Intercalation processes of copper complexes in DNA.
ABSTRACT: The family of anticancer complexes that include the transition metal copper known as Casiopeínas® shows promising results. Two of these complexes are currently in clinical trials. The interaction of these compounds with DNA has been observed experimentally and several hypotheses regarding the mechanism of action have been developed, and these include the generation of reactive oxygen species, phosphate hydrolysis and/or base-pair intercalation. To advance in the understanding on how these ligands interact with DNA, we present a molecular dynamics study of 21 Casiopeínas with a DNA dodecamer using 10 ?s of simulation time for each compound. All the complexes were manually inserted into the minor groove as the starting point of the simulations. The binding energy of each complex and the observed representative type of interaction between the ligand and the DNA is reported. With this extended sampling time, we found that four of the compounds spontaneously flipped open a base pair and moved inside the resulting cavity and four compounds formed stacking interactions with the terminal base pairs. The complexes that formed the intercalation pocket led to more stable interactions.
Project description:DNA repair enzymes recognize and remove damaged bases that are embedded in the duplex. To gain access, most enzymes use nucleotide flipping, whereby the target nucleotide is rotated 180° into the active site. In human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG), the enzyme that initiates base excision repair of alkylated bases, the flipped-out nucleotide is stabilized by intercalation of the side chain of tyrosine 162 that replaces the lesion nucleobase. Previous kinetic studies provided evidence for the formation of a transient complex that precedes the stable flipped-out complex, but it is not clear how this complex differs from nonspecific complexes. We used site-directed mutagenesis and transient-kinetic approaches to investigate the timing of Tyr162 intercalation for AAG. The tryptophan substitution (Y162W) appeared to be conservative, because the mutant protein retained a highly favorable equilibrium constant for flipping the 1,N6-ethenoadenine (?A) lesion, and the rate of N-glycosidic bond cleavage was identical to that of the wild-type enzyme. We assigned the tryptophan fluorescence signal from Y162W by removing two native tryptophan residues (W270A/W284A). Stopped-flow experiments then demonstrated that the change in tryptophan fluorescence of the Y162W mutant is extremely rapid upon binding to either damaged or undamaged DNA, much faster than the lesion-recognition and nucleotide flipping steps that were independently determined by monitoring the ?A fluorescence. These observations suggest that intercalation by this aromatic residue is one of the earliest steps in the search for DNA damage and that this interaction is important for the progression of AAG from nonspecific searching to specific-recognition complexes.
Project description:The computer molecular modeling program HINT (Hydropathic INTeractions), an empirical hydropathic force field function that includes hydrogen bonding, coulombic and hydrophobic terms, was used to study sequence-selective doxorubicin binding/intercalation in the 64 unique CAxy, CGxy, TAxy, TGxy base pair quartet combinations. The CAAT quartet sequence is shown to have the highest binding score of the 64 combinations. Of the two regularly alternating polynucleotides, d(CGCGCG)2and d(TATATA)2, the HINT calculated binding scores reveal doxorubicin binds preferentially to d(TATATA)2. Although interactions of the chromophore with the DNA base pairs defining the intercalation site [I-1] [I+1] and the neighboring [I+2] base pair are predominant, the results obtained with HINT indicate that the base pair [I+3] contributes significantly to the sequence selectivity of doxorubicin by providing an additional hydrogen bonding opportunity for the N3' ammonium of the daunosamine sugar moiety in approximately 25% of the sequences. This observation, that interactions involving a base pair [I+3] distal to the intercalation site play a significant role in stabilizing/destabilizing the intercalation of doxorubicin into the various DNA sequences, has not been previously reported. In general terms, this work shows that molecular modeling and careful analysis of molecular interactions can have a significant role in designing and evaluating nucleotides and antineoplastic agents.
Project description:An intermolecular intercalation of base pairs was found at the CA step in the I222 crystal structure of the RNA.DNA hybrid, r(CAAAGAAAAG).d(CTTTTCTTTG), which contains two-thirds of the polypurine tract sequence of HIV-1 with a substitution of cytosine for the initial adenine. This sequence crystallized in both P212121 and I222 space groups, with an rms difference of only 0.63 A between residues 3 to 18 of the two forms. P212121 and I222 helices are both A-like, but intercalation occurs only in the I222 crystal form. The present structure shows bases stacked in parallel rather than perpendicular as in intercalated DNA (I-DNA). The base intercalation is also different from zipper-like meshing of bases seen in the center of the crystal structure of d(GCGAAAGCT), which does not have Watson-Crick base pairing. The base-step intercalation seen here is reminiscent of domain swapping in proteins; therefore, we call this phenomenon "base-pair swapping." It involves a highly mobile CA step and seems to be sequence-specific and electrostatically stable without disrupting Watson-Crick interactions. It also exhibits a large rise concurrent with unwinding of the helix (low twist). We present a base-pair swapping dimer in nucleic acids.
Project description:The structures of the complexes formed between 9-amino-[N:-(2-dimethyl-amino)butyl]acridine-4-carboxamide and d(CG(5Br)UACG)(2) and d(CGTACG)(2) have been solved by X-ray crystallography using MAD phasing methodology and refined to a resolution of 1.6 A. The complexes crystallised in space group C222. An asymmetric unit in the brominated complex comprises two strands of DNA, one disordered drug molecule, two cobalt (II) ions and 19 water molecules (31 in the native complex). Asymmetric units in the native complex also contain a sodium ion. The structures exhibit novel features not previously observed in crystals of DNA/drug complexes. The DNA helices stack in continuous columns with their central 4 bp adopting a B-like motif. However, despite being a palindromic sequence, the terminal GC base pairs engage in quite different interactions. At one end of the duplex there is a CpG dinucleotide overlap modified by ligand intercalation and terminal cytosine exchange between symmetry-related duplexes. A novel intercalation complex is formed involving four DNA duplexes, four ligand molecules and two pairs of base tetrads. The other end of the DNA is frayed with the terminal guanine lying in the minor groove of the next duplex in the column. The structure is stabilised by guanine N7/cobalt (II) coordination. We discuss our findings with respect to the effects of packing forces on DNA crystal structure, and the potential effects of intercalating agents on biochemical processes involving DNA quadruplexes and strand exchanges. NDB accession numbers: DD0032 (brominated) and DD0033 (native).
Project description:Daunomycin is one of the most important agents used in anticancer chemotherapy. It interacts with DNA through intercalation of its planar chromophore between successive base pairs. The effect of intercalation on structure, dynamics and energetics is the topic of a wealth of scientific studies. In the present study, we report a computational examination of the energetics of the intercalation process. In detail, we concentrate on the energetic penalty that intercalation of daunomycin introduces into DNA by disturbing it from its unbound conformation. For these means, we are analyzing already published molecular dynamics simulations of daunomycin-DNA complexes and present novel simulations of a bisdaunomycin-DNA and a 9-dehydroxydaunomycin-DNA intercalated complex using the MM-GBSA module implemented in the AMBER suite of programs. Using this molecular dynamics based, continuum solvent method we were able to calculate the energy required to form an intercalation site. Consequently, we compare the free energy of the duplex d(CGCGCGATCGCGCG)(2) in the B-form conformation with the respective conformations when intercalated with daunomycin and a bisintercalating analog. Our results show that the introduction of one single intercalation site costs approximately 32 kcal/mol. For double intercalation, or intercalation of the bisintercalator, the respective value for one intercalation site decreases to 27 and 24 kcal/mol, respectively, at a theoretical salt concentration of 0.15 M. This proposes that at least in these cases, a synergistic effect takes place. Although it is well known that intercalation leads to substantial disturbance of the DNA conformation, already performed investigations suggest a lower energetic penalty. Nevertheless to the best of our knowledge the calculations presented here are the most complete ones and consider hydration effects for the first time. The interaction energy between the ligand and the DNA certainly over-compensates this penalty for introducing the intercalation site and thus favors complexation. Such analyses are helpful for the description of allosteric effects in protein ligand binding.
Project description:Two novel coordination compounds of half-sandwiched ruthenium(II) containing 2-(5-fluorouracil)-yl-N-(pyridyl)-acetamide were synthesized, and their intercalation binding modes with calf thymus DNA were revealed by hyperchromism of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy; the binding constants were determined according to a Langmuir adsorption equation that was deduced on the base of careful cyclic voltammetry measurements. The two compounds exhibited DNA intercalation binding activities with the binding constants of 1.13×106 M-1 and 5.35 ×105 M-1, respectively.
Project description:The PD-(D/E)XK type II restriction endonuclease ThaI cuts the target sequence CG/CG with blunt ends. Here, we report the 1.3?Å resolution structure of the enzyme in complex with substrate DNA and a sodium or calcium ion taking the place of a catalytic magnesium ion. The structure identifies Glu54, Asp82 and Lys93 as the active site residues. This agrees with earlier bioinformatic predictions and implies that the PD and (D/E)XK motifs in the sequence are incidental. DNA recognition is very unusual: the two Met47 residues of the ThaI dimer intercalate symmetrically into the CG steps of the target sequence. They approach the DNA from the minor groove side and penetrate the base stack entirely. The DNA accommodates the intercalating residues without nucleotide flipping by a doubling of the CG step rise to twice its usual value, which is accompanied by drastic unwinding. Displacement of the Met47 side chains from the base pair midlines toward the downstream CG steps leads to large and compensating tilts of the first and second CG steps. DNA intercalation by ThaI is unlike intercalation by HincII, HinP1I or proteins that bend or repair DNA.
Project description:Binuclear polypyridine ruthenium compounds have been shown to slowly intercalate into DNA, following a fast initial binding on the DNA surface. For these compounds, intercalation requires threading of a bulky substituent, containing one Ru(II), through the DNA base-pair stack, and the accompanying DNA duplex distortions are much more severe than with intercalation of mononuclear compounds. Structural understanding of the process of intercalation may greatly gain from a characterisation of the initial interactions between binuclear Ru(II) compounds and DNA. We report a structural NMR study on the binuclear Ru(II) intercalator ?,?-B (?,?-[?-bidppz(bipy)4Ru2](4+); bidppz = 11,11'-bis(dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazinyl, bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) mixed with the palindromic DNA [d(CGCGAATTCGCG)]2. Threading of ?,?-B depends on the presence and length of AT stretches in the DNA. Therefore, the latter was selected to promote initial binding, but due to the short stretch of AT base pairs, final intercalation is prevented. Structural calculations provide a model for the interaction: ?,?-B is trapped in a well-defined surface-bound state consisting of an eccentric minor-groove binding. Most of the interaction enthalpy originates from electrostatic and van der Waals contacts, whereas intermolecular hydrogen bonds may help to define a unique position of ?,?-B. Molecular dynamics simulations show that this minor-groove binding mode is stable on a nanosecond scale. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first structural study by NMR spectroscopy on a binuclear Ru compound bound to DNA. In the calculated structure, one of the positively charged Ru(2+) moieties is near the central AATT region; this is favourable in view of potential intercalation as observed by optical methods for DNA with longer AT stretches. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy suggests that a similar binding geometry is formed in mixtures of ?,?-B with natural calf thymus DNA. The present minor-groove binding mode is proposed to represent the initial surface interactions of binuclear Ru(II) compounds prior to intercalation into AT-rich DNA.
Project description:The ubiquitous, eukaryotic, high-mobility group box (HMGB) chromosomal proteins promote many chromatin-mediated cellular activities through their non-sequence-specific binding and bending of DNA. Minor-groove DNA binding by the HMG box results in substantial DNA bending toward the major groove owing to electrostatic interactions, shape complementarity, and DNA intercalation that occurs at two sites. Here, the structures of the complexes formed with DNA by a partially DNA intercalation-deficient mutant of Drosophila melanogaster HMGD have been determined by X-ray crystallography at a resolution of 2.85 Å. The six proteins and 50 bp of DNA in the crystal structure revealed a variety of bound conformations. All of the proteins bound in the minor groove, bridging DNA molecules, presumably because these DNA regions are easily deformed. The loss of the primary site of DNA intercalation decreased overall DNA bending and shape complementarity. However, DNA bending at the secondary site of intercalation was retained and most protein-DNA contacts were preserved. The mode of binding resembles the HMGB1 box A-cisplatin-DNA complex, which also lacks a primary intercalating residue. This study provides new insights into the binding mechanisms used by HMG boxes to recognize varied DNA structures and sequences as well as modulate DNA structure and DNA bending.
Project description:At slightly acidic pH, the association of two d(5mCCTCACTCC) strands results in the formation of an i-motif dimer. Using NMR methods, we investigated the structure of [d(5mCCTCACTCC)]2, the internal motion of the base pairs stacked in the i-motif core, the dimer formation and dissociation kinetics versus pH. The excellent resolution of the 1H and 31P spectra provided the determination of dihedral angles, which together with a large set of distance restraints, improve substantially the definition of the sugar-phosphate backbone by comparison with previous NMR studies of i-motif structures. [d(5mCCTCACTCC)]2 is built by intercalation of two symmetrical hairpins held together by six symmetrical C*C+ pairs and by pair T7*T7. The hairpin loops that are formed by a single residue, A5, cross the narrow grooves on the same side of the i-motif core. The base pair intercalation order is C9*C9+/5mC1*5mC1+/C8*C8+/C2*C2+/T7.T7/C6*C6+/C4*C4+. The T3 bases are flipped out in the wide grooves. The core of the structure includes four long-lived pairs whose lifetimes at 15 degrees C range from 100 s (C8*C8+) to 0.18 s (T7*T7). The formation rate and the lifetime of [d(5mCCTCACTCC)]2 were measured between pH 6.8 and 4.8. The dimer formation rate is three to four magnitude orders slower than that of a B-DNA duplex. It depends on pH, as it must occur for a bimolecular process involving non cooperative association of neutral and protonated residues. In the range of pH investigated, the dimer lifetime, 500 s at 0 degrees C, pH 6.8, varies approximately as 10(-pH).