Relationship between alcohol consumption and cardiac structure and function in the elderly: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study.
ABSTRACT: Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with cardiomyopathy, but the influence of moderate alcohol use on cardiac structure and function is largely unknown.We studied 4466 participants from visit 5 of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (76±5 years and 60% women) who underwent transthoracic echocardiography, excluding former drinkers and those with significant valvular disease. Participants were classified into 4 categories based on self-reported alcohol intake: nondrinkers, drinkers of ?7, ?7 to 14, and ?14 drinks per week. We related alcohol intake to measures of cardiac structure and function, stratified by sex, and fully adjusted for covariates. In both genders, increasing alcohol intake was associated with larger left ventricular diastolic and systolic diameters and larger left atrial diameter (P<0.05). In men, increasing alcohol intake was associated with greater left ventricular mass (8.2±3.8 g per consumption category; P=0.029) and higher E/E' ratio (0.82±0.33 per consumption category; P=0.014). In women, increasing alcohol intake was associated with lower left ventricular ejection fraction (-1.9±0.6% per consumption category; P=0.002) and a tendency for worse left ventricular global longitudinal strain (0.45±0.25% per consumption category; P=0.07).In an elderly community-based population, increasing alcohol intake is associated with subtle alterations in cardiac structure and function, with women appearing more susceptible than men to the cardiotoxic effects of alcohol.
Project description:Epidemiological studies have suggested that excessive alcohol intake increases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, findings regarding tumour subsites and sex differences have been inconsistent.We investigated the prospective associations between alcohol intake on overall and site- and sex-specific CRC risk. Analyses were conducted on 579 CRC cases and 1996 matched controls nested within the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium using standardised data obtained from food diaries as a main nutritional method and repeated using data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).Compared with individuals in the lightest category of drinkers (>0-<5 g per day), the multivariable odds ratios of CRC were 1.16 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.88, 1.53) for non-drinkers, 0.91 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.24) for drinkers with 5-<15 g per day, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.25) for drinkers with 15-<30 g per day, 1.02 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.58) for drinkers with 30-<45 g per day and 1.19 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.91) for drinkers with >or=45 g per day. No clear associations were observed between site-specific CRC risk and alcohol intake in either sex. Analyses using FFQ showed similar results.We found no significantly increased risk of CRC up to 30 g per day of alcohol intake within the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium.
Project description:Alcohol intake is a strong and well established risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but the association with oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OA) or adjacent tumours of the oesophagogastric junction (OGJA), remains unclear. Therefore, the association of alcohol intake with OSCC, OA, and OGJA was determined in nine case-control studies and two cohort studies of the Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON).Information was collected on alcohol intake, age, sex, education, body mass index, gastro-oesophageal reflux, and tobacco smoking from each study. Along with 10,854 controls, 1821 OA, and 1837 OGJA, seven studies also collected OSCC cases (n=1016). Study specific ORs and 95% CIs were calculated from multivariate adjusted logistic regression models for alcohol intake in categories compared to non-drinkers. Summary risk estimates were obtained by random effects models. Results No increase was observed in the risk of OA or OGJA for increasing levels of any of the alcohol intake measures examined. ORs for the highest frequency category (? 7 drinks per day) were 0.97 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.36) for OA and 0.77 (95% CI = 0.54 to 1.10) for OGJA. Suggestive findings linked moderate intake (eg, 0.5 to <1 drink per day) to decreased risk of OA (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.99) and OGJA (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.99). In contrast, alcohol intake was strongly associated with increased risk of OSCC (OR for ? 7 drinks per day 9.62, 95% CI 4.26 to 21.71).In contrast to OSCC, higher alcohol consumption was not associated with increased risk of either OA or OGJA. The apparent inverse association observed with moderate alcohol intake should be evaluated in future prospective studies.
Project description:Compelling evidence suggests that excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the effect of light-moderate alcohol consumption is less certain. We investigated the association between alcohol consumption within recommended limits and AF risk in a light-drinking population.Among 47 002 participants with information on alcohol consumption in a population-based cohort study in Norway, conducted from October 2006 to June 2008, 1697 validated AF diagnoses were registered during the 8 years of follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazard models with fractional polynomials to analyze the association between alcohol intake and AF. Population attributable risk for drinking within the recommended limit (ie, at most 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men without risky drinking) compared with nondrinking was also calculated. The average alcohol intake was 3.8±4.8 g/d. The adjusted hazard ratio for AF was 1.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.80) when we compared participants consuming >7 drinks per week with abstainers. When we modeled the quantity of alcohol intake as a continuous variable, the risk increased in a curvilinear manner. It was higher with heavier alcohol intake, but there was virtually no association at <1 drink per day for women and <2 drinks per day for men in the absence of risky drinking. The population attributable risk among nonrisky drinkers was 0.07% (95% confidence interval, -0.01% to 0.13%).Although alcohol consumption was associated with a curvilinearly increasing risk of AF in general, the attributable risk of alcohol consumption within recommended limits among participants without binge or problem drinking was negligible in this population.
Project description:The aim of this population-based study was to investigate differences in dietary patterns in relation to the level of alcohol consumption among Finnish adults. This study was part of the FinDrink project, an epidemiologic study on alcohol use among Finnish population. It utilized data from the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. A total of 1720 subjects comprising of 816 men and 904 women aged 53-73 years were included in the study in 1998-2001. Food intake was collected via a 4-day food diary method. Self-reported alcohol consumption was assessed with quantity-frequency method based on the Nordic Alcohol Consumption Inventory. Weekly alcohol consumption was categorized into three groups: non-drinkers (<12 grams), moderate drinkers (12-167.9 grams for men, 12-83.9 grams for women) and heavy drinkers (≥ 168 grams for men, ≥ 84 grams for women). Data were analyzed for men and women separately using multiple linear regression models, adjusted for age, occupational status, marital status, smoking, body mass index and leisure time physical activity. In women, moderate/heavy drinkers had lower fibre intake and moderate drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Male heavy drinkers had lower fibre, retinol, calcium and iron intake, and moderate/heavy drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Fish intake was higher among women moderate drinkers and men moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In men, moderate drinkers had lower fruit intake and heavy drinkers had lower milk intake than non-drinkers. Moderate drinkers had higher energy intake from total fats and monosaturated fatty acids than non-drinkers. In contrast, energy intake from carbohydrates was lower among moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In conclusion, especially male heavy drinkers had less favorable nutritional intake than moderate and non-drinkers. Further studies on the relationship between alcohol consumption and dietary habits are needed to plan a comprehensive dietary intervention programs in future.
Project description:The 2014?US Surgeon General's report noted research gaps necessary to determine a causal relationship between active cigarette smoking and invasive breast cancer risk, including the role of alcohol consumption, timing of exposure, modification by menopausal status and heterogeneity by oestrogen receptor (ER) status.To address these issues, we pooled data from 14 cohort studies contributing 934 681 participants (36 060 invasive breast cancer cases). Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Smoking duration before first birth was positively associated with risk ( P -value for trend = 2 × 10 -7 ) with the highest HR for initiation >10 years before first birth (HR?=?1.18, CI 1.12-1.24). Effect modification by current alcohol consumption was evident for the association with smoking duration before first birth ( P -value=2×10 -4 ); compared with never-smoking non-drinkers, initiation >10 years before first birth was associated with risk in every category of alcohol intake, including non-drinkers (HR?=?1.15, CI 1.04-1.28) and those who consumed at least three drinks per day (1.85, 1.55-2.21). Associations with smoking before first birth were limited to risk of ER+ breast cancer ( P -value for homogeneity=3×10 -3 ). Other smoking timing and duration characteristics were associated with risk even after controlling for alcohol, but were not associated with risk in non-drinkers. Effect modification by menopause was not evident.Smoking, particularly if initiated before first birth, was modestly associated with ER+ breast cancer risk that was not confounded by amount of adult alcohol intake. Possible links with breast cancer provide additional motivation for young women to not initiate smoking.
Project description:It is not clear whether alcohol consumption is associated with lung cancer risk. The relationship is likely confounded by smoking, complicating the interpretation of previous studies. We examined the association of alcohol consumption and lung cancer risk in a large pooled international sample, minimizing potential confounding of tobacco consumption by restricting analyses to never smokers. Our study included 22 case-control and cohort studies with a total of 2548 never-smoking lung cancer patients and 9362 never-smoking controls from North America, Europe and Asia within the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) and SYNERGY Consortium. Alcohol consumption was categorized into amounts consumed (grams per day) and also modelled as a continuous variable using restricted cubic splines for potential non-linearity. Analyses by histologic sub-type were included. Associations by type of alcohol consumed (wine, beer and liquor) were also investigated. Alcohol consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer risk with evidence most strongly supporting lower risk for light and moderate drinkers relative to non-drinkers (>0-4.9 g per day: OR?=?0.80, 95% CI?=?0.70-0.90; 5-9.9 g per day: OR?=?0.82, 95% CI?=?0.69-0.99; 10-19.9 g per day: OR?=?0.79, 95% CI?=?0.65-0.96). Inverse associations were found for consumption of wine and liquor, but not beer. The results indicate that alcohol consumption is inversely associated with lung cancer risk, particularly among subjects with low to moderate consumption levels, and among wine and liquor drinkers, but not beer drinkers. Although our results should have no relevant bias from the confounding effect of smoking we cannot preclude that confounding by other factors contributed to the observed associations. Confounding in relation to the non-drinker reference category may be of particular importance.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Excessive alcohol consumption causes 79,000 deaths annually in the U.S., shortening the lives of those who die from it by approximately 30 years. Although alcohol taxation is an effective measure to reduce excessive consumption and related harm, some argue that increasing alcohol taxes places an unfair economic burden on "responsible" drinkers and socially disadvantaged people.<h4>Purpose</h4>To examine the impact of a hypothetic tax increase based on alcohol consumption and sociodemographic characteristics of current drinkers, individually and in aggregate.<h4>Methods</h4>Data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were analyzed from 2010 to 2011 to determine the net financial impact of a hypothetic 25-cent-per-drink tax increase on current drinkers in the U.S. Higher-risk drinkers were defined as those whose past-30-day consumption included binge drinking, heavy drinking, drinking in excess of the U.S. Dietary Guidelines, and alcohol-impaired driving.<h4>Results</h4>Of U.S. adults who consumed alcohol in the past 30 days, 50.4% (or approximately 25% of the total U.S. population) were classified as higher-risk drinkers. The tax increase would result in a 9.2% reduction in alcohol consumption, including an 11.4% reduction in heavy drinking. Compared with lower-risk drinkers, higher-risk drinkers would pay 4.7 times more in net increased annual per capita taxes, and 82.7% of the net increased annual aggregate taxes. Lower-risk drinkers would pay less than $30 in net increased taxes annually. In aggregate, groups who paid the most in net tax increases included those who were white, male, aged 21-50 years, earning ?$50,000 per year, employed, and had a college degree.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A 25-cent-per-drink alcohol tax increase would reduce excessive drinking, and higher-risk drinkers would pay the substantial majority of the net tax increase.
Project description:There is a paucity of studies on the influence of alcohol intake among non-drinkers. We evaluated the association between an increase in alcohol consumption and primary prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) among non-drinkers. Data collected by the National Health Insurance Service in the Korea between 2007 and 2013 were analysed. A total of 112,403 subjects were included and followed up from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Increases in alcohol consumption, measured as glasses per day, at the second medical check-up, were categorized into maintenance of nondrinking (0), >?0-???1, >?1-???2, >?2-???4, and >?4. Hazard ratios (HRs) for MACE and all-cause mortality on increase in alcohol consumption were calculated. Compared to that in non-drinkers at the second check-up, the risk of MACE significantly decreased among the subjects with an increase in alcohol consumption to ??1 glass per day (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.92). However, a light increase in alcohol consumption did not reduce the risk of stroke or all-cause mortality (stroke, HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.68-1.02; all-cause mortality, HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.73-1.09). Compared to continual non-drinkers, those who drank >?2 glass per day had higher risk for death due to external causes (aHR 2.06, 95% CI 1.09-3.90). The beneficial effect of light increments in alcohol consumption on the occurrence of MACE may have resulted from the inappropriate inclusion of sick quitters, who maintained a nondrinking status, in the reference group.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is unclear whether alcohol consumption may impact survival after breast cancer diagnosis. To clarify the association between pretreatment alcohol consumption and survival in breast cancer patients, a prospective patient cohort study was conducted. METHODS:The cohort comprised 1,420 breast cancer patients diagnosed during 1997-2013 at a single institute in Japan. Alcohol drinking and other lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire survey at the initial admission. The patients were followed until December 31, 2016. The crude associations of pretreatment alcohol intake with survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) controlled by confounders. RESULTS:During a median follow-up period of 8.6 years, 261 all-cause and 193 breast cancer-specific deaths were documented. Survival curves showed that ever-drinkers tended to have better survival than never-drinkers (breast cancer-specific survival, log-rank p = 0.0381). Better survival was also observed for light drinkers with an intake of <5.0 g per day. In the Cox model, ever-drinking was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.54-1.05) and breast cancer-specific death (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.46-0.99). Light drinkers had a lower risk of breast cancer-specific death (frequency of drinking, HR = 0.57 for occasional or 1-2 times per week and 0.72 for 3-7 times per week; amount of alcohol consumed per day, HR = 0.57 for <5.0 g and 0.68 for ?5.0 g compared with never-drinking). In terms of hormone receptor status, a significantly decreased risk of death associated with ever-drinking was observed among women with receptor-negative cancer (ER-/PR-, HR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.20-0.84 for breast cancer-specific death). CONCLUSIONS:Pretreatment, i.e., pre-diagnosis alcohol consumption is unlikely to have an adverse effect on survival after breast cancer diagnosis. Light alcohol consumption may have a beneficial effect on patient survival.
Project description:To evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD).We conducted a secondary analysis of data previously collected in a large, multicenter trial of daily azithromycin in COPD. To analyze the relationship between amount of baseline self-reported alcohol consumption in the past 12 months and subsequent AECOPD, we categorized the subjects as minimal (<1 drink/month), light-to-moderate (1-60 drinks/month), or heavy alcohol users (>60 drinks/month). The primary outcome was time to first AECOPD and the secondary outcome was AECOPD rate during the 1-year study period.Of the 1,142 enrolled participants, 1,082 completed baseline alcohol questionnaires and were included in this analysis. Six hundred and forty-five participants reported minimal alcohol intake, 363 reported light-to-moderate intake, and 74 reported heavy intake. There were no statistically significant differences in median time to first AECOPD among minimal (195 days), light-to-moderate (241 days), and heavy drinkers (288 days) (P=0.11). The mean crude rate of AECOPD did not significantly differ between minimal (1.62 events per year) and light-to-moderate (1.44 events per year) (P=0.095), or heavy drinkers (1.68 events per year) (P=0.796). There were no significant differences in hazard ratios for AECOPD after adjustment for multiple covariates.Among persons with COPD at high risk of exacerbation, we found no significant relationship between self-reported baseline alcohol intake and subsequent exacerbations. The number of patients reporting heavy alcohol intake was small and further study is needed to determine the effect of heavy alcohol intake on AECOPD risk.