Effect of Early Rehabilitation during Intensive Care Unit Stay on Functional Status: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
ABSTRACT: Critically ill survivors may have functional impairments even five years after hospital discharge. To date there are four systematic reviews suggesting a beneficial impact for mobilisation in mechanically ventilated and intensive care unit (ICU) patients, however there is limited information about the influence of timing, frequency and duration of sessions. Earlier mobilisation during ICU stay may lead to greater benefits. This study aims to determine the effect of early rehabilitation for functional status in ICU/high-dependency unit (HDU) patients.Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH, PEDro, Cochrane Library, AMED, ISI web of science, Scielo, LILACS and several clinical trial registries were searched for randomised and non-randomised clinical trials of rehabilitation compared to usual care in adult patients admitted to an ICU/HDU. Results were screened by two independent reviewers. Primary outcome was functional status. Secondary outcomes were walking ability, muscle strength, quality of life, and healthcare utilisation. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment using the PEDro scale was performed by primary reviewer and checked by two other reviewers. The authors of relevant studies were contacted to obtain missing data.5733 records were screened. Seven articles were included in the narrative synthesis and six in the meta-analysis. Early rehabilitation had no significant effect on functional status, muscle strength, quality of life, or healthcare utilisation. However, early rehabilitation led to significantly more patients walking without assistance at hospital discharge (risk ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72). There was a non-significant effect favouring intervention for walking distance and incidence of ICU-acquired weakness.Early rehabilitation during ICU stay was not associated with improvements in functional status, muscle strength, quality of life or healthcare utilisation outcomes, although it seems to improve walking ability compared to usual care. Results from ongoing studies may provide more data on the potential benefits of early rehabilitation in critically ill patients.
Project description:Liver diseases contribute significantly to the health and economic burden globally. We undertook this study to assess the health system costs, out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure and extent of financial risk protection associated with treatment of liver disorders in a tertiary care public sector hospital in India.The present study was undertaken in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care hospital in North India. It comprised an ICU and an HDU (high dependency unit). Bottom-up micro-costing was undertaken to assess the health system costs. Data on OOP expenditure and indirect costs were collected for 150 liver disorder patients admitted to the ICU or HDU from December 2013 to October 2014. Per-patient and per-bed-day costs of treatment were estimated from both health system and patient perspectives. Financial risk protection was assessed by computing prevalence of catastrophic health expenditure as a result of OOP expenditure.In 2013-2014, health system costs per patient treated in the ICU and HDU were US$2728 [Indian National Rupee (INR) 1,63,664] and US$1966 (INR 1,17,985), respectively. The mean OOP expenditures for treatment in the ICU and HDU were US$2372 (INR 1,42,297) and US$1752 (INR 1,05,093), respectively. Indirect costs of hospitalization in ICU and HDU patients were US$166 (INR 9952) and US$182 (INR 10,903), respectively.Treatment of chronic liver disorders poses an economic challenge for both the health system and patients. There is a need to focus on prevention of liver disorders, and finding ways to treat patients without exposing their households to the catastrophic effect of OOP expenditure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalisations of elderly patients with acute respiratory infection have increased, yet the long-term effects of ICU admission among elderly individuals remain unknown. We examined differences over the 2?years after discharge in mortality, healthcare utilisation and frailty score between elderly survivors of ARI in the ICU and an elderly control population. METHODS:We used 2009-2017 data from 39 hospital discharge databases. Patients ??80?years old discharged alive from ICU hospitalisation for acute respiratory infection were propensity score-matched with controls (cataract surgery) discharged from the hospital at the same time and adjusted for age, sex and comorbidities present before hospitalisation. We reported 2-year mortality and compared healthcare utilisation and frailty scores in the 2-year periods before and after ICU hospitalisation. RESULTS:One thousand two hundred and twenty elderly survivors of acute respiratory infection in the ICU were discharged, and 988 were successfully matched with controls. After discharge, patients had a 10.1-fold [95% CI, 6.1-17.3] higher risk of death at 6?months and 3.6-fold [95% CI, 2.9-4.6] higher risk of death at 2?years compared with controls. They also had a 2-fold increase in both healthcare utilisation and frailty score in the 2?years after hospital discharge, whereas healthcare utilisation and frailty scores among controls were stable before and after hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS:We observed a substantially increased rate of death in the years following ICU hospitalisation for elderly patients along with elevated healthcare resource use and accelerated age-associated decline as assessed by frailty score. These findings provide data for better informed goals-of-care discussions and may help target post-ICU discharge services.
Project description:Immobilisation in the intensive care unit (ICU) leads to muscle weakness and is associated with increased costs and long-term functional disability. Previous studies showed early mobilisation of medical ICU patients improves clinical outcomes. The Surgical ICU Optimal Mobilisation Score (SOMS) trial aims to test whether a budget-neutral intervention to facilitate goal-directed early mobilisation in the surgical ICU improves participant mobilisation and associated clinical outcomes.The SOMS trial is an international, multicentre, randomised clinical study being conducted in the USA and Europe. We are targeting 200 patients. The primary outcome is average daily SOMS level and key secondary outcomes are ICU length of stay until discharge readiness and 'mini' modified Functional Independence Measure (mmFIM) at hospital discharge. Additional secondary outcomes include quality of life assessed at 3 months after hospital discharge and global muscle strength at ICU discharge. Exploratory outcomes will include: ventilator-free days, ICU and hospital length of stay and 3-month mortality. We will explore genetic influences on the effectiveness of early mobilisation and centre-specific effects of early mobilisation on outcomes.Following Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval in three institutions, we started study recruitment and plan to expand to additional centres in Germany and Italy. Safety monitoring will be the domain of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). The SOMS trial will also explore the feasibility of a transcontinental study on early mobilisation in the surgical ICU.The results of this study, along with those of ancillary studies, will be made available in the form of manuscripts and presentations at national and international meetings.This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01363102).
Project description:This study aimed to determine if the risk of adverse outcomes (in-hospital and 60-day mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) and total hospital length of stay (LOS)) was greater for medical ICU (MICU) or high dependency unit (HDU) patients indirectly admitted from the emergency department (ED) than for directly admitted patients.This study was conducted at a large public acute care hospital in Singapore.In this retrospective cohort study, hospital records of patients who were admitted directly from the ED, or initially admitted to the general wards from the ED and subsequently transferred to the MICU/HDU within 24?h, were reviewed. Patients were included if they were: (A) discharged from the MICU/HDU in 2009 and were admitted from the ED and (B) transferred to the MICU/HDU within 24?h of presentation at the ED. Data from 706 patients were analysed; 58.4% were men with a median age of 61?years.The following outcomes were compared: in-hospital mortality, 60-day mortality, LOS at the MICU/HDU, as well as total hospital LOS.Of the 706 patients, 491 (69.5%) were directly admitted to the MICU/HDU. After adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, interventions at the ED and clinical parameters at the ED (heart rate, respiration, oxygen saturation, mean arterial pressure), as well as the Apache II score on arrival at the MICU/HDU, indirectly admitted patients had a higher risk of in-hospital mortality (OR=3.07, 95% CI 1.39 to 6.80), death within 60?days (OR=3.09, 95% CI 1.40 to 6.83) and risk of staying >1?day at the MICU/HDU (OR=2.54, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.36). There was no significant difference in total in-hospital LOS.Indirectly admitted MICU/HDU patients had generally poorer outcomes. As the magnitude of effect may vary across settings, context-specific studies may be useful for improving outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Decisions to admit high-risk postoperative patients to critical care may be affected by resource availability. We aimed to quantify adult ICU/high-dependency unit (ICU/HDU) capacity in hospitals from the UK, Australia, and New Zealand (NZ), and to identify and describe additional 'high-acuity' beds capable of managing high-risk patients outside the ICU/HDU environment. METHODS:We used a modified Delphi consensus method to design a survey that was disseminated via investigator networks in the UK, Australia, and NZ. Hospital- and ward-level data were collected, including bed numbers, tertiary services offered, presence of an emergency department, ward staffing levels, and the availability of critical care facilities. RESULTS:We received responses from 257 UK (response rate: 97.7%), 35 Australian (response rate: 32.7%), and 17 NZ (response rate: 94.4%) hospitals (total 309). Of these hospitals, 91.6% reported on-site ICU or HDU facilities. UK hospitals reported fewer critical care beds per 100 hospital beds (median=2.7) compared with Australia (median=3.7) and NZ (median=3.5). Additionally, 31.1% of hospitals reported having high-acuity beds to which high-risk patients were admitted for postoperative management, in addition to standard ICU/HDU facilities. The estimated numbers of critical care beds per 100 000 population were 9.3, 14.1, and 9.1 in the UK, Australia, and NZ, respectively. The estimated per capita high-acuity bed capacities per 100 000 population were 1.2, 3.8, and 6.4 in the UK, Australia, and NZ, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Postoperative critical care resources differ in the UK, Australia, and NZ. High-acuity beds may have developed to augment the capacity to deliver postoperative critical care.
Project description:Critical illness myopathy (CIM) and polyneuropathy (CIP) are common complications of critical illness that frequently occur together. Both cause so called intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired muscle weakness. This weakness of limb muscles increases morbidity and delay rehabilitation and recovery of walking ability. Although full recovery has been reported people with severe weakness may take months to improve walking. Focused physical rehabilitation of people with ICU-acquired muscle weakness is therefore of great importance. However, although physical rehabilitation is common, detailed knowledge about the pattern and the time course of recovery of walking function are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the General Weakness Syndrome Therapy (GymNAST) study is to describe the time course of recovery of walking function and other activities of daily living in these patients.We conduct a prospective cohort study of people with ICU-acquired muscle weakness with defined diagnosis of CIM or CIP. Based on our sample size calculation, approximately 150 patients will be recruited from the ICU of our hospital in Germany. Amount and content of physical rehabilitation, clinical tests for example, muscle strength and motor function and neuropsychological assessments will be used as independent variables. The primary outcomes will include recovery of walking function and mobility. Secondary outcomes will include global motor function, activities in daily life and participation.The study is being carried out in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki and conducted with the approval of the local medical Ethics Committee (Landesärztekammer Sachsen, Germany, reference number EK-BR-32/13-1) and with the understanding and written consent of each patient's guardian. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the medical society and general public.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We aimed to determine whether enhanced physical rehabilitation following intensive care unit (ICU) discharge improves activities-of-daily-living function, quality of life (QOL) and mortality among patients who received mechanical ventilation in the ICU. DESIGN:Systematic review and meta-analysis using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. DATA SOURCES:MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, PEDro and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform searched through January 2019. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES:We included randomised controlled trials assessing the effect of post-ICU rehabilitation designed to either commence earlier and/or be more intensive than the protocol employed in the control group. Only adults who received mechanical ventilation for >24 hours were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Standard mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs were calculated for QOL, and pooled risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs are provided for mortality. We assessed heterogeneity based on I² and the certainty of evidence based on the GRADE approach. RESULTS:Ten trials (enrolling 1110 patients) compared physical rehabilitation with usual care or no intervention after ICU discharge. Regarding QOL, the SMD (95% CI) between the intervention and control groups for the physical and mental component summary scores was 0.06 (-0.12 to 0.24) and -0.04 (-0.20 to 0.11), respectively. Rehabilitation did not significantly decrease long-term mortality (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.66). The analysed trials did not report activities-of-daily-living data. The certainty of the evidence for QOL and mortality was moderate. CONCLUSIONS:Enhanced physical rehabilitation following ICU discharge may make little or no difference to QOL or mortality among patients who received mechanical ventilation in the ICU. Given the wide CIs, further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of intensive post-ICU rehabilitation in selected populations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42017080532.
Project description:There is no consensus on the most effective rehabilitation regimen following extensor tendon repair of the hand. This systematic review evaluates the outcomes of the various regimens. The Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PEDro, OTseeker databases were searched for any prospective randomised clinical trials comparing rehabilitation regimens for acute extensor tendon injuries in adults. Five papers met the inclusion criteria. The regimens were static immobilisation, dynamic splinting and early active motion (EAM). There was no standard format of reporting. The sample size ranged from 27 to 100 patients. The duration of follow-up ranged from 8 to 24 weeks. Overall, patients' total active motion improved with time. Early mobilisation regimens (active and passive) achieve quicker recovery of motion than static immobilisation but the long-term outcome appears similar. Given the comparable outcomes between dynamic splinting and EAM, we therefore favour EAM which is simpler and more convenient.
Project description:with ageing populations and increasing exposure to risk factors for chronic diseases, the prevalence of chronic disease multimorbidity is rising globally. There is little evidence on the determinants of multimorbidity and its impact on healthcare utilisation and health status in Europe.we used cross-sectional data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) in 2011-12, which included nationally representative samples of persons aged 50 and older from 16 European nations. Negative binomial and logistic regression models were used to assess the association between number of chronic diseases and healthcare utilisation, self-perceived health, depression and reduction of functional capacity.overall, 37.3% of participants reported multimorbidity; the lowest prevalence was in Switzerland (24.7%), the highest in Hungary (51.0%). The likelihood of having multimorbidity increased substantially with age. Number of chronic conditions was associated with greater healthcare utilisation in both primary (regression coefficient for medical doctor visits = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.27-0.30) and secondary setting (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for having any hospitalisation in the last year = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.42-1.55) in all countries analysed. Number of chronic diseases was associated with fair/poor health status (AOR 2.13, 95% CI = 2.03-2.24), being depressed (AOR 1.48, 95% CI = 1.42-1.54) and reduced functional capacity (AOR 2.12, 95% CI = 2.02-2.22).multimorbidity is associated with greater healthcare utilisation, worse self-reported health status, depression and reduced functional capacity in European countries. European health systems should prioritise improving the management of patients with multimorbidity to improve their health status and increase healthcare efficiency.
Project description:To describe predictors for health-related quality of life, participation, physical activity and cognitive function in patients with intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired muscle weakness 1 year after discharge from rehabilitation.This is a cohort study.We included 150 chronic critically ill individuals with ICU-acquired muscle weakness.Postacute ICU and rehabilitation units in Germany.We measured health-related quality of life using the EQ-5D, participation using the Reintegration of Normal Living Index, physical activity using the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities, and basal cognitive function using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) at 6?months, and the Clock Drawing Test 6 and 12 months after discharge from postacute treatment. We described the predictors of the results at 12 months.The best predictors for good health-related quality of life 1?year after discharge were the time until regaining walking ability (OR=0.96, OR per day, 95% CI 0.93 to 0.99) and the mean MoCA score on admission to our postacute ICU and rehabilitation units (OR=1.25,95% CI 1.02 to 1.52).The best predictor for good participation 1?year after discharge was the MoCA sum score on admission to our postacute ICU and rehabilitation units (OR=0.85,95% CI 0.72 to 1.00). The best predictor for good physical activity 1?year after discharge was the Apache sum score on admission to our postacute ICU and rehabilitation units (OR=1.68,95% CI 0.89 to 3.13). The best predictor for normal cognitive function 1?year after discharge was regaining walking function in rehabilitation (OR=8.0,95% CI 0.49 to 13.69).Recovery of health-related quality of life, participation, physical activity and basal cognitive function was still not complete 12 months after discharge from postacute treatment. We described the predictors for these important outcomes in participants with ICU-acquired muscle weakness 1?year after discharge from rehabilitation.DRKS00007181.