Concordant dysregulation of miR-5p and miR-3p arms of the same precursor microRNA may be a mechanism in inducing cell proliferation and tumorigenesis: a lung cancer study.
ABSTRACT: A precursor microRNA (miRNA) has two arms: miR-5p and miR-3p (miR-5p/-3p). Depending on the tissue or cell types, both arms can become functional. However, little is known about their coregulatory mechanisms during the tumorigenic process. Here, by using the large-scale miRNA expression profiles of five cancer types, we revealed that several of miR-5p/-3p arms were concordantly dysregulated in each cancer. To explore possible coregulatory mechanisms of concordantly dysregulated miR-5p/-3p pairs, we developed a robust computational framework and applied it to lung cancer data. The framework deciphers miR-5p/-3p coregulated protein interaction networks critical to lung cancer development. As a novel part in the method, we uniquely applied the second-order partial correlation to minimize false-positive regulations. Using 279 matched miRNA and mRNA expression profiles extracted from tumor and normal lung tissue samples, we identified 17 aberrantly expressed miR-5p/-3p pairs that potentially modulate the gene expression of 35 protein complexes. Functional analyses revealed that these complexes are associated with cancer-related biological processes, suggesting the oncogenic potential of the reported miR-5p/-3p pairs. Specifically, we revealed that the reduced expression of miR-145-5p/-3p pair potentially contributes to elevated expression of genes in the "FOXM1 transcription factor network" pathway, which may consequently lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation. Subsequently, the regulation of miR-145-5p/-3p in the FOXM1signaling pathway was validated by a cohort of 104 matched miRNA and protein (reverse-phase protein array) expression profiles in lung cancer. In summary, our computational framework provides a novel tool to study miR-5p/-3p coregulatory mechanisms in cancer and other diseases.
Project description:Recently, both 5p and 3p miRNA strands are being recognized as functional instead of only one, leaving many miRNA strands uninvestigated. To determine whether both miRNA strands, which have different mRNA-targeting sequences, cooperate to regulate pathways/functions across cancer types, we evaluate genomic, epigenetic, and molecular profiles of >5200 patient samples from 14 different cancers, and RNA interference and CRISPR screens in 290 cancer cell lines. We identify concordantly dysregulated miRNA 5p/3p pairs that coordinately modulate oncogenic pathways and/or cell survival/growth across cancers. Down-regulation of both strands of miR-30a and miR-145 recurrently increased cell cycle pathway genes and significantly reduced patient survival in multiple cancers. Forced expression of all four strands show cooperativity, reducing cell cycle pathways and inhibiting lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. Therefore, we identify miRNA whose 5p/3p strands function together to regulate core tumorigenic processes/pathways and reveal a previously unknown pan-cancer miRNA signature with patient prognostic power.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Untreated nephropathy can progress to renal failure. The traditional Mongolian remedy Narenmandula regulates the kidney "yang." This study aimed to identify key microRNAs (miRNAs) targeted by Narenmandula in a rat model of nephropathy.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Fifteen rats exhibiting normal renal function were randomized to three study arms. Nephropathy was induced in <i>n</i>?=?10 rats using doxorubicin hydrochloride, followed by either Narenmandula treatment (treatment group) or no treatment (control group). In <i>n</i>?=?5 rats, no doxorubicin was given and renal function remained unchanged (healthy group). Microarray analysis identified miRNAs which were differentially expressed (DE-miRNAs) between groups. Target genes of DE-miRNAs were predicted using miRWalk version 2.0, followed by enrichment analysis using DAVID, and construction of the miRNA coregulatory network using Cytoscape.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Nephropathy was successfully induced, with doxorubicin resulting in differential expression of 3645 miRNAs (1324 upregulated and 2321 downregulated). Narenmandula treatment induced differential expression of a total of 159 miRNAs (102 upregulated and 57 downregulated). Upregulated DE-miRNAs (e.g., miR-497-5p, miR-195-5p, miR-181a-5p, miR-181c-5p, and miR-30e-5p) and downregulated DE-miRNAs (e.g., miR-330-3p and miR-214-3p) regulated a high number of target genes. Moreover, the miRNA pairs (e.g., miR-195-5p-miR-497-5p, miR-181a-5p-miR-181c-5p, and miR-30e-5p-miR-30a-5p) coregulated a high number of genes. Enrichment analysis indicated functional synergy between miR-30e-5p-miR-30a-3p, miR-34a-5p-miR-30e-5p, miR-30e-5p-miR-195-3p, and miR-30a-3p-miR-195-3p pairs.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>Narenmandula may modulate doxorubicin-induced nephropathy via targeting miR-497-5p, miR-195-5p, miR-181a-5p, miR-181c-5p, miR-30e-5p, miR-330-3p, miR-214-3p, miR-34a-5p, miR-30a-3p, and miR-30a-5p.
Project description:The 5p and 3p arms of microRNA (miRNA) are typically generated from the same precursor, and one arm influences protein output, while the other has a short half-life. However, a few miR-5p/3p pairs have been reported to co-exist in cancer cells. Here, we performed a genome-wide analysis of miRNA expression in gastric cancer (GC) cells to systematically investigate the co-expression profile of miR-5p/3p in gastric tumorigenesis. We discovered that only 41 miR-5p/3p pairs out of 1749 analyzed miRNA were co-expressed. Specifically, abnormal expression of miR-369-5p and miR-369-3p was correlated with GC progression. Importantly, both in vitro and in vivo assays revealed that miR-369-5p and miR-369-3p exhibited tumor-suppressive roles by regulating jun proto-oncogene and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 function in GC cells, respectively. Moreover, we observed that miR-369 was inactivated in GC tissues due to DNA methylation. We also showed that inhibition of miR-369-5p/3p attenuated the effect of azacitidine (AZA) treatment on suppressing cell growth and invasion. These results suggest that the therapeutic efficacy of AZA in GC is at least partly attributable to miR-369 activation. Overall, our findings provide convincing evidence that both the 5p and 3p arms of miRNA co-expressed in GC and DNA methylation-induced miR-369 signaling contribute to GC progression.
Project description:Two mature miRNA species may be generated from the 5' and 3' arms of a pre-miRNA precursor. In most cases, only one species remains while the complementary species is degraded. However, co-existence of miRNA-5p and -3p species is increasingly being reported. In this work, we aimed to systematically investigate co-expression of miRNA-5p/3p in colon cancer cells in a genome-wide analysis, and to examine cross-targeting of the dysregulated miRNAs and 5p/3p species.Four colon cancer cell lines were examined relative to two normal colon tissues. Of the 1,190 miRNAs analyzed, 92 and 36 were found to be up- or down-regulated, respectively, in cancer cells. Nineteen co-expressed miRNA-5p/3p pairs were further identified suggesting frequent 5p/3p co-accumulation in colon cancer cells. Of these, 14 pairs were co-up-regulated and 3 pairs were co-down-regulated indicating concerted 5p/3p dysregulation. Nine dysregulated miRNA pairs fell into three miRNA gene families, namely let-7, mir-8/200 and mir-17, which showed frequent cross-targeting in the metastasis process. Focusing on the let-7d-5p/3p pair, the respectively targeted IGF1R and KRAS were shown to be in a reverse relationship with expression of the respective miRNA, which was confirmed in transient transfection assays using let-7d mimic or inhibitor. Targeting of KRAS by let-7d was previous reported; targeting of IGF1R by let-7d-5p was confirmed in luciferase assays in this study. The findings of let-7d-5p/3p and multiple other miRNAs targeting IGF1R, KRAS and other metastasis-related factors suggest that 5p/3p miRNAs contribute to cross-targeting of multiple cancer-associated factors and processes possibly to evade functional abolishment when any one of the crucial factors are inactivated.miRNA-5p/3p species are frequently co-expressed and are coordinately regulated in colon cancer cells. In cancer cells, multiple cross-targeting by the miRNAs, including the co-existing 5p/3p species, frequently occurs in an apparent safe-proof scheme of miRNA regulation of important tumorigenesis processes. Further systematic analysis of co-existing miRNA-5p/3p pairs in clinical tissues is important in elucidating 5p/3p contributions to cancer pathogenesis.
Project description:Introduction: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among females. We sought to identify microRNA (miRNA) markers in breast cancer, and determine whether miRNA expression is predictive of early stage breast cancer. The paired panel of microRNAs is promising. Methods: Global miRNA expression profiling was performed on three pooling samples of plasma from breast cancer, benign lesion and normal, using next generation sequencing technology. Thirteen microRNAs (hsa-miR-21-3p, hsa-miR-192-5p, hsa-miR-221-3p, hsa-miR-451a, hsa-miR-574-5p, hsa-miR-1273g-3p, hsa-miR-152, hsa-miR-22-3p, hsa-miR-222-3p, hsa-miR-30a-5p, hsa-miR-30e-5p, hsa-miR-324-3p, and hsa -miR-382-5p) were subsequently validated using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in a cohort of 53 breast cancer, 40 benign lesions and 38 normal cases. The pairwise miRNA ratios were calculated as biomarkers to classify breast cancer. Results: According to the model used to predict breast cancer from benign lesions, a panel of five miRNA pairs had high diagnostic power with an AUC of 0.942. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of this model after 10-fold cross validation were 0.881, 0.775, 0.827, and 0.756, respectively. In addition, the other panels of miRNA pairs distinguishing the breast cancer from normal and non-cancer patients had good performance. Conclusion: Certain MicroRNA pairs were identified and deemed effective in breast cancer screening, especially when distinguishing cancer from benign lesions.
Project description:PURPOSE:To identify potential molecular targets for lung cancer intervention and diagnosis, we analyzed the differential miRNA expression of peripheral blood between lung cancer patients and healthy controls. METHODS:Three pairs of cases' and controls' peripheral blood samples were evaluated for miRNA expression by microarray. 12 miRNAs were selected for RT-PCR validation and target genes prediction. In addition, 4 miRNAs were selected for future validation by RT-PCR in a large sample of 145 cases and 55 frequency-matched healthy controls. RESULTS:A total of 338 differentially expressed miRNAs were screened and identified by microarray. According to the fold changes, the top ten upregulated miRNAs were hsa-miR-124-3p, hsa-miR-379-5p, hsa-miR-3655, hsa-miR-450b-5p, hsa-miR-29a-5p, hsa-miR-200a-3p, hsa-miR-542-3p, hsa-miR-138-5p, hsa-miR-219a-2-3p, and hsa-miR-4701-3p, and the top ten downregulated miRNAs were hsa-miR-34c-5p, hsa-miR-135a-5p, hsa-miR-132-3p, hsa-miR-3178, hsa-miR-4449, hsa-miR-4999-3p, hsa-miR-1246, hsa-miR-4424, hsa-miR-1252-5p, and hsa-miR-24-2-5p. RT-PCR verification of the 12 miRNAs revealed that 5 of 8 upregulated miRNAs, 2 of 4 downregulated miRNAs showed a significant difference between the cases and controls (P < .05). A large number of target genes and their functional set showed overlapping among the 453 predicted target genes of the 12 miRNAs (P < .01). RT-PCR in the large sample confirmed the significant differential expression level of hsa-miR-29a-5p, hsa-miR-135a-5p, hsa-miR-542-3p, and hsa-miR-4491 between cases and controls (P < .05), and three of these microRNA, except hsa-miR-29a-5p, were significant after Bonferroni correction for adjustment of multiple comparisons. CONCLUSION:There was a significant difference in miRNAs expression in the peripheral blood between lung cancer patients and healthy controls, and 4 miRNAs were validated by a large-size sample.
Project description:The present study was aimed to unravel the inhibitory mechanisms of curcumin for lung cancer metastasis via constructing a miRNA-transcription factor (TF)-target gene network. Differentially expressed miRNAs between human high-metastatic non-small cell lung cancer 95D cells treated with and without curcumin were identified using a TaqMan human miRNA array followed by real-time PCR, out of which, the top 6 miRNAs (miR-302b-3p, miR-335-5p, miR-338-3p, miR-34c-5p, miR-29c-3p and miR-34a-35p) with more verified target genes and TFs than other miRNAs as confirmed by a literature review were selected for further analysis. The miRecords database was utilized to predict the target genes of these 6 miRNAs, TFs of which were identified based on the TRANSFAC database. The findings of the above procedure were used to construct a miRNA-TF-target gene network, among which miR-34a-5p, miR-34c-5p and miR-302b-3p seemed to regulate CCND1, WNT1 and MYC to be involved in Wnt signaling pathway through the LEF1 transcription factor. Therefore, we suggest miR-34a-5p/miR-34c-5p/miR-302b-3p -LEF1-CCND1/WNT1/MYC axis may be a crucial mechanism in inhibition of lung cancer metastasis by curcumin.
Project description:We mainly discussed miR-#-5p and miR-#-3p under three aspects: (1) primary evolutionary analysis of human miRNAs; (2) evolutionary analysis of miRNAs from different arms across the typical 10 vertebrates; (3) expression pattern analysis of miRNAs at the miRNA/isomiR levels using public small RNA sequencing datasets. We found that no bias can be detected between the numbers of 5p-miRNA and 3p-miRNA, while miRNAs from miR-#-5p and miR-#-3p show variable nucleotide compositions. IsomiR expression profiles from the two arms are always stable, but isomiR expressions in diseased samples are prone to show larger degree of dispersion. miR-#-5p and miR-#-3p have relative independent evolution/expression patterns and datasets of target mRNAs, which might also contribute to the phenomena of arm selection and/or arm switching. Simultaneously, miRNA/isomiR expression profiles may be regulated via arm selection and/or arm switching, and the dynamic miRNAome and isomiRome will adapt to functional and/or evolutionary pressures. A comprehensive analysis and further experimental study at the miRNA/isomiR levels are quite necessary for miRNA study.
Project description:Strand-selection is the final step of microRNA biogenesis in which functional mature miRNAs are generated from one or both arms of precursor. The preference of strand-selection is diverse during development and tissue formation, however, its pathological effect is still unknown. Here we find that two miRNA arms from the same precursor, miR-574-5p and miR-574-3p, are inversely expressed and play exactly opposite roles in gastric cancer progression. Higher-5p with lower-3p expression pattern is significantly correlated with higher TNM stages and poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients. The increase of miR-574-5p/-3p ratio, named miR-574 arm-imbalance is partially due to the dynamic expression of their highly complementary targets in gastric carcinogenesis, moreover, the arm-imbalance of miR-574 is in turn involved and further promotes gastric cancer progression. Our results indicate that miR-574 arm-imbalance contribute to gastric cancer progression and re-modification of the miR-574-targets homeostasis may represent a promising strategy for gastric cancer therapy.
Project description:The roles of miRNAs in lung cancer have not yet been explored systematically at the genome scale despite their important regulatory functions. Here, we report an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA sequencing data for matched tumor-normal samples from 109 Korean female patients with non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). We produced miRNA sequencing (miRNA-Seq) and RNA-Seq data for 48 patients and RNA-Seq data for 61 additional patients. Subsequent differential expression analysis with stringent criteria yielded 44 miRNAs and 2322 genes. Integrative gene set analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs and genes using miRNA-target information revealed several regulatory processes related to the cell cycle that were targeted by tumor suppressor miRNAs (TSmiR). We performed colony formation assays in A549 and NCI-H460 cell lines to test the tumor-suppressive activity of downregulated miRNAs in cancer and identified 7 novel TSmiRs (miR-144-5p, miR-218-1-3p, miR-223-3p, miR-27a-5p, miR-30a-3p, miR-30c-2-3p, miR-338-5p). Two miRNAs, miR-30a-3p and miR-30c-2-3p, showed differential survival characteristics in the Tumor Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) LUAD patient cohort indicating their prognostic value. Finally, we identified a network cluster of miRNAs and target genes that could be responsible for cell cycle regulation. Our study not only provides a dataset of miRNA as well as mRNA sequencing from the matched tumor-normal samples, but also reports several novel TSmiRs that could potentially be developed into prognostic biomarkers or therapeutic RNA drugs.