Motor-Cognitive Dual-Task Training in Persons With Neurologic Disorders: A Systematic Review.
ABSTRACT: Deficits in motor-cognitive dual tasks (eg, walking while talking) are common in individuals with neurologic conditions. This review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of motor-cognitive dual-task training (DTT) compared with usual care on mobility and cognition in individuals with neurologic disorders.Databases searched were Biosis, CINAHL, ERIC, PsychInfo, EBSCO Psychological & Behavioral, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge. Eligibility criteria were studies of adults with neurologic disorders that included DTT, and outcomes of gait or balance were included. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria. Participants were subjects with brain injury, Parkinson disease (PD), and Alzheimer disease (AD). Intervention protocols included cued walking, cognitive tasks paired with gait, balance, and strength training and virtual reality or gaming. Quality of the included trials was evaluated with a standardized rating scale of clinical relevance.Results show that DTT improves single-task gait velocity and stride length in subjects with PD and AD, dual-task gait velocity and stride length in subjects with PD, AD, and brain injury, and may improve balance and cognition in those with PD and AD. The inclusion criteria of the studies reviewed limited the diagnostic groups included.While the range of training protocols and outcome assessments in available studies limited comparison of the results across studies motor-cognitive dual-task deficits in individuals with neurologic disorders appears to be amenable to training. Improvement of dual-task ability in individuals with neurologic disorders holds potential for improving gait, balance, and cognition.Video Abstract available for additional insights from the authors (Supplemental Digital Content, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A104).
Project description:The aim was to compare the effectiveness of dual-task training (DTT) compared to single mobility training (SMT) on dual-task walking, mobility and cognition, in persons with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS). Forty pwMS were randomly assigned to the DTT or SMT groups. The DTT-group performed dual-task exercises using an interactive tablet-based application, while the SMT-group received conventional walking and balance exercises. Both interventions were supervised and identical in weeks (8) and sessions (20). Nine cognitive-motor dual-task conditions were assessed at baseline, after intervention and at 4-weeks follow-up (FU). The dual-task cost (DTC), percentage change of dual-task performance compared to single-task performance, was the primary outcome. Mobility and cognition were secondarily assessed. Mixed model analyses were done with group, time and the interaction between group and time as fixed factors and participants as random factors. Significant time by group interactions were found for the digit-span walk and subtraction walk dual-task conditions, with a reduction in DTC (gait speed) for the DTT maintained at FU. Further, absolute dual-task gait speed during walking over obstacles only improved after the DTT. Significant improvements were found for both groups in various motor and cognitive measures. However, the DTT led to better dual-task walking compared to the SMT.
Project description:Gait impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) are aggravated under dual task conditions. Providing effective training to enhance different dual task gait performance is important for PD rehabilitation. This pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of cognitive and motor dual task gait training on dual task gait performance in PD. Eighteen PD participants (n = 6 per training group) were assigned to cognitive dual task gait training (CDTT), motor dual task gait training (MDTT), or general gait training (control) group randomly. The training was 30 min each session, 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. Primary outcomes including gait performance during cognitive dual task, motor dual task, and single walking were assessed at pre- and post-training. The results showed decreased double support time during cognitive dual task walking after CDTT (-17.1±10.3%) was significantly more than MDTT (6.3±25.6%, p = .006) and control training (-5.6±7.8%, p = .041). Stride time variability during motor dual task walking decreased more after MDTT (-16.3±32.3%) than CDTT (38.6±24.0%, p = .015) and control training (36.8±36.4%, p = .041). CDTT also improved motor dual task walking performance especially on gait speed (13.8±10.71%, p = .046) stride length (10.5±6.6%, p = .046), and double support time (-8.0±2.0%, p = .028). CDTT improved single walking performance as well on gait speed (11.4±5.5%, p = .046), stride length (9.2±4.6%, p = .028), and double support time (-8.1±3.0%, p = .028). In summary, our preliminary data showed 12-session of CDTT decreased double support time during cognitive dual task walking, and MDTT reduced gait variability during motor dual task walking. Different training strategy can be adopted for possibly different training effects in people with PD.
Project description:Highly challenging exercises have been suggested to induce neuroplasticity in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD); however, its effect on clinical outcomes remains largely unknown.To evaluate the short-term effects of the HiBalance program, a highly challenging balance-training regimen that incorporates both dual-tasking and PD-specific balance components, compared with usual care in elderly with mild to moderate PD.Participants with PD (n = 100) were randomized, either to the 10-week HiBalance program (n = 51) or to the control group (n = 49). Participants were evaluated before and after the intervention. The main outcomes were balance performance (Mini-BESTest), gait velocity (during normal and dual-task gait), and concerns about falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International). Performance of a cognitive task while walking, physical activity level (average steps per day), and activities of daily living were secondary outcomes.A total of 91 participants completed the study. After the intervention, the between group comparison showed significantly improved balance and gait performance in the training group. Moreover, although no significant between group difference was observed regarding gait performance during dual-tasking; the participants in the training group improved their performance of the cognitive task while walking, as compared with the control group. Regarding physical activity levels and activities of daily living, in comparison to the control group, favorable results were found for the training group. No group differences were found for concerns about falling.The HiBalance program significantly benefited balance and gait abilities when compared with usual care and showed promising transfer effects to everyday living. Long-term follow-up assessments will further explore these effects.