Enhanced Evaporation Strength through Fast Water Permeation in Graphene-Oxide Deposition.
ABSTRACT: The unique characteristic of fast water permeation in laminated graphene oxide (GO) sheets has facilitated the development of ultrathin and ultrafast nanofiltration membranes. Here we report the application of fast water permeation property of immersed GO deposition for enhancing the performance of a GO/water nanofluid charged two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT). By benchmarking its performance against a silver oxide/water nanofluid charged TPCT, the enhancement of evaporation strength is found to be essentially attributed to the fast water permeation property of GO deposition instead of the enhanced surface wettability of the deposited layer. The expansion of interlayer distance between the graphitic planes of GO deposited layer enables intercalation of bilayer water for fast water permeation. The capillary force attributed to the frictionless interaction between the atomically smooth, hydrophobic carbon structures and the well-ordered hydrogen bonds of water molecules is sufficiently strong to overcome the gravitational force. As a result, a thin water film is formed on the GO deposited layers, inducing filmwise evaporation which is more effective than its interfacial counterpart, appreciably enhanced the overall performance of TPCT. This study paves the way for a promising start of employing the fast water permeation property of GO in thermal applications.
Project description:Ion transport is crucial for biological systems and membrane-based technology. Atomic-thick two-dimensional materials, especially graphene oxide (GO), have emerged as ideal building blocks for developing synthetic membranes for ion transport. However, the exclusion of small ions in a pressured filtration process remains a challenge for GO membranes. Here we report manipulation of membrane surface charge to control ion transport through GO membranes. The highly charged GO membrane surface repels high-valent co-ions owing to its high interaction energy barrier while concomitantly restraining permeation of electrostatically attracted low-valent counter-ions based on balancing overall solution charge. The deliberately regulated surface-charged GO membranes demonstrate remarkable enhancement of ion rejection with intrinsically high water permeance that exceeds the performance limits of state-of-the-art nanofiltration membranes. This facile and scalable surface charge control approach opens opportunities in selective ion transport for the fields of water transport, biomimetic ion channels and biosensors, ion batteries and energy conversions.
Project description:Graphene oxide (GO) membrane has been synthesized on commercial polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes (Pore size: 17 nm) using the drop casting method followed by baking at 90 C for 24 h. Baking resulted in the reduction of GO and removal of bulk water intercalated in the GO sheets. Deposited GO film showed high stability under shear stress variation. This work shows that water adsorption on the GO membrane determines its permeation performance. Despite the higher viscosity of isopropyl alcohol (IPA), its permeability was 7 times higher than water through the baked ("dry") GO membranes, which were never contacted with water. However, IPA permeability of GO membranes dropped to 44% (of deionized water) when contacted with water ("hydrated" or "wet" GO membranes). Extensive size exclusion (rejection) studies with various dye and dendrimer molecules showed pore size reduced from 3.3 nm in the "dry" state to 1.3 nm in the "wet" state of GO membranes. FT-IR characterization of GO membrane suggested adsorption of water on the nanochannels of the active layer. Also, significant decay in flux was observed for water (82% of its initial flux) as compared to IPA (38% of its initial flux) for initially dry GO membranes.
Project description:Two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets show promise for the development of water treatment membranes with extraordinary separation properties and the advantages of atomic thickness with micrometer-sized lateral dimensions. Stacked graphene oxide (GO)-based membranes can demonstrate unique molecular sieving properties with fast water permeation. However, improvements to the structural stability of the membranes in water to avoid problems such as swelling, disruption of the ordered GO layer and decreased rejection are crucial issues. This study reports the fabrication of stacked GO nanosheet membranes by simple vacuum filtration using triethanolamine (TEOA) as a crosslinker and mild reducing agent for improved structural stability and membrane performance. Results show that GO membranes modified with TEOA (GO-TEOA membranes) have a higher structural stability in water than unmodified GO membranes, resulting in improved salt rejection performance. Furthermore, GO-TEOA membranes show stable water permeance at applied pressures up to 9 bar with Na?SO? rejection of 85%, suggesting the potential benefits for water treatment applications.
Project description:The application of membrane technology to remove pollutant dyes in industrial wastewater is a significant development today. The modification of membranes to improve their properties has been shown to improve the permeation flux and removal efficiency of the membrane. Therefore, in this work, graphene oxide nanoparticles (GO-NPs) were used to modify the polyethersulfone (PES) membrane and prepare mixed matrix membranes (MMMs). This research is dedicated to using two types of very toxic dyes (Acid Black and Rose Bengal) to study the effect of GO on PES performance. The performance and antifouling properties of the new modified membrane were studied using the following: FTIR, SEM, AFM, water permeation flux, dye removal and fouling, and by investigating the influence of GO-NPs on the structure. After adding 0.5 wt% of GO, the contact angle was the lowest (39.21°) and the permeable flux of the membrane was the highest. The performance of the ultrafiltration (UF) membrane displayed a rejection rate higher than 99% for both dyes. The membranes showed the highest antifouling property at a GO concentration of 0.5 wt%. The long-term operation of the membrane fabricated from 0.5 wt% GO using two dyes improved greatly over 26 d from 14 d for the control membrane, therefore higher flux can be preserved.
Project description:Interfacial water in the vicinity of lipids plays an important role in many biological processes, such as drug delivery, ion transportation, and lipid fusion. Hence, molecular-level elucidation of the properties of water at lipid interfaces is of the utmost importance. We report the two-dimensional heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (2D HD-VSFG) study of the OH stretch of HOD at charged lipid interfaces, which shows that the hydrogen bond dynamics of interfacial water differ drastically, depending on the lipids. The data indicate that the spectral diffusion of the OH stretch at a positively charged lipid interface is dominated by the ultrafast (<?100?fs) component, followed by the minor sub-picosecond slow dynamics, while the dynamics at a negatively charged lipid interface exhibit sub-picosecond dynamics almost exclusively, implying that fast hydrogen bond fluctuation is prohibited. These results reveal that the ultrafast hydrogen bond dynamics at the positively charged lipid-water interface are attributable to the bulk-like property of interfacial water, whereas the slow dynamics at the negatively charged lipid interface are due to bound water, which is hydrogen-bonded to the hydrophilic head group.
Project description:The oxygen barrier properties are essential for the food packaging systems that preserve perishable food. In this research, the facile surface modification method for oxygen barrier properties is introduced by using spray assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly. The nano-sized graphene oxide (GO-) multilayer films were developed and characterized. Positively charged amine-functionalized GO+ was synthesized using the negatively charged GO- dispersion, ethylenediamine, and 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide methiodide (EDC). Alternating layers of GO- and GO+ were deposited onto the flexible polyethylene (PE) substrate which has no intrinsic gas barrier properties. This method is able to modify surfaces which are challenging for the conventional dipping LbL method. The oxygen transmittance rate of coated PE film (3511.5 cc/m2·day) decreased significantly to 1091 cc/m2·day after a GO film with a thickness of only 60 nm was deposited. The light transmittance in the visible light range was not significantly decreased after coating of GO films, thus ensuring transparency for PE packaging applications.
Project description:There is tremendous interest in graphene-based membranes as protective molecular barriers or molecular sieves for separation technologies. Graphene oxide (GO) films in the dry state are known to be effective barriers for molecular transport and to expand in the presence of moisture to create enlarged intersheet gallery spaces that allow rapid water permeation. Here we explore an application for GO membranes as water-breathable barrier layers for personal protective equipment, which are designed to allow outward perspiration while protecting the wearer from chemical toxicants or biochemical agents in the local environment. A device was developed to measure permeation rates of small-molecular toxicants in the presence of counter-current water flow simulating active perspiration. The technique was applied to trichloroethylene (TCE) and benzene, which are important environmental toxicants, and ethanol as a limiting case to model very small, highly water-soluble organic molecules. Submicron GO membranes are shown to be effective TCE barriers, both in the presence and absence of simulated perspiration flux, and to outperform current barrier technologies. A molecular transport model is developed, which suggests the limited toxicant back-permeation observed occurs not by diffusion against the convective perspiration flow in hydrophobic channels, but rather through oxidized domains where hydrogen-bonding produces a near-stagnant water phase. Benzene and ethanol permeation fluxes are higher than those for TCE, likely reflecting the effects of higher water solubility and smaller minimum molecular dimension. Overall, GO films have high water breathability relative to competing technologies and are known to exclude most classes of target toxicants, including particles, bacteria, viruses, and macromolecules. The present results show good barrier performance for some very small-molecule species, but not others, with permeation being favored by high water solubility and small minimum molecular dimension.
Project description:Electrically driven steam generation is a critical process for many heating-related applications such as sterilization and food processing. Current systems, which rely on heating up the bulk water to generate steam, face the dilemma in achieving a large evaporation flux and fast thermal response. Herein, we report a self-floating electrically driven interfacial evaporator for fast high-efficiency steam generation independent of the amount of loaded bulk water in the system. Through localized heating of the wicked water at the air-water interface, the evaporator has achieved an electrical-to-steam energy conversion efficiency of ?90% at a heating power density of 10 kW/m2 and a fast thermal response of 20 s. The interfacial evaporation design not only achieves a high evaporation efficiency within a broad range of heating power densities by using different wicking materials, but also enables attaining a high evaporation temperature under low heating power densities by tuning the ratio of the vapor outlet area and the evaporation surface area. By integrating an interfacial evaporator within a sanitizer, the resultant system has demonstrated a faster steam temperature rise and superior steam sterilization performance than the commercial bulk heating-based approach.
Project description:ClC channels are a family of protein molecules containing two ion-permeation pores. Although these transmembrane proteins are important for a variety of physiological functions, their molecular operations are only superficially understood. High-resolution X-ray crystallography techniques have recently revealed the structures of two bacterial ClC channels, but whether vertebrate ClC channel pores are similar to those of bacterial homologues is not clear. To study the pore architecture of the Torpedo ClC-0 channel, we employed the substituted-cysteine-accessibility method (SCAM) and used charged methane thiosulfonate (MTS) compounds to modify the introduced cysteine. Several conclusions were derived from this approach. First, the MTS modification pattern from Y512C to E526C in ClC-0, which corresponds to residues forming helix R in bacterial ClC channels, is indeed consistent with the suggested helical structure. Second, the ClC-0 pore is more accessible to the negatively charged than to the positively charged MTS compound, a pore property that is regulated by the intrinsic electrostatic potential in the pore. Finally, attempts to modify the introduced cysteine at positions intracellular to the selectivity filter did not result in larger MTS modification rates for the open-state channel, suggesting that the fast gate of ClC-0 cannot be located at a position intracellular to the Cl- selectivity filter. Thus, the proposal that the glutamate side chain is the fast gate of the channel is applicable to ClC-0, revealing a structural and functional conservation of ClC channels between bacterial and vertebrate species.
Project description:Inspired by lotus leaves, self-floating Janus cotton fabric is successfully fabricated for solar steam generation with salt-rejecting property. The layer-selective soot-deposited fabrics not only act as a solar absorber but also provide the required superhydrophobicity for floating on the water. With a polyester protector, the prepared Janus evaporator exhibits a sustainable evaporation rate of 1.375 kW m<sup>-2</sup> h<sup>-1</sup> and an efficiency of 86.3% under 1 sun (1 kW m<sup>-2</sup>) and also performs well under low intensity and inclined radiation. Furthermore, no special apparatus and/or tedious processes are needed for preparing this device. With a cost of less than $1 per m<sup>2</sup>, this flexible Janus absorber is a promising tool for portable solar vapor generator.