Analysis of MTHFR Gene C.677C>T and C.1298A>C Polymorphisms in Iranian Patients with Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip and Palate.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) is one of the most common congenital abnormalities of the orofacial region with a multifactorial etiology. The present study aimed to investigate the association of two common polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (c.677C>T and c.1298A>C) with the occurrence of nsCL/P in an Iranian population. METHODS: Forty-five nsCL/P patients, 43 mothers of patients, and 101 unrelated controls participated in the present study. Analysis of c.677C>T and c.1298A>C polymorphisms in MTHFR gene was conducted using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestions. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in genotype and allele frequencies for c.677C>T variants between patients or their mothers and the control group. However, differences in the frequencies of alleles and genotypes of c.1298A>C polymorphism were statistically significant between patients and control group (P=0.01 for alleles and P=0.005 for genotypes). The odds ratios (OR) for the CC versus AA homozygotes were 6.1 (95% CI 1.8-20.5) and 4.2 (95% CI 1.1-15.4), in patients and mothers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found no association between genetic polymorphism of MTHFR c.677C>T and the risk of nsCL/P in the population studied. Yet the results suggested that c.1298A>C polymorphism of MTHFR gene may be a risk factor for the occurrence of nsCL/P in the Iranian population.
Project description:Clinical assessment and prognostic stratification of primary varicose veins have remained controversial and the molecular pathogenesis is unknown. Previous data have suggested a contribution of the MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) polymorphism c.677C>T.We collected blood and vein specimens from 159 consecutive patients undergoing varicose vein surgery, or autologous vein reconstruction for arterial occlusive disease as controls. We compared the frequencies of c.677C>T and another polymorphism of MTHFR, c.1298A>C, with morphology and types of complicated disease. Morphology was recorded as a trunk or perforator type and peripheral congestive complication was defined as chronic venous insufficiency (CEAP C3-6) associated with edema and skin manifestations.Multivariate analysis of genotypes for c.677C>T and c.1298A>C indicated that c.677C>T was associated significantly with the trunk phenotype (43/53 patients, 81%, p < 0.01), while c.1298A>C was associated significantly with the perforator phenotype (18/24 patients, 75%, p < 0.01) of primary varicose veins. Accordingly, when both c.677C>T and c.1298A>C displayed a heterozygous genotype, the patients were more likely to present with both phenotypes. Additionally, c.1298A>C was found to be strongly linked to the congestive complication (34/51 patients, 67%, p < 0.01).Both polymorphisms of MTHFR may be involved in the morphological specification of primary varicose veins and contribute to the development of complicated disease.None.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The polymorphism 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) c.1298A>C is associated with various diseases. 45 DNA samples homozygous for the A allele and 40 DNA probes homozygous for the C allele were taken from healthy German subjects of white Caucasian origin to analyze the haplotype of the two MTHFR c.1298A>C alleles. Samples were genotyped for the polymorphism MTHFR c.677C>T and for the silent polymorphisms MTHFR c.129C>T, IVS2 533 G>A, c.1068C>T and IVS10 262C>G. FINDINGS: Haplotype construction revealed that the C-allele of MTHFR c.1298A>C was more frequently observed in cis with c.129T, IVS2 533A, c.677C, c.1068T, and IVS10 262 G than expected from normal distribution. Estimation of the most recent common ancestor with the DMLE + 2.3 program resulted in an estimated age of approximately 36,660 years of the MTHFR c.1298C allele. CONCLUSION: Given that the era from 30,000 to 40,000 years ago is characterised by the spread of modern humans in Europe and that the prevalence of the MTHFR c.1298C allele is significantly higher in Central Europe in comparison to African populations, a selective advantage of MTHFR c.1298C could be assumed, e. g. by adaption to changes in the nutritional environment. The known founder ancestry of the T allele of MTHFR c.677C>T allele, together with the present data suggests that the MTHFR mutant alleles c.677T and 1298C arose from two independent ancestral alleles, that both confer a selective advantage.
Project description:Aim: Variants of the MTHFR gene have been associated with a wide range of diseases. Materials & methods: The present study analyzed data from clinical genotyping of MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C in 1405 patients in urban primary care settings. Results: Striking differences in ethnogeographic frequencies of MTHFR polymorphisms were observed. African-Americans appear to be protected from MTHFR deficiency. Hispanics and Caucasians may be at elevated risk due to increased frequencies of 677C>T and 1298A>C, respectively. Conclusion: Individuals carrying mutations for both genes were rare and doubly homozygous mutants were absent, suggesting the TTcc is extremely rare in the greater population. The results suggest multilocus MTHFR genotyping may yield deeper insight into the ethnogeographic association between MTHFR variants and disease.
Project description:Background:The gene for 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NAD(P)H) or MTHFR gene encodes protein methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an enzyme important in folate metabolism. Aim:The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene of healthy subjects from the population. Material and methods:The blood samples were collected from 164 unrelated and healthy donors from population consisted of 98 females and 66 males. Both the MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed by Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between pair of SNPs was calculated through Haploview analysis. Results:The frequency of MTHFR 677T allele in the population (32.62%) was in agreement with the frequency of this allele in most other populations, however, the frequency of MTHFR 1298C allele (38.41%) was higher than that reported for most other populations in the world. Haploview analysis showed a relatively strong LD between 677C>T and 1298A>C SNPs with D' values of 0.87. Conclusion:Regarding the two MTHFR polymorphisms, three of the nine combined genotypes were present in 87.2% of the population. 33.54% subjects were complex heterozygous (677CT/1298AC genotype), 34.15% subjects had 677CC/1298AC and 19.51% of 677CT/1298AA genotype. The subjects with 677TT genotype had a 1298AA or 1298AC genotype while subjects with 1298CC genotype had only 677CC genotype. The subjects with 677CC/1298AA genotype were only 3.05%. We were not found triple 677CT/1298CC and quadruple 677TT/1298CC mutation suggesting decreased viability of embryos with increased numbers of mutant alleles.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) are involved in a series of abnormal pregnancies like embryo growth arrest, spontaneous abortion, premature birth, stillbirth, fetal malformation, birth defects and other pathological pregnancy, and childbirth complications. Polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR, 607093) is one of the main genetic causes of APO. However, there is still debate on whether MTHFR 1298A>C, rs1801131, polymorphism is related to APO. For the lack of extensive research in the Chinese population at present, the study aim to investigate the relationship between MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphism with APO through a large number of data. METHODS:A total of 241 samples from patients with APO and 117 healthy controls in Yunnan province were used for MTHFR gene polymorphism analysis, with double fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In consideration of the low frequency of MTHFR 1298C/C genotype, which might affect the statistic results, further datasets of MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphism were collected from literature and analyzed. RESULTS:No statistical difference was detected in the frequency of MTHFR1298A>C polymorphism between two groups in Yunnan. Our data showed that the frequency of MTHFR 1298A/A genotype had the decreasing tendency among Chinese population from northern to southern, as well as eastern to western of China. The frequency of MTHFR 1298A/C and 1298C/C genotypes had the adverse tendency. The frequency of MTHFR 1298C/C genotype was significantly different between two groups in Chinese populations. The significant difference was also observed in the frequency of MTHFR 1298C/C polymorphism between two groups from central China and southern China. CONCLUSION:In summary, our data showed that MTHFR 1298C/C genotype was one of the important genetic factors of APO in China.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Several studies have reported the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P) in Asian populations. However, findings have been conflicting. In order to investigate the association, a meta-analysis was performed.<h4>Methods</h4>We searched Pubmed, MedLine and EmBase database to selected eligible studies. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated using fixed effects model or random effects model to assess the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and NSCL/P in both Asian children and mothers.<h4>Results</h4>Finally, nine case-control studies were included. Overall, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NSCL/P showed pooled ORs (95%CI) of 1.41(1.23-1.61) in Asian children, and 1.70(1.19-2.42) in Asian mothers. Subgroup analyses by geographical locations further identified the association in Eastern Asian children, Western/Central Asian children and mothers, but not in Eastern Asian mothers. However, no significant relationship between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and NSCL/P was found in this meta-analysis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The MTHFR 677T allele was associated with an increased risk of NSCL/P in Asian populations.
Project description:Congenital heart defect (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects in the world. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) genes are two of the most important candidate genes for fetal CHD. However, the correlations between the two genes and fetal CHD were inconsistent in various reports. Therefore, this study is aimed to evaluate the parental effects of the two genes on fetal CHD via three genetic polymorphisms, MTHFR 677C>T (rs1801133), MTHFR 1298 A>C (rs1801131), and MTRR 66A>G (rs1801394).Parents with pregnancy history of fetal CHD were divided into two subgroups: ventricular septal defect (VSD) (21) and non-VSD groups (78). VSD, non-VSD, and 114 control parents (controls) were analyzed in this study. Genotyping of these genetic polymorphisms was done by sequencing.The MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism of either mothers or fathers was independently associated with fetal non-VSD (P < 0.05) but not VSD, while the MTRR 66A>G polymorphism was independently associated with fetal VSD (P < 0.05) but not non-VSD. No significance was found for MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphism.In either maternal or paternal group, the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism was independently related to fetal non-VSD, while the MTRR 66A>G polymorphism was independently related to fetal VSD.
Project description:The disorders of folate metabolism caused by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms may lead to several disease states including coronary heart disease, venous thrombosis, and several types of cancer. We have developed a real-time multiplex single-tube polymerase chain reaction procedure on the LightCycler for the detection of the two most commonly occurring variants, 677C>T and 1298A>C, in the MTHFR gene. An improved probe design, based on the nearest neighbor model for nucleic acid-probe duplex stability, resulted in a better separation (DeltaTm approximately 10 degrees C) of melting peaks of the wild-type and mutant alleles than that by the existing method (DeltaTm approximately 3 degrees C) for specimens heterozygous for the 1298A>C polymorphism. Of the 333 blood specimens analyzed by this procedure, we did not find any samples that gave ambiguous results. The specimens with homozygous mutation for one polymorphism were of the wild type for the other variant. The assay was validated by the comparison of the genotyping results of 50 blood specimens from the LightCycler polymerase chain reaction with the conventional restriction fragment length polymorphism procedures. There was 100% concordance of the test results obtained by the two techniques. This assay is reliable, economical, and can be performed by less trained technologists compared with the procedure performed by the conventional restriction fragment length polymorphism technique.
Project description:<b><i>Objective:</i></b> Although genetic variants of key enzymes in the folic acid-methionine metabolic circulation, including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) were thought to be related to the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), the results of recent studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, the present retrospective case-control study was designed to explore whether the variants c.66A>G in <i>MTRR</i> and c.677C>T and c.1298A>C in <i>MTHFR</i> are associated with the susceptibility of RPL in Southeast Chinese women. <b><i>Materials and Methods:</i></b> In total, samples from 237 RPL patients and 618 healthy controls were collected and genotyped by fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The frequencies of the variants were calculated and compared between the two groups. The relative risk of the various genotypes was further determined by calculating the odds ratio (OR) at a 95% confidence interval (CI). <b><i>Results:</i></b> A significant positive correlation was observed between the variants <i>MTHFR</i> c.677C>T, <i>MTHFR</i> c.1298A>C, <i>MTRR</i> c.66A>G, and RPL susceptibility (<i>MTHFR</i> c.677C>T, OR?=?0.74, 95% CI?=?0.58-0.95, <i>p</i>?=?0.02; <i>MTHFR</i> c.1298A>C, OR?=?1.39, 95% CI?=?1.09-1.77, <i>p</i>?=?0.008; <i>MTRR</i> c.66A>G, OR?=?1.38, 95% CI?=?1.10-1.73, <i>p</i>?=?0.006). Further analysis of the genotypic distributions of the three variants between the two groups showed that the <i>MTHFR</i> c.677C>T heterozygote was associated with lower RPL risk, while the <i>MTHFR</i> c.1298A>C variant and MTRR c.66A>G heterozygote were correlated with higher RPL risk (dominant model, <i>MTHFR</i> c.677C>T, OR?=?0.70, 95% CI?=?0.52-0.95, <i>p</i>?=?0.02; <i>MTHFR</i> c.1298A>C, OR?=?1.39, 95% CI?=?1.03-1.88, <i>p</i>?=?0.032; <i>MTRR</i> c.66A>G, OR?=?1.62, 95% CI?=?1.20-2.19, <i>p</i>?=?0.002). <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> <i>MTHFR</i> c.677C>T and c.1298A>C and <i>MTRR</i> c.66A>G were associated with RPL in Southeast Chinese women.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is thought to be involved in the development of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). However, conflicting results have been obtained when evaluating the association between maternal MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of NSCL/P. In light of this gap, a meta-analysis of all eligible case-control studies was conducted in the present study. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 15 case-control studies were ultimately identified after a comprehensive literature search and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) examination. Cochrane's Q test and index of heterogeneity (I(2)) indicated no obvious heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS:Fixed or random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs). The results showed that the TT genotype in mothers increased the likelihood of having NSCL/P offspring 1.25 times (95% CI: 1.047-1.494) more than the CC homozygotes. Meanwhile, maternal TT genotype increased the risk of producing NSCL/P offspring in recessive model (OR=1.325, 95% CI: 1.124-1.562). However, the CT heterozygote and the CT+TT dominant models had no association with NSCL/P offspring compared with the CC wild-type homozygote model. Subgroup analyses based on ethnicity indicated that maternal TT genotype increased the likelihood of having NSCL/P offspring in Whites (OR=1.308, 95% CI: 1.059-1.617) and Asians (OR=1.726, 95% CI: 1.090-2.733) in recessive model. Also, subgroup analyses based on source of control showed that mothers with the 677TT genotype had a significantly increased susceptibility of having NSCL/P children in hospital based population (HB) when compared with CC homozygotes (OR=1.248, 95% CI: 1.024-1.520) and un- der the recessive model (OR=1.324, 95% CI: 1.104-1.588). Furthermore, maternal A1298C polymorphism had no significant association with producing NSCL/P offspring (dominant model OR=0.952, 95% CI: 0.816-1.111, recessive model OR=0.766, 95% CI: 0.567-1.036). CONCLUSION:MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with the risk of generating NSCL/P offspring, and being a 677TT homozygote is a risk factor. MTHFR A1298C polymorphism was not associated with generating NSCL/P offspring. However, further work should be performed to confirm these findings.