cells. Mechanistically, TRPC6-/- neutrophils exhibited lower Ca2+ transients during the initial adhesion leading to diminished Rap1 and ?2 integrin activation and thereby reduced ICAM-1 binding. In summary, our study reveals that TRPC6 channels in neutrophils are crucial signaling modules in their recruitment from the blood stream in response to CXCL1. KEY POINT: Neutrophil TRPC6 channels are crucial for CXCL1-triggered activation of integrins during the initial steps of neutrophil recruitment.
Project description:Leukocyte transmigration is mediated by endothelial cell (EC) junctional molecules, but the associated mechanisms remain unclear. Here we investigate how intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2), junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A), and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) mediate neutrophil transmigration in a stimulus-dependent manner (eg, as induced by interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta] but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha]), and demonstrate their ability to act in sequence. Using a cell-transfer technique, transmigration responses of wild-type and TNF-alpha p55/p75 receptor-deficient leukocytes (TNFR(-/-)) through mouse cremasteric venules were quantified by fluorescence intravital microscopy. Whereas wild-type leukocytes showed a normal transmigration response to TNF-alpha in ICAM-2(-/-), JAM-A(-/-), and PECAM-1(-/-) recipient mice, TNFR(-/-) leukocytes exhibited a reduced transmigration response. Hence, when the ability of TNF-alpha to directly stimulate neutrophils is blocked, TNF-alpha-induced neutrophil transmigration is rendered dependent on ICAM-2, JAM-A, and PECAM-1, suggesting that the stimulus-dependent role of these molecules is governed by the target cell being activated. Furthermore, analysis of the site of arrest of neutrophils in inflamed tissues from ICAM-2(-/-), JAM-A(-/-), and PECAM-1(-/-) mice demonstrated that these molecules act sequentially to mediate transmigration. Collectively, the findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of key molecules implicated in leukocyte transmigration.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. Some proinflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are produced in stroke. Chemokine-like factor 1 (CKLF1), as a novel C-C chemokine, displays chemotactic activities in a wide spectrum of leukocytes and plays an important role in brain development. In previous studies, we have found that the expression of CKLF1 increased in rats after focal cerebral ischemia and treatment with the CKLF1 antagonist C19 peptide decreased the infarct size and water content. However, the role of CKLF1 in stroke is still unclear. The objective of the present study was to ascertain the possible roles and mechanism of CKLF1 in ischemic brain injury by applying anti-CKLF1 antibody. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to one-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion. Antibody to CKLF1 was applied to the right cerebral ventricle immediately after reperfusion; infarct volume and neurological score were measured at 24 and 72 hours after cerebral ischemia. RT-PCR, Western blotting and ELISA were utilized to characterize the expression of adhesion molecules, inflammatory factors and MAPK signal pathways. Immunohistochemical staining and myeloperoxidase activity was used to determine the extent of neutrophil infiltration. RESULTS: Treatment with anti-CKLF1 antibody significantly decreased neurological score and infarct volume in a dose-dependent manner at 24 and 72 hours after cerebral ischemia. Administration with anti-CKLF1 antibody lowered the level of inflammatory factors TNF-?, IL-1?, MIP-2 and IL-8, the expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in a dose-dependent manner. The results of immunohistochemical staining and detection of MPO activity indicated that anti-CKLF1 antibody inhibited neutrophil infiltration. Further studies suggested MAPK pathways associated with neutrophil infiltration in cerebral ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: Selective inhibition of CKLF1 activity significantly protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing production of inflammatory mediators and expression of adhesion molecules, thereby reducing neutrophils recruitment to the ischemic area, possibly via inhibiting MAPK pathways. Therefore, CKLF1 may be a novel target for the treatment of stroke.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tissue infiltration by neutrophils during acute inflammatory states causes substantial tissue injury. While the magnitude of tissue neutrophil accumulation in innate immune responses is profoundly greater in males than females, fundamental aspects of the molecular mechanisms underlying these sex differences remain largely unknown. METHODS:We investigated sex differences in neutrophil stimulation and recruitment in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R; mesenteric or renal) or carrageenan pleurisy in rats or mice, as well as skin injury in human volunteers. The induction of potent chemoattractive mediators (chemokines) and neutrophil adhesion molecules were measured by real-time PCR, flow cytometry, and protein assays. RESULTS:Mesenteric I/R in age-matched Wistar rats resulted in substantially more neutrophil accumulation and tissue injury at 2 h reperfusion in males than females. Using intravital microscopy, we show that the immediate (<30 min) neutrophil response to I/R is similar in males and females but that prolonged neutrophil recruitment occurs in males at sites local and distal to inflammatory insult partly due to an increase in circulating neutrophil populations with elevated surface expression of adhesion molecules. Sex differences in neutrophil kinetics were correlated with sustained induction of chemokine Cxcl5 in the tissue, circulation, and bone marrow of males but not females. Furthermore, blockade of Cxcl5 in males prior to ischemia resulted in neutrophil responses that were similar in magnitude to those in females. Conversely, administration of Cxcl5 to males in the absence of I/R was sufficient to increase levels of systemic neutrophils. Cxcl5 treatment of bone marrow neutrophils in vitro caused substantial induction of neutrophil-mobilizing cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) and expression of ?2 integrin that accounts for sexual dimorphism in circulating neutrophil populations in I/R. Moreover, male Cxcl5-stimulated bone marrow neutrophils had an increased capacity to adhere to ?2 integrin ligand ICAM-1, implicating a greater sensitivity of male leukocytes to Cxcl5-mediated activation. Differential induction of Cxcl5 (human CXCL6) between the sexes was also evident in murine renal I/R, rat pleurisy, and human skin blisters and correlated with the magnitude of neutrophil accumulation in tissues. CONCLUSIONS:Our study reveals that sex-specific induction of chemokine Cxcl5/CXCL6 contributes to sexual dimorphism in neutrophil recruitment in diverse acute inflammatory responses partly due to increased stimulation and trafficking of bone marrow neutrophils in males.
Project description:To efficiently cross the endothelial barrier during inflammation, neutrophils first firmly adhere to the endothelial surface using the endothelial adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Upon actual transmigration, the release from ICAM-1 is required. While Integrin LFA1/Mac1 de-activation is one described mechanism that leads to this, direct cleavage of ICAM-1 from the endothelium represents a second option. We found that a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) cleaves the extracellular domain of ICAM-1 from the endothelial surface. Silencing or inhibiting endothelial ADAM10 impaired the efficiency of neutrophils to cross the endothelium, suggesting that neutrophils use endothelial ADAM10 to dissociate from ICAM-1. Indeed, when measuring transmigration kinetics, neutrophils took almost twice as much time to finish the diapedesis step when ADAM10 was silenced. Importantly, we found increased levels of ICAM-1 on the transmigrating neutrophils when crossing an endothelial monolayer where such increased levels were not detected when neutrophils crossed bare filters. Using ICAM-1-GFP-expressing endothelial cells, we show that ICAM-1 presence on the neutrophils can also occur by membrane transfer from the endothelium to the neutrophil. Based on these findings, we conclude that endothelial ADAM10 contributes in part to neutrophil transendothelial migration by cleaving ICAM-1, thereby supporting the release of neutrophils from the endothelium during the final diapedesis step.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumour results in the rapid induction of an inflammatory response that is considered important for the activation of antitumour immunity, but may be detrimental if excessive. The response is characterised by the infiltration of leucocytes, predominantly neutrophils, into the treated tumour. Several preclinical studies have suggested that suppression of long-term tumour growth following PDT using Photofrin((R)) is dependent upon the presence of neutrophils. The inflammatory pathways leading to the PDT-induced neutrophil migration into the treated tumour are unknown. In the following study, we examined, in mice, the ability of PDT using the second-generation photosensitiser 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) to induce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as adhesion molecules, known to be involved in neutrophil migration. We also examined the role that these mediators play in PDT-induced neutrophil migration. Our studies show that HPPH-PDT induced neutrophil migration into the treated tumour, which was associated with a transient, local increase in the expression of the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and KC. A similar increase was detected in functional expression of adhesion molecules, that is, E-selectin and intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and both local and systemic expression of interleukin (IL)-6 was detected. The kinetics of neutrophil immigration mirrored those observed for the enhanced production of chemokines, IL-6 and adhesion molecules. Subsequent studies showed that PDT-induced neutrophil recruitment is dependent upon the presence of MIP-2 and E-selectin, but not on IL-6 or KC. These results demonstrate a PDT-induced inflammatory response similar to, but less severe than obtained with Photofrin((R)) PDT. They also lay the mechanistic groundwork for further ongoing studies that attempt to optimise PDT through the modulation of the critical inflammatory mediators.
Project description:Intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (ICAM-2) is expressed on endothelial cells (ECs) and supports neutrophil extravasation. However, the full details of its role remain unknown, and the present study investigates the functional mechanisms of ICAM-2 in neutrophil-endothelial-cell interactions. Our initial studies showed expression of ICAM-2 at both EC junctions and on the EC body. In line with the observed expression profile analysis of neutrophil-vessel-wall interactions using real-time in vivo confocal microscopy identified numerous functional roles for ICAM-2 within the vascular lumen and at the stage of neutrophil extravasation. Functional or genetic blockade of ICAM-2 significantly reduced neutrophil crawling velocity, increased frequency of crawling with a disrupted stop-start profile, and prolonged interaction of neutrophils with EC junctions prior to transendothelial cell migration (TEM), collectively resulting in significantly reduced extravasation. Pharmacological blockade of the leukocyte integrin MAC-1 indicated that some ICAM-2-dependent functions might be mediated through ligation of this integrin. These findings highlight novel roles for ICAM-2 in mediating luminal neutrophil crawling and the effect on subsequent levels of extravasation.
Project description:Reperfusion following ischemia leads to neutrophil recruitment into injured tissue. Selectins and ?2-integrins regulate neutrophil interaction with the endothelium during neutrophil rolling and firm adhesion. Excessive neutrophil infiltration into tissue is thought to contribute to ischemia-reperfusion injury damage. Hydrogen sulfide mitigates the damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury. This study's objective was to determine the effect of hydrogen sulfide on neutrophil adhesion receptor expression.Human neutrophils were either left untreated or incubated in 20 ?M hydrogen sulfide and/or 50 ?g/ml pharmacologic ADAM-17 inhibitor TAPI-0; activated by interleukin-8, fMLP, or TNF-?; and labeled against P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, leukocyte function associated antigen-1, Mac-1 ?, L-selectin, and ?2-integrin epitopes CBRM1/5 or KIM127 for flow cytometry. Cohorts of three C57BL/6 mice received an intravenous dose of saline vehicle or 20 ?M hydrogen sulfide with or without 50 ?g/ml TAPI-0 before unilateral tourniquet-induced hind-limb ischemia for 3 hours followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. Bilateral gastrocnemius muscles were processed for histology before neutrophil infiltration quantification.Hydrogen sulfide treatment significantly increased L-selectin shedding from human neutrophils following activation by fMLP and interleukin-8 in an ADAM-17-dependent manner. Mice treated with hydrogen sulfide to raise bloodstream concentration by 20 ?M before ischemia or reperfusion showed a significant reduction in neutrophil recruitment into skeletal muscle tissue following tourniquet-induced hind-limb ischemia-reperfusion injury.Hydrogen sulfide administration results in the down-regulation of L-selectin expression in activated human neutrophils. This leads to a reduction in neutrophil extravasation and tissue infiltration and may partially account for the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide seen in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion injury.