Detection of fecal shedding of rotavirus vaccine in infants following their first dose of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.
ABSTRACT: Studies on rotavirus vaccine shedding and its potential transmission within households including immunocompromised individuals are needed to better define the potential risks and benefits of vaccination. We examined fecal shedding of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) for 9 days following the first dose of vaccine in infants between 6 and 12 weeks of age. Rotavirus antigen was detected by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and vaccine-type rotavirus was identified by nucleotide sequencing based on genetic relatedness to the RV5 VP6 gene. Stool from 22 (21.4%) of 103 children contained rotavirus antigen-positive specimens on ? 1 post-vaccination days. Rotavirus antigen was detected as early as post-vaccination day 3 and as late as day 9, with peak numbers of shedding on post-vaccination days 6 through 8. Vaccine-type rotavirus was detected in all 50 antigen-positive specimens and 8 of 8 antigen-negative specimens. Nine (75%) of 12 EIA-positive and 1 EIA-negative samples tested culture-positive for vaccine-type rotavirus. Fecal shedding of rotavirus vaccine virus after the first dose of RV5 occurred over a wide range of post-vaccination days not previously studied. These findings will help better define the potential for horizontal transmission of vaccine virus among immunocompromised household contacts of vaccinated infants for future studies.
Project description:Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine (LLR) is an oral live attenuated vaccine first licensed in China in 2000. To date, >?60 million doses of LLR have been distributed to children. However, very little is known about faecal shedding of LLR in children. Therefore, faecal samples (n?=?1,184) were collected from 114 children for 15 days post-vaccination in September-November 2011/2012. Faecal shedding and viral loads were determined by an enzyme immunoassay kit (EIA) and real-time RT-PCR. The complete genome was sequenced and the vaccine strain was isolated by culture in MA104 cells. Approximately 14.0% (16/114) of children had rotavirus-positive samples by EIA for at least 1?day post-vaccination. Viral loads in EIA-positive samples ranged from?<?1.0?×?103 to 1.9?×?108 copies/g. Faecal shedding occurred as early as post-vaccination day 2 and as late as post-vaccination day 13 and peaked on post-vaccination day 5-10. One LLR strain was isolated by culture in MA104 cells. Sequence analysis showed 99% identity with LLR prototype strain. Faecal shedding of LLR in stool is common within 15 days of LLR vaccination, indicating vaccine strains can replicate in human enteric tissues.
Project description:Rotavirus remains the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5 years worldwide. In the US, Rotarix (RV1) and RotaTeq (RV5), have been associated with reductions in and severity of rotavirus disease. Studies have evaluated the impact of RV1 or RV5 but little is known about the impact of incomplete or mixed vaccination upon vaccine effectiveness.Case control study to examine association of combined RV1 and RV5 and rotavirus acute gastroenteritis, factoring severity of diarrheal disease. Children born after March 1, 2009 with acute gastroenteritis from three pediatric hospitals in Atlanta, Georgia were approached for enrollment. Survey was administered, stool specimen was collected, and vaccination records were obtained.891 of 1127 children with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled. Stool specimens were collected from 708 for rotavirus testing; 215 stool samples tested positively for rotavirus. Children >12 months of age were more likely to have rotavirus. Children categorized with Vesikari score of >11 were almost twice as likely to be rotavirus positive. Prior rotavirus vaccination decreased the mean Vesikari score, p<0.0001. Children with complete single type vaccination were protected against rotavirus (OR 0.21, 95% CI: 0.14-0.31, p<0.0001).Complete rotavirus vaccination with a single vaccine type resulted in protection against rotavirus diarrhea and decrease in severity of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Incomplete rotavirus vaccination either with a single vaccine or mixed vaccination types also provided some protection.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Using a multicenter, active surveillance network from 2 rotavirus seasons (2012 and 2013), we assessed the vaccine effectiveness of RV5 (RotaTeq) and RV1 (Rotarix) rotavirus vaccines in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for numerous demographic and secular strata.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>We enrolled children hospitalized or visiting the ED with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) for the 2012 and 2013 seasons at 7 medical institutions. Stool specimens were tested for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay and genotyped, and rotavirus vaccination histories were compared for rotavirus-positive cases and rotavirus-negative AGE controls. We calculated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) for preventing rotavirus associated hospitalizations and ED visits for each vaccine, stratified by vaccine dose, season, clinical setting, age, predominant genotype, and ethnicity.<br><br><b>Results: </b>RV5-specific VE analyses included 2961 subjects, 402 rotavirus cases (14%) and 2559 rotavirus-negative AGE controls. RV1-specific VE analyses included 904 subjects, 100 rotavirus cases (11%), and 804 rotavirus-negative AGE controls. Over the 2 rotavirus seasons, the VE for a complete 3-dose vaccination with RV5 was 80% (confidence interval [CI], 74%-84%), and VE for a complete 2-dose vaccination with RV1 was 80% (CI, 68%-88%).Statistically significant VE was observed for each year of life for which sufficient data allowed analysis (7 years for RV5 and 3 years for RV1). Both vaccines provided statistically significant genotype-specific protection against predominant circulating rotavirus strains.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>In this large, geographically and demographically diverse sample of US children, we observed that RV5 and RV1 rotavirus vaccines each provided a lasting and broadly heterologous protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis.
Project description:ABO, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) are susceptibility factors for rotavirus in a P-genotype dependent manner and can influence IgA seroconversion rates following rotavirus vaccination. To investigate the association between HBGA phenotypes and rotavirus vaccine shedding fecal samples (n?=?304) from a total of 141 infants vaccinated with Rotarix (n?=?71) and RotaTeq (n?=?70) were prospectively sampled in three time frames (?3, 4-7 and ?8 days) after first vaccination dose. Rotavirus was detected with qPCR and genotypes determined by G/P multiplex PCR and/or sequencing. HBGAs were determined by hemagglutination and saliva based ELISA. Low shedding rates were observed, with slightly more children vaccinated with RotaTeq (19%) than Rotarix (11%) shedding rotavirus at ?4 days post vaccination (DPV). At ?4 DPV no infant of Lewis A (n?=?6) or nonsecretor (n?=?9) phenotype in the Rotarix cohort shed rotavirus; the same observation was made for Lewis A infants (n?=?7) in the RotaTeq cohort. Putative in-vivo gene reassortment among RotaTeq strains occurred, yielding mainly G1P strains. The bovine derived P genotype included in RotaTeq was able to replicate and be shed at long time frames (>13 DPV). The results of this study are consistent with that HBGA phenotype influences vaccine strain shedding as similarly observed for natural infections. Due to the low overall shedding rates observed, additional studies are however warranted.
Project description:In Japan, rotavirus hospitalisation occurs at a rate from 2.8 to 13.7 per 1000 child-years among children age less than 5 years, and it imposes a substantial burden to the healthcare system in the country. While both monovalent (RV1) and pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccines are licensed in Japan, neither has been incorporated in the national infant immunization programme. In this study, we estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) in Japan.This study was conducted in Yuri-Kumiai General Hospital located in a city in the north-western part of Japan. Age-eligible children for rotavirus vaccination were enrolled if they were hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis between September 2013 and August 2016. Rotavirus gastroenteritis was defined by the detection of rotavirus antigen by immunochromatography. "Vaccinated" was defined as infant inoculated with at least one dose of either RV1 or RV5. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed by modelling the year of birth, year of admission, residence of the children and vaccination status, and by matching the age of cases with that of test-negative controls. The adjusted odds ratio of the vaccinated over unvaccinated was then used to calculate VE in the formula of (1 - adjusted odds ratio) × 100.Out of the 244 patients enrolled, rotavirus antigen was detected in 55 (22.5%) of whom 10 (18.2%) were vaccinated, whereas 94 (49.7%) of 189 test-negative controls were vaccinated. During the study period, the vaccine uptake rate in the controls increased from 36.2% to 61.8%. On the other hand, the vaccination coverage over the three years was 64.2% in Yuri-Honjo city (three quarters of the catchment), and 91.4% in Nikaho city (one quarter of the catchment). The VE was calculated to be 70.4% (95% confidence interval: 36.0-86.4%, P = 0.002). The point estimate of the VE was lower but its 95% confidence interval overlaps those of the efficacies obtained from clinical trials in Japan.The rotavirus vaccine was effective in the real-world setting in Japan as in the clinical trials, and the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the national infant immunization schedule will substantially reduce the number of rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalisation in Japan.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Although many HIV-infected (HIV+) and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants have received live rotavirus vaccines since the WHO recommended universal administration of these vaccines to infants, there has been limited prospective information on their safety and immunogenicity in either group of infants. DESIGN/METHODS:We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of the safety and immunogenicity of oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) administered to HIV+ and HEU infants in four African countries. Ninety-three percent of HIV+ infants were receiving antiretroviral therapy prior to vaccination. Participants were followed for safety. Immune responses were measured 14 days after three doses of RV5, including serum antirotavirus neutralizing and IgA antibodies, IgA antibody in stool, and antirotavirus memory B and T-cell FluoroSpot. Shedding of RV5 in stool was monitored. RESULTS:A total of 76 HIV+ and 126 HEU infants were enrolled from 2009 to 2013. No significant differences were found in adverse event rates, including grade 3 events, between RV5 and placebo recipients, for either HIV+ or HEU infants. The proportion of antirotavirus IgA responders (at least three-fold increase from baseline) after RV5 administration was 81% in both HIV+ and HEU infants, which was approximately 2.5-fold higher than in placebo recipients (P?<?0.001). Neutralizing antibody responses to three of five serotypes were significantly higher after RV5 regardless of HIV status, and those of HIV+ infants were equal or greater than responses of HEU infants to all five serotypes. Only one HIV+ RV5 recipient had RV5 isolated from stool. CONCLUSION:RV5 was immunogenic in both HIV+ and HEU infants and no safety signals were observed.
Project description:Previous US evaluations have not assessed monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1, a G1P human rotavirus strain) effectiveness, because of its later introduction (2008). Using case-control methodology, we measured the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the 2-dose RV1 and 3-dose pentavalent vaccine (RV5) series against rotavirus disease resulting in hospital emergency department or inpatient care.Children were eligible for enrollment if they presented to 1 of 5 hospitals (3 in Georgia, 2 in Connecticut) with diarrhea of ?10 days' duration during January through June 2010 or 2011, and were born after RV1 introduction. Stools were collected; immunization records were obtained from providers and state electronic immunization information system (IIS). Case-subjects (children testing rotavirus antigen-positive) were compared with 2 control groups: children testing rotavirus negative and children selected from IIS.Overall, 165 rotavirus-case subjects and 428 rotavirus-negative controls were enrolled. Using the rotavirus-negative controls, RV1 VE was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 80 to 95) and RV5 VE was 92% (CI 75 to 97) among children aged ?8 months. The RV1 VE against G2P disease was high (94%, CI 78 to 98), as was that against G1P disease (89%, CI 70 to 96). RV1 effectiveness was sustained among children aged 12 through 23 months (VE 91%; CI 75 to 96). VE point estimates using IIS controls were similar to those using rotavirus-negative controls.RV1 and RV5 were both highly effective against severe rotavirus disease. RV1 conferred sustained protection during the first 2 years of life and demonstrated high effectiveness against G2P (heterotypic) disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Altering rotavirus vaccine schedules may improve vaccine performance in low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed data from clinical trials of the monovalent (RV1) and pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccines in low- and middle-income countries to understand the association between vaccine dose timing and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis incidence. METHODS:We assessed the association between variations in rotavirus vaccine administration schedules and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis risk. We used the complement of the Kaplan-Meier survival estimator to estimate risk differences for different schedules. To adjust risk differences (RDs) for confounding, we calibrated estimates in the vaccinated arm using estimates from the placebo arm. RESULTS:There were 3,114 and 7,341 children included from the RV1 and RV5 trials, respectively. The 18-month adjusted severe rotavirus gastroenteritis risk was 4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 7.1) higher for those receiving their first RV5 dose at <6 versus ?6 weeks. For RV1, there was a 4.0% (95% CI = 0.0, 8.2) increase in 12-month adjusted risk for a 4- versus 6-week interval between doses. Further analysis revealed those receiving their first RV5 dose at 3-4 and 5-7 weeks had 2.9% (95% CI = 0.8, 5.3) and 1.3% (95% CI = -0.3, 3.0), respectively, higher risk compared with those at 9-12 weeks. Those receiving their first dose at 8 weeks had the lowest risk (RD: -2.6% [95% CI = -5.4, -0.1]) compared with those at 9-12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS:A modest delay in rotavirus vaccination start and increase in interval between doses may be associated with lower severe rotavirus gastroenteritis risk in low- and middle-income countries.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) Lewis/secretor phenotypes predict genotype-specific susceptibility to rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). We tested the hypothesis that nonsecretor/Lewis-negative phenotype leads to reduced vaccine take and lower clinical protection following vaccination with G1P rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in Malawian infants. METHODS:A cohort study recruited infants receiving RV1 at age 6 and 10 weeks. HBGA phenotype was determined by salivary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RV1 vaccine virus shedding was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in stool collected on alternate days for 10 days post-immunization. Plasma rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin A was determined by ELISA pre- and post-immunization. In a case-control study, HBGA phenotype distribution was compared between RV1-vaccinated infants with RVGE and 1:1 age-matched community controls. Rotavirus genotype was determined by RT-PCR. RESULTS:In 202 cohort participants, neither overall vaccine virus fecal shedding nor seroconversion differed by HBGA phenotype. In 238 case-control infants, nonsecretor phenotype was less common in infants with clinical vaccine failure (odds ratio [OR], 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20-0.75). Nonsecretor phenotype was less common in infants with P RVGE (OR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.03-0.50) and P RVGE (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.04-0.75). Lewis-negative phenotype was more common in infants with P RVGE (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.4-7.2). CONCLUSIONS:Nonsecretor phenotype was associated with reduced risk of rotavirus vaccine failure. There was no significant association between HBGA phenotype and vaccine take. These data refute the hypothesis that high prevalence of nonsecretor/Lewis-negative phenotypes contributes to lower rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in Malawi.
Project description:The RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine aims to provide protection from severe rotavirus disease from birth. A phase IIa safety and immunogenicity trial was undertaken in Dunedin, New Zealand between January 2012 and April 2014. Healthy, full-term (? 36 weeks gestation) babies, who were 0-5 d old were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 3 doses of oral RV3-BB vaccine with the first dose given at 0-5 d after birth (neonatal schedule), or the first dose given at about 8 weeks after birth (infant schedule), or to receive placebo (placebo schedule). Vaccine take (serum immune response or stool shedding of vaccine virus after any dose) was detected after 3 doses of RV3-BB vaccine in >90% of participants when the first dose was administered in the neonatal and infant schedules. The aim of the current study was to characterize RV3-BB shedding and virus replication following administration of RV3-BB in a neonatal and infant vaccination schedule. Shedding was defined as detection of rotavirus by VP6 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in stool on days 3-7 after administration of RV3-BB. Shedding of rotavirus was highest following vaccination at 8 weeks of age in both neonatal and infant schedules (19/30 and 17/27, respectively). Rotavirus was detected in stool on days 3-7, after at least one dose of RV3-BB, in 70% (21/30) of neonate, 78% (21/27) of infant and 3% (1/32) placebo participants. In participants who shed RV3-BB, rotavirus was detectable in stool on day 1 following RV3-BB administration and remained positive until day 4-5 after administration. The distinct pattern of RV3-BB stool viral load demonstrated using a NSP3 quantitative qRT-PCR in participants who shed RV3-BB, suggests that detection of RV3-BB at day 3-7 was the result of replication rather than passage through the gastrointestinal tract.