Promoting C-C Bond Coupling of Benzyne and Methyl Ligands in Electron-Deficient (triphos)Pt-CH3(+) Complexes.
ABSTRACT: In situ generated benzyne reacts at room temperature with (triphos)Pt-CH3(+) to form a five-coordinate ?-complex (2) that is isolable and stable in solution. Thermolysis of 2 at 60 °C generates (triphos)Pt(o-tolyl)(+) (3), which is the product of formal migratory insertion of CH3(-) onto the coordinated benzyne. The reaction of 2 with the acid Ph2NH2(+) yields toluene at room temperature over the course of 8 h, while the same reaction with 3 only proceeds to 40% conversion over 2 days. These data indicate that the protonolysis of 2 does not proceed by CH3 migration onto benzyne to form 3 followed by protodemetalation. Instead, the data suggest either that protonation of 2 is first and is followed by H migration to yield a Pt(IV)Ph(Me) dication or that this latter species is generated by direct protonolysis of coordinated benzyne prior to reductive elimination of toluene.
Project description:The hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol can be achieved using a single molecular organometallic catalyst. Whereas homogeneous catalysts were previously believed to allow the hydrogenation only via formate esters as stable intermediates, the present mechanistic study demonstrates that the multistep transformation can occur directly on the Ru-Triphos (Triphos = 1,1,1-tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethane) centre. The cationic formate complex [(Triphos)Ru(?2-O2CH)(S)]+ (S = solvent) was identified as the key intermediate, leading to the synthesis of the analogous acetate complex as a robust and stable precursor for the catalytic transformation. A detailed mechanistic study using DFT calculations shows that a sequential series of hydride transfer and protonolysis steps can account for the transformation of CO2via formate/formic acid to hydroxymethanolate/formaldehyde and finally methanolate/methanol within the coordination sphere of a single Ru-Triphos-fragment. All experimental results of the systematic parameter optimisation are fully consistent with this mechanistic picture. Based on these findings, a biphasic system consisting of H2O and 2-MTHF was developed, in which the active cationic Ru-complex resides in the organic phase for recycling and methanol is extracted with the aqueous phase.
Project description:In situ generated [(PPP)Pt][BF(4)](2) (PPP = triphos) catalyzes the cycloisomerization of 1,6-enyne-ols by initiative pi-activation of the alkyne. This generates an isolable cationic Pt-alkenyl species which subsequently participates in turnover limiting protonolysis with in situ generated acid. This latter reactivity contrasts cationic Pt-alkyls which are more difficult to protonolyze. Mechanistic studies on isolated Pt-alkenyls, and deuterium labeling helped to elucidate the mechanistic details.
Project description:A new thermal isomerization of polyynes is described. Benzyne intermediates substituted by a C(RR')OR'' substituent adjacent to one of the benzyne sp-hybridized carbons give rise to products in which the OR' moiety has migrated to the proximal benzyne carbon. This process likely proceeds via sequential formation of multiple reactive intermediates: an initial thermally generated benzyne, a strained benzoxetenonium ion, and an o-quinone methide. As some examples demonstrate, the overall transformation can be quite efficient. The mechanism of this novel reaction is further supported by experiments and DFT calculations.
Project description:A new benzyne transformation is described that affords versatile biaryl structures without recourse to transition-metal catalysis or stoichiometric amounts of organometallic building blocks. Aryl sulfonamides add to benzyne upon fluoride activation, and then undergo an aryl Truce-Smiles rearrangement to afford biaryls with sulfur dioxide extrusion. The reaction proceeds under simple reaction conditions and has excellent scope for the synthesis of sterically hindered atropisomeric biaryl amines.
Project description:The arylation of bicyclic oxathiane glycosyl donors has been achieved using benzyne generated in situ from 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT) and lead tetraacetate. Following sulfur arylation, glycosylation of acetate ions proceeded with high levels of stereoselectivity to afford ? -glycosyl acetates in a 'one-pot' reaction, even in the presence of alternative acceptor alcohols.
Project description:An intramolecular benzyne-diene [4 + 2] cycloaddition with broad substrate scope has been realized by using a cleavable silicon tether, allowing access to various polycyclic structures. 2-Bromo-6-(chlorodiisopropylsilyl)phenyl tosylate serves as an efficient platform for (1) rapid attachment of various arynophiles to the benzyne precursor via a Si-O bond and (2) facile generation of benzyne via halogen-metal exchange with Ph3MgLi.
Project description:A high-yielding fluorination of (triphos)Pt-R(+) has been achieved using an array of F(+) sources, with XeF(2) yielding R-F in minutes. The C-F coupling proved to be a stereoretentive process that proceeds via a concerted reductive elimination from a putative dicationic Pt(IV) center. The larger the steric congestion of the (triphos)Pt-C(sp3) (+) complexes, the more efficient the fluorination, seemingly a result of sterically accelerated C-F reductive elimination along with simultaneous deceleration of its competing processes (?-H elimination).
Project description:Cyano-containing compounds constitute important pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and organic materials. Traditional cyanation methods often rely on the use of toxic metal cyanides which have serious disposal, storage and transportation issues. Therefore, there is an increasing need to develop general and efficient catalytic methods for cyanide-free production of nitriles. Here we report the reductive cyanation of organic chlorides using CO2/NH3 as the electrophilic CN source. The use of tridentate phosphine ligand Triphos allows for the nickel-catalyzed cyanation of a broad array of aryl and aliphatic chlorides to produce the desired nitrile products in good yields, and with excellent functional group tolerance. Cheap and bench-stable urea was also shown as suitable CN source, suggesting promising application potential. Mechanistic studies imply that Triphos-Ni(I) species are responsible for the reductive C-C coupling approach involving isocyanate intermediates. This method expands the application potential of reductive cyanation in the synthesis of functionalized nitrile compounds under cyanide-free conditions, which is valuable for safe synthesis of (isotope-labeled) drugs.
Project description:The selective catalytic hydrogenation of nitriles represents an important but challenging transformation for many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Herein, we report the efficient and modular solid-phase synthesis of immobilized Triphos-type ligands in very high yields, involving only minimal work-up procedures. The corresponding supported ruthenium–Triphos catalysts are tested in the hydrogenation of various nitriles. Under mild conditions and without the requirement of additives, the tunable supported catalyst library provides selective access to both primary amines and secondary imines. Moreover, the first application of a Triphos-type catalyst in a continuous flow process is presented demonstrating high catalyst life-time over at least 195 hours without significant activity loss.