Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the CDPK Gene Family in Grape, Vitis spp.
ABSTRACT: Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play vital roles in plant growth and development, biotic and abiotic stress responses, and hormone signaling. Little is known about the CDPK gene family in grapevine.In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the 12X grape genome (Vitis vinifera) and identified nineteen CDPK genes. Comparison of the structures of grape CDPK genes allowed us to examine their functional conservation and differentiation. Segmentally duplicated grape CDPK genes showed high structural conservation and contributed to gene family expansion. Additional comparisons between grape and Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that several grape CDPK genes occured in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of grapevine and Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis divided the grape CDPK genes into four groups. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the corresponding nineteen homologous CDPK genes in the Chinese wild grape (Vitis pseudoreticulata) under various conditions, including biotic stress, abiotic stress, and hormone treatments. The expression profiles derived from reverse transcription and quantitative PCR suggested that a large number of VpCDPKs responded to various stimuli on the transcriptional level, indicating their versatile roles in the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moreover, we examined the subcellular localization of VpCDPKs by transiently expressing six VpCDPK-GFP fusion proteins in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts; this revealed high variability consistent with potential functional differences.Taken as a whole, our data provide significant insights into the evolution and function of grape CDPKs and a framework for future investigation of grape CDPK genes.
Project description:Plant calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) were reported to play important roles in plant resistance to abiotic stress. Foxtail millet cultivation "H138" was used for RNA-seq analysis. The data from drought-induced de novo transcriptomic sequences of foxtail millet showed that CDPKs were up- or down-regulated by drought to different degrees. In this study, 29 foxtail millet CDPKs were classified into four subgroups. These genes were unevenly distributed on nine foxtail millet chromosomes, and chromosomes 2, 3, and 9 contained the most SiCDPK members. Analysis of putative cis-acting elements showed that most foxtail millet CDPK genes contained the ABRE, LTR, HSE, MYB, MYC, DRE, CGTCA-motif, and TGACG-motif cis-acting elements, which could be activated by abiotic stresses. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that 29 SiCDPK genes experienced different degrees of induction under drought and ABA stresses. SiCDPK24 had the highest expression levels at 6 and 12 h of drought treatment and was chosen for further analysis. SiCDPK24 localized to the cell membrane and the nucleus of Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Western blot analysis showed that SiCDPK24 protein had autophosphorylation activity. Overexpression of SiCDPK24 in Arabidopsis enhanced drought resistance and improved the survival rate under drought stress. It also activated the expressions of nine stress-related genes, namely RD29A, RD29B, RD22, KIN1, COR15, COR47, LEA14, CBF3/DREB1A, and DREB2A. These genes are involved in resistance to abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. These results indicate that foxtail millet CDPK genes play important roles in resisting drought stress.
Project description:Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are encoded by a large gene family and play important roles against biotic and abiotic stresses and in plant growth and development. To date, little is known about the CDPK genes in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). In this study, analysis of Fragaria x ananassa CDPK gene family was performed, including gene structures, phylogeny, interactome and expression profiles. Nine new CDPK genes in Fragaria x ananassa were identified based on RNA-seq data. These identified strawberry FaCDPK genes were classified into four main groups, based on the phylogenetic analysis and structural features. FaCDPK genes were differentially expressed during fruit development and ripening, as well as in response to abiotic stress (salt and drought), and hormone (abscisic acid) treatment. In addition, the interaction network analysis pointed out proteins involved in the ABA-dependent response to plant stress via Ca2+ signaling, especially RBOHs. To our knowledge, this is the first report on CDPK families in Fragaria x ananassa, and it will provide valuable information for development of biofortified fruits and stress tolerant plants.
Project description:Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs or CPKs) play important roles in various physiological processes of plants, including growth and development, stress responses and hormone signaling. Although the CDPK gene family has been characterized in several model plants, little is known about this gene family in Hevea brasiliensis (the Para rubber tree). Here, we characterize the entire H. brasiliensis CDPK and CDPK-related kinase (CRK) gene families comprising 30 CDPK genes (HbCPK1 to 30) and nine CRK genes (HbCRK1 to 9). Structure and phylogeny analyses of these CDPK and CRK genes demonstrate evolutionary conservation in these gene families across H. brasiliensis and other plant species. The expression of HbCPK and HbCRK genes was investigated via Solexa sequencing in a range of experimental conditions (different tissues, phases of leaf development, ethylene treatment, and various abiotic stresses). The results suggest that HbCPK and HbCRK genes are important components in growth, development, and stress responses of H. brasiliensis. Parallel studies on the CDPK and CRK gene families were also extended to five other plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Populus trichocarpa, Manihot esculenta, and Ricinus communis). The CDPK and CRK genes from different plant species that exhibit similar expression patterns tend to cluster together, suggesting a coevolution of gene structure and expression behavior in higher plants. The results serve as a foundation to further functional studies of these gene families in H. brasiliensis as well as in the whole plant kingdom.
Project description:Calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play significant role in regulation of plant growth and development in response to various stresses including drought. A set of 32 CDPK genes identified in maize were further used for searching of orthologs in the model plant Arabidopsis (72) and major food crops such as rice (78) and sorghum (91). We comprehensively studied the phylogenetic relationship, annotations, gene duplications, gene structure, divergence time, 3-D protein structures and tissue-specific drought induced expression of CDPK genes in all four species. Variation in intron frequency in the studied species was one of the reasons for the functional diversity of CDPK genes to various stress responses. Protein kinase and protein kinase C phosphorylation site domains were the most conserved motifs identified in all species. Four groups were identified from the sequence-based phylogenetic analysis, in which maize CDPKs were clustered in group III. Expression data showed that the CDPK genes were highly expressed in leaf of maize, rice, and sorghum whereas in Arabidopsis the maximum expression was observed in root. The expression assay showed 5, 6, 11, and 9 were the commonly and differentially expressed drought-related orthologous genes in maize, Arabidopsis, rice, and sorghum, respectively. 3-D protein structure were predicted for the nine genes (Arabidopsis: 2, maize: 2, rice: 3, and sorghum: 2) showing differential expression in at least three species. The predicted 3-D structures were further evaluated and validated by Ramachandran plot, ANOLEA, ProSA, and Verify-3D. The superimposed 3-D structure of drought-related orthologous proteins retained similar folding pattern owing to their conserved nature. Functional annotation revealed the involvement of CDPK genes in various pathways such as osmotic homeostasis, cell protection, and root growth. The interactions of CDPK genes in various pathways play crucial role in imparting drought tolerance through different ABA and MAPK signaling cascades. These selected candidate genes could be targeted in development of drought tolerant genotypes in maize, rice, and sorghum through appropriate breeding approaches. Our comparative experiments of CDPK genes could also be extended in the drought stress breeding programmes of the related species.
Project description:Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are molecular switches that bind Ca(2+), ATP, and protein substrates, acting as sensor relays and responders that convert Ca(2+) signals, created by developmental processes and environmental stresses, into phosphorylation events. The precise functions of the CDPKs in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) are largely unknown. We therefore investigated the phylogenetic relationships and expression profiles of the 17 CDPK genes identified in the 12x grapevine genome sequence, resolving them into four subfamilies based on phylogenetic tree topology and gene structures. The origins of the CDPKs during grapevine evolution were characterized, involving 13 expansion events. Transcriptomic analysis using 54 tissues and developmental stages revealed three types of CDPK gene expression profiles: constitutive (housekeeping CDPKs), partitioned functions, and prevalent in pollen/stamen. We identified two duplicated CDPK genes that had evolved from housekeeping to pollen-prevalent functions and whose origin correlated with that of seed plants, suggesting neofunctionalization with an important role in pollen development and also potential value in the breeding of seedless varieties. We also found that CDPKs were involved in three abiotic stress signaling pathways and could therefore be used to investigate the crosstalk between stress responses.
Project description:Plants are constantly exposed to environmental changes and need to integrate multiple external stress cues. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are implicated as major primary Ca2+ sensors in plants. CDPK activation, like activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), is triggered by biotic and abiotic stresses, although distinct stimulus-specific stress responses are induced. To investigate whether CDPKs are part of an underlying mechanism to guarantee response specificity, we identified CDPK-controlled signaling pathways. A truncated form of Nicotiana tabacum CDPK2 lacking its regulatory autoinhibitor and calcium-binding domains was ectopically expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Infiltrated leaves responded to an abiotic stress stimulus with the activation of biotic stress reactions. These responses included synthesis of reactive oxygen species, defense gene induction, and SGT1-dependent cell death. Furthermore, N-terminal CDPK2 signaling triggered enhanced levels of the phytohormones jasmonic acid, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and ethylene but not salicylic acid. These responses, commonly only observed after challenge with a strong biotic stimulus, were prevented when the CDPK's intrinsic autoinhibitory peptide was coexpressed. Remarkably, elevated CDPK signaling compromised stress-induced MAPK activation, and this inhibition required ethylene synthesis and perception. These data indicate that CDPK and MAPK pathways do not function independently and that a concerted activation of both pathways controls response specificity to biotic and abiotic stress.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ca2+ played as a ubiquitous secondary messenger involved in plant growth, development, and responses to various environmental stimuli. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPK) were important Ca2+ sensors, which could directly translate Ca2+ signals into downstream phosphorylation signals. Considering the importance of CDPKs as Ca2+ effectors for regulation of plant stress tolerance and few studies on Brachypodium distachyon were available, it was of interest for us to isolate CDPKs from B. distachyon. RESULTS:A systemic analysis of 30 CDPK family genes in B. distachyon was performed. Results showed that all BdCDPK family members contained conserved catalytic Ser/Thr protein kinase domain, autoinhibitory domain, and EF-hand domain, and a variable N-terminal domain, could be divided into four subgroup (I-IV), based upon sequence homology. Most BdCDPKs had four EF-hands, in which EF2 and EF4 revealed high variability and strong divergence from EF-hand in AtCDPKs. Synteny results indicated that large number of syntenic relationship events existed between rice and B. distachyon, implying their high conservation. Expression profiles indicated that most of BdCDPK genes were involved in phytohormones signal transduction pathways and regulated physiological process in responding to multiple environmental stresses. Moreover, the co-expression network implied that BdCDPKs might be both the activator and the repressor involved in WRKY transcription factors or MAPK cascade genes mediated stress response processes, base on their complex regulatory network. CONCLUSIONS:BdCDPKs might play multiple function in WRKY or MAPK mediated abiotic stresses response and phytohormone signaling transduction in B. distachyon. Our genomics analysis of BdCDPKs could provide fundamental information for further investigation the functions of CDPKs in integrating Ca2+ signalling pathways in response to environments stresses in B. distachyon.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have been shown to play important roles in various physiological processes, including plant growth and development, abiotic and biotic stress responses and plant hormone signaling in plants. RESULTS: In this study, we performed a bioinformatics analysis of the entire maize genome and identified 40 CDPK genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 40 ZmCPKs can be divided into four groups. Most maize CDPK genes exhibited different expression levels in different tissues and developmental stages. Twelve CDPK genes were selected to respond to various stimuli, including salt, drought and cold, as well as ABA and H2O2. Expression analyses suggested that maize CDPK genes are important components of maize development and multiple transduction pathways. CONCLUSION: Here, we present a genome-wide analysis of the CDPK gene family in maize for the first time, and this genomic analysis of maize CDPK genes provides the first step towards a functional study of this gene family in maize.
Project description:Several plant CDPKs were recently shown to be dual specificity kinases rather than Ser/Thr kinases as traditionally classified by sequence analysis. In the present study we confirm the autophosphorylation of recombinant soybean His 6-GmCDPK? at the Tyr-24 site using sequence- and modification- specific antibodies. Homology modeling of soybean CDPK? based on recent structures determined for several apicomplexan CDPKs suggested that phosphotyrosine-24 may be inaccessible to phosphatases. However, we report that dephosphorylation of CDPK? by the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, PTP1B, was not restricted in the presence of calcium. Thus, despite conformational changes likely associated with calcium binding to the CDPKs, phosphotyrosine sites remain fully accessible to dephosphorylation suggesting the possibility of conformational breathing and flexing.
Project description:WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant defence regulatory networks, including responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, no large-scale study of WRKY genes has been undertaken in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, a total of 59 putative grape WRKY genes (VvWRKY) were identified and renamed on the basis of their respective chromosome distribution. A multiple sequence alignment analysis using all predicted grape WRKY genes coding sequences, together with those from Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicated that the 59 VvWRKY genes can be classified into three main groups (I-III). An evaluation of the duplication events suggested that several WRKY genes arose before the divergence of the grape and Arabidopsis lineages. Moreover, expression profiles derived from semiquantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed distinct expression patterns in various tissues and in response to different treatments. Four VvWRKY genes showed a significantly higher expression in roots or leaves, 55 responded to varying degrees to at least one abiotic stress treatment, and the expression of 38 were altered following powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) infection. Most VvWRKY genes were downregulated in response to abscisic acid or salicylic acid treatments, while the expression of a subset was upregulated by methyl jasmonate or ethylene treatments.