Another potential carp killer?: Carp Edema Virus disease in Germany.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Infections with carp edema virus, a pox virus, are known from Japanese koi populations since 1974. A characteristic clinical sign associated with this infection is lethargy and therefore the disease is called "koi sleepy disease". Diseased koi also show swollen gills, enophthalmus, and skin lesions. Mortality rates up to 80 % are described. For a long period of time, disease outbreaks seemed to be restricted to Japan. However, during the last years clinical outbreaks of koi sleepy disease also occurred in the UK and in the Netherlands. CASE PRESENTATION:In spring 2014 koi from different ponds showing lethargic behavior, skin ulcers, inflammation of the anus, enophthalmus, and gill necrosis were presented to the laboratory for diagnosis. In all cases, new koi had been purchased earlier that spring from the same retailer and introduced into existing populations. Eleven koi from six ponds were examined for ectoparasites and for bacterial and viral infections (cyprinid herpesviruses in general and especially koi herpesvirus (KHV) known formally as Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3); and Carp Edema Virus). In most of the cases parasites were not detected from skin and gills. Only opportunistic freshwater bacteria were isolated from skin ulcers. In cell cultures no cytopathic effect was observed, and none of the samples gave positive results in PCR tests for cyprinid herpesviruses. By analyzing gill tissues for CEV in seven out of eleven samples by a nested PCR, PCR products of 547 bp and 180 bp (by using nested primers) could be amplified. An outbreak of Koi Sleepy Disease was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. These results confirm the presence of CEV in German koi populations. CONCLUSION:A clinical outbreak of "koi sleepy disease" due to an infection with Carp Edema Virus was confirmed for the first time in Germany. To avoid transmission of CEV to common carp testing of CEV should become part of fish disease surveillance programs.
Project description:Carp edema virus disease (CEVD), or koi sleepy disease, is caused by CEV. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of CEV strain FTI2020, isolated from koi carp. This sequence information has great potential for improving our understanding of the genetic characteristics of this piscine poxvirus.
Project description:Outbreaks of koi sleepy disease (KSD) caused by carp edema virus (CEV) may seriously affect populations of farmed common carp, one of the most important fish species for global food production. The present study shows further evidence for the involvement of CEV in outbreaks of KSD among carp and koi populations: in a series of infection experiments, CEV from two different genogroups could be transmitted to several strains of naïve common carp via cohabitation with fish infected with CEV. In recipient fish, clinical signs of KSD were induced. The virus load and viral gene expression results confirm gills as the target organ for CEV replication. Gill explants also allowed for a limited virus replication in vitro. The in vivo infection experiments revealed differences in the virulence of the two CEV genogroups which were associated with infections in koi or in common carp, with higher virulence towards the same fish variety as the donor fish. When the susceptibility of different carp strains to a CEV infection and the development of KSD were experimentally investigated, Amur wild carp showed to be relatively more resistant to the infection and did not develop clinical signs for KSD. However, the resistance could not be related to a higher magnitude of type I IFN responses of affected tissues. Despite not having a mechanistic explanation for the resistance of Amur wild carp to KSD, we recommend using this carp strain in breeding programs to limit potential losses caused by CEV in aquaculture.
Project description:As koi and common carp gain importance in the Korean fish industry, the need for better diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of associated diseases has increased. In June 2019, the first known case of mass mortality involving cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) and the second involving carp edema virus (CEV) occurred in a koi farm in Jeolla-do, Korea. Notably, the CEV exhibited a closer phylogenetic relationship with certain CEV strains originating from Poland, Germany, and India than with strains originating from China or Japan. Epidemiological studies and detailed surveillance and control for CEV and CyHV-3 are needed along with quarantine inspections.
Project description:Introduction:The aim of the study was to determine the transmission potential of carp edema virus (CEV) and koi herpesvirus (KHV) introduced to Europe by the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). Material and Methods:A total of 70 round goby specimens were collected from the Szczecin Lagoon, Poland, and locations in Germany in the third and fourth quarters of 2018. The fish were analysed to detect KHV and CEV by PCR. Results:Six fish specimens were positive for the presence of KHV, while none of the gobies examined showed the presence of CEV. Conclusion:The CEV genome was detected in the goby specimens from Germany and from Poland. Considering the high pace of the spread of the round goby and its effectiveness in acquisition of new ecological niches, it should be kept out during refilling of carp ponds. Further studies should focus on experimental cohabitation of CEV-infected round gobies and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) carp to investigate the potential for active virus transfer.
Project description:Gills of fish are involved in respiration, excretion and osmoregulation. Due to numerous interactions between these processes, branchial diseases have serious implications on fish health. Here, "koi sleepy disease" (KSD), caused by carp edema virus (CEV) infection was used to study physiological, immunological and metabolic consequences of a gill disease in fish. A metabolome analysis shows that the moderately hypoxic-tolerant carp can compensate the respiratory compromise related to this infection by various adaptations in their metabolism. Instead, the disease is accompanied by a massive disturbance of the osmotic balance with hyponatremia as low as 71.65 mmol L<sup>-1</sup>, and an accumulation of ammonia in circulatory blood causing a hyperammonemia as high as 1123.24 µmol L<sup>-1</sup>. At water conditions with increased ambient salt, the hydro-mineral balance and the ammonia excretion were restored. Importantly, both hyponatremia and hyperammonemia in KSD-affected carp can be linked to an immunosuppression leading to a four-fold drop in the number of white blood cells, and significant downregulation of <i>cd4, tcr a2</i> and <i>igm</i> expression in gills, which can be evaded by increasing the ion concentration in water. This shows that the complex host-pathogen interactions within the gills can have immunosuppressive consequences, which have not previously been addressed in fish. Furthermore, it makes the CEV infection of carp a powerful model for studying interdependent pathological and immunological effects of a branchial disease in fish.
Project description:The presence of carp edema virus (CEV) was confirmed in imported ornamental koi in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The koi showed lethargy, loss of swimming activity, were lying at the bottom of the pond, and gasping at the water's surface. Some clinical signs such as skin hemorrhages and ulcers, swelling of the primary gill lamella, and necrosis of gill tissue, presented. Clinical examination showed co-infection by opportunistic pathogens including <i>Dactylogyrus</i> sp., <i>Gyrodactylus</i> sp. and <i>Saprolegnia</i> sp. on the skin and gills. Histopathologically, the gill of infected fish showed severe necrosis of epithelial cells and infiltrating of eosinophilic granular cells. Electron microscope examination detected few numbers of virions were present in the cytoplasm of gill tissue which showed an electron dense core with surface membranes worn by surface globular units. Molecular detection of CEV DNA from gill samples of fish was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and confirmed by nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that CEV isolate had 99.8% homology with the CEV isolated from South Korea (KY946715) and Germany (KY550420), and was assigned to genogroup IIa. In conclusion, this report confirmed the presence of CEV infection of koi <i>Cyprinus carpio</i> in Chiang Mai province, Thailand using pathological and molecular approaches.
Project description:Koi herpesvirus (KHV), also known as Cyprinid herpes virus 3 (Cyprinid 3) is lethal disease in common carp and koi (Cyprinus carpio). Two different groups (KK and RK) were infected KHV by intraperitoneal injection. Fish for gene expression analysis were sampled at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post infection (p.i). The results showed that two immune related gene, Interferons (INFs) ?? and Interleukin (IL)-12 p35 induced a high response in RK. The IL-12 p35 cytokine and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 were significantly high expressed on 48 h post infection (p.i) in RK as compared to the KK. The histopatological examination reveals focal necrosis in liver and infiltrate of lymphocytes in spleen of KK as compared to the RK. In immunohistochemistry analysis, the KHV protein high expressed in the infected kidney cell and slenocyte of KK. Therefore, the expression of IL-12 p35, IFN ?? and TLR 9 may provide a potentially genes related with KHV resistance in Koi and red common carp × koi.
Project description:Significant mortalities associated with emerging viral diseases are challenging the economy of common carp aquaculture. As such, there is an increased need to disentangle how infected fish cope with progressive disease pathology and lose the ability for homeostatic maintenance of key physiological parameters. A natural carp edema virus (CEV) infection outbreak at a carp fish farm provided an opportunity to examine diseased and healthy carp in the same storage pond, thereby contributing to our better understanding of CEV disease pathophysiology. The disease status of fish was determined using PCR-based virus identification combined with analysis of gill pathology. Compared with healthy control carp, the blood chemistry profile of CEV-infected fish revealed major disruptions in electrolyte and acid-base balance (i.e., hyponatraemia, hypochloraemia, hyperphosphatemia, elevated pH, base excess, and anion gap and decreased partial dissolved carbon dioxide). In addition, we recorded hyperproteinaemia, hyperalbuminaemia, hypotonic dehydration, endogenous hyperammonaemia, and decreased lactate along with increased creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Red blood cell associated hematology variables were also elevated. The multivariate pattern of responses for blood chemistry variables (driven by sodium, pH, partial dissolved carbon dioxide, ammonia, and albumin in the principal component analysis) clearly discriminated between CEV-infected and control carp. To conclude, we show that CEV infection in carp exerts complex adverse effects and results in severe metabolic disturbance due to the impaired gill respiratory and excretory functioning.
Project description:Carp interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV) is an unclassified large DNA virus that morphologically resembles members of the Herpesviridae but contains a large (ca. approximately 280-kbp) linear double-stranded DNA. This virus has also been named koi herpesvirus, koi herpes-like virus, and cyprinid herpesvirus 3. CNGV is the cause of a lethal disease that afflicts common carp and koi. By using immunohistochemistry, molecular analysis, and electron microscopy we previously demonstrated that this virus is present mainly in the intestine and kidney of infected fish. Based on these observations, we postulated that viruses and/or viral components may appear in droppings of infected carp. Here we report that (i) by using PCR we demonstrated that fish droppings contain viral DNA, (ii) fish droppings contain viral antigens which are useful for CNGV diagnosis, and (iii) fish droppings contain active virus which can infect cultured common carp brain cells and induce the disease in naïve fish following inoculation. Thus, our findings show that CNGV can be identified by using droppings without taking biopsies or killing fish and that infectious CNGV is present in the stools of sick fish. The possibility that fish droppings preserve viable CNGV during the nonpermissive seasons is discussed.
Project description:Koi herpesvirus disease is a serious disease affecting both wild and common carp species in different continents throughout the world. Based on pathological and molecular findings, we document the presence of koi herpesvirus disease in Iraq as a cause of mass mortality among the common carp of the Tigris river. On a macroscopic level, the fish exhibited variably sized skin ulcerations throughout the entire trunk. The gills showed variable degrees of discoloration with an increased amount of slimy mucus. Microscopically, degeneration and necrosis with infiltration of a heterogenous population of inflammatory cells characterized different organs, primarily the skin and gills, with occasional intranuclear inclusion bodies that are consistent with koi herpesvirus disease. A semi-nested PCR assay coupled with sequencing confirmed the pathological diagnosis. Genotyping and sequence analysis of the TK gene, ORF 136 and markers I and II identified the isolated CyHV-3 as variant A1 of the Asian genotype TUSMT1 (J strain) displaying the I++II+ allele.