P-selectin inhibition therapeutically promotes thrombus resolution and prevents vein wall fibrosis better than enoxaparin and an inhibitor to von Willebrand factor.
ABSTRACT: Aptamers are oligonucleotides targeting protein-protein interactions with pharmacokinetic profiles and activity reversal options. Although P-selectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF) have been implicated in the development of venous thrombosis (VT), no studies have directly compared aptamer efficacy with standard of care in VT. In this study, ARC5692, an anti-P-selectin aptamer, and ARC15105, an anti-vWF aptamer, were compared with low-molecular-weight heparin, enoxaparin, to test the efficacy of P-selectin or vWF inhibition in promoting thrombus resolution and preventing vein wall fibrosis, in a baboon model of VT.Groups were as follows: treatment arm: animals received P-selectin or vWF aptamer inhibitors or enoxaparin (n=3 per group). Controls received no treatment (n=3). Prophylactic arm: animals received P-selectin inhibitor (n=4) or vWF inhibitor (n=3). Treatment arm: P-selectin-inhibitor demonstrated a significant improvement in vein recanalization by magnetic resonance venography (73% at day 21), and significantly decreased vein wall collagen, compared with all groups. Anti-P-selectin equaled enoxaparin in maintaining valve competency by ultrasound. All control animals had compromised valve competency post thrombosis. Prophylactic arm: animals receiving P-selectin and vWF inhibitors demonstrated improved vein recanalization by magnetic resonance venography versus controls (80% and 85%, respectively, at day 21). Anti-P-selectin protected iliac valve function better than anti-vWF, and both improved valve function versus controls. No adverse bleeding events were observed.The P-selectin inhibitor aptamer promoted iliac vein recanalization, preserved valve competency, and decreased vein wall fibrosis. The results of this work suggest that P-selectin inhibition maybe an ideal target in the treatment and prophylaxis of deep VT, warranting clinical trials.
Project description:Pneumonia is a significant risk factor for the development of venous thrombosis (VT). Cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs) are linked to the pathogenesis of both pneumonia and VT. We hypothesized that remote infection would confer a prothrombogenic milieu via systemic elevation of CAMs.Lung injury was induced in wild-type (C57BL/6) mice by lung contusion or intratracheal inoculation with Klebsiella pneumoniae or saline controls. K. pneumoniae-treated mice and controls additionally underwent inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation to generate VT.Lung-contusion mice demonstrated no increase in E-selectin or P-selectin whereas mice infected with K. pneumoniae demonstrated increased circulating P-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complexes. Mice with pneumonia formed VT 3 times larger than controls, demonstrated significantly more upregulation of vein-wall and systemic CAMs, and formed erythrocyte-rich thrombi.Elevated CAM expression was identified in mice with pneumonia, but not lung contusion, indicating that the type of inflammatory stimulus and the presence of infection drive the vein-wall response. Elevation of CAMs was associated with amplified VT and may represent an alternate mechanism by which to target the prevention of VT.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Portal vein thrombosis is a serious adverse event that occurs during liver cirrhosis. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of anticoagulant therapy and prophylactic anticoagulant therapy in cirrhosis patients with (/without) portal vein thrombosis.<h4>Methods</h4>Eligible comparative studies were identified by searching the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and CNKI. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using fixed-effects models. Recanalization and thrombus progression were defined as the primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included adverse events and death mortality.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 3479 patients were included in this analysis. Compared with the control group, the recanalization rate in the anticoagulant therapy group was increased (<i>P</i> < 0.00001) in patients with cirrhosis and portal vein thrombosis without increasing adverse events. Multiple use of enoxaparin in small doses is safer than single large doses (<i>P</i>=0.004). Direct oral anticoagulants are more effective (<i>P</i> < 0.00001) and safer than traditional anticoagulants. Prophylactic anticoagulant therapy can effectively prevent portal vein thrombosis formation (<i>P</i> < 0.00001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Anticoagulation therapy can treat or prevent portal vein thrombosis in patients with liver cirrhosis and is a relatively safe treatment.
Project description:Acutely secreted von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers adhere to endothelial cells, support platelet adhesion, and may induce microvascular thrombosis. Immunofluorescence microscopy of live human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed that VWF multimers rapidly formed strings several hundred micrometers long on the cell surface after stimulation with histamine. Unexpectedly, only a subset of VWF strings supported platelet binding, which depended on platelet glycoprotein Ib. Electron microscopy showed that VWF strings often consisted of bundles and networks of VWF multimers, and each string was tethered to the cell surface by a limited number of sites. Several approaches implicated P-selectin and integrin alpha(v)beta(3) in anchoring VWF strings. An RGDS peptide or a function-blocking antibody to integrin alpha(v)beta(3) reduced the number of VWF strings formed. In addition, integrin alpha(v) decorated the VWF strings by immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, lentiviral transduction of shRNA against the alpha(v) subunit reduced the expression of cell-surface integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and impaired the ability of endothelial cells to retain VWF strings. Soluble P-selectin reduced the number of platelet-decorated VWF strings in the absence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) but had no effect in the presence of these cations. These results indicate that VWF strings bind specifically to integrin alpha(v)beta(3) on human endothelial cells.
Project description:Background:In chronic haemodialysis patients central veins occlusion occur very often. In such patients, permanent pacemaker placement implantation can be challenging and alternative approaches should be used. Case summary:This is a case of 66-year-old male patient with complete atrioventricular block after a mitral valve (MV) surgery for endocarditis. The patient has a permanent surgically inserted haemodialysis catheter in right heart atrium after several unsuccessful attempts of endovascular recanalization of superior vena cava. A lead was implanted in the right ventricle after successful endovascular revascularization of the right iliac vein. The pacemaker was placed in a pouch on the right lower abdominal wall. Discussion:To our knowledge, this is the first reported case where a permanent single-chamber pacemaker was implanted through the right iliac vein after successful endovascular recanalization in chronic haemodialysis patient post-MV replacement.
Project description:In a recent genome-wide association study, variants in 8 genes were associated with VWF level, a risk factor for venous thrombosis (VT). In an independent, population-based, case-control study of incident VT, we tested hypotheses that variants in these genes would be associated with risk. Cases were 656 women who experienced an incident VT, and controls comprised 710 women without a history of VT. DNA was obtained from whole blood. Logistic regression was used to test associations between incident VT and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 genes not previously shown to be associated with VT. Associations with P < .05 were candidates for replication in an independent case-control study of VT in both sexes. Two of the 7 SNPs tested yielded P < .05: rs1039084 (P = .005) in STXBP5, a novel candidate gene for VT, and rs1063856 (P = .04) in VWF, a gene whose protein level is associated with VT risk. Association results for the remaining 5 variants in SCARA5, STAB2, STX2, TC2N, and CLEC4M were not significant. Both STXBP5 and VWF findings were replicated successfully. Variation in genes associated with VWF levels in the genome-wide association study was found to be independently associated with incident VT.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Catheter ablation (CA) of atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with inflammatory response, endothelial damage and with increased risk of thrombosis. However, whether these processes differ in peripheral and cardiac circulation is unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>Plasma markers (von Willebrand factor (vWf), soluble P-selectin (sPsel) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) were measured by ELISA at three time points in 80 patients (62±10 years, 63% males, 41% paroxysmal AF) undergoing CA. These were at baseline--from femoral vein (FV) and left atrium (LA) before ablation; directly after ablation--from the pulmonary vein (PV), LA and FV; and 24 hours after procedure--from a cubital vein (CV).<h4>Results</h4>The levels of vWF and IL6--but not sP-sel--increased significantly 24 h after procedure (p<0.001). Baseline vWF was significantly associated with persistent AF (Beta = .303, p = 0.006 and Beta = .300, p = 0.006 for peripheral and cardiac levels, respectively), while persistent AF (Beta = .250, p = 0.031) and LAA flow pattern (Beta = .386, p<0.001) remained associated with vWF in cardiac blood after ablation. Advanced age was significantly associated with IL6 levels at baseline and after ablation in peripheral and cardiac blood. There were no clinical, procedural or anti-coagulation characteristics associated with sP-sel levels in cardiac blood, while peripheral sP-sel levels were associated with hypertension before (Beta = -.307, p = 0.007) and with persistent AF after ablation (Beta = -.262, p = 0.020).<h4>Conclusions</h4>vWF levels are higher in persistent AF and are associated with LAA rheological pattern after AF ablation. Increase of peripheral vWF and IL6 levels after procedure supports current AF ablation management with careful control of post-procedural anticoagulation to avoid ablation-related thromboembolism.
Project description:Deep venous valves are frequent sites of deep venous thrombosis initiation. However, the possible contribution of the valvular sinus endothelium has received little attention in studies of thrombosis risk. We hypothesized that the endothelium of valve sinus differs from that of vein lumen with up-regulation of anticoagulant and down-regulation of procoagulant activities in response to the local environment. In pursuit of this hypothesis, we quantified endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), thrombomodulin (TM), and von Willebrand factor (VWF) by immunofluorescence in great saphenous veins harvested at cardiac bypass surgery. We found significantly increased expression of EPCR and TM in the valvular sinus endothelium as opposed to the vein lumenal endothelium, and the opposite pattern with VWF (paired t test for TM and EPCR, each P < .001; for VWF, P = .01). These data support our hypothesis and suggest that variation in valvular sinus thromboresistance may be an important factor in venous thrombogenesis.
Project description:Stimulation of endothelial cells by various inflammatory mediators leads to release of Weibel--Palade bodies and therefore to exocytosis of both P-selectin (adhesion receptor for leukocytes) and von Willebrand factor (vWf) (platelet ligand). The potential role of vWf in leukocyte recruitment was investigated with the use of vWf-deficient mice. We report a strong reduction of leukocyte rolling in venules of vWf-deficient mice. Similarly, vWf deficiency led to a decrease in neutrophil recruitment in a cytokine-induced meningitis model as well as in early skin wounds. In all instances with an antibody that preferentially recognizes plasma membrane P-selectin, we observed a dramatic reduction in P-selectin expression at the cell surface of vWf-deficient endothelium. With confocal microscopy, we found that the typical rodlike shape of the Weibel--Palade body is missing in vWf -/- endothelial cells and that part of the P-selectin content in the vWf -/- cells colocalized with LAMP-1, a lysosomal marker. However, intracellular P-selectin levels were similar in tumor necrosis factor alpha- and lipopolysaccharide-activated cells of both genotypes. We conclude that the absence of vWf, as found in severe von Willebrand disease, leads to a defect in Weibel--Palade body formation. This defect results in decreased P-selectin translocation to the cell surface and reduced leukocyte recruitment in early phases of inflammation.
Project description:<h4>Background and aim</h4>Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a common complication of cirrhosis. The exact pathophysiology remains largely unknown, and treatment with anticoagulants does not lead to recanalization of the portal vein in all patients. A better insight into the structure and composition of portal vein thrombi may assist in developing strategies for the prevention and treatment of PVT.<h4>Approach and results</h4>Sixteen prospectively and 63 retrospectively collected nonmalignant portal vein thrombi from patients with cirrhosis who underwent liver transplantation were included. Histology, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess structure and composition of the thrombi. Most recent CT scans were reanalyzed for thrombus characteristics. Clinical characteristics were related to histological and radiological findings. All samples showed a thickened, fibrotic tunica intima. Fibrin-rich thrombi were present on top of the fibrotic intima in 9/16 prospective cases and in 21/63 retrospective cases. A minority of the fibrotic areas stained focally positive for fibrin/fibrinogen (16% of cases), von Willebrand factor (VWF; 10%), and CD61 (platelets, 21%), while most of the fibrin-rich areas stained positive for those markers (fibrin/fibrinogen, 100%; VWF, 77%; CD61, 100%). No associations were found between clinical characteristics including estimated thrombus age and use of anticoagulants and presence of fibrin-rich thrombi.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We demonstrate that PVT in patients with cirrhosis consists of intimal fibrosis with an additional fibrin-rich thrombus in only one-third of cases. We hypothesize that our observations may explain why not all portal vein thrombi in patients with cirrhosis recanalize by anticoagulant therapy.
Project description:Exocytosis of endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies, which contain von Willebrand factor (VWF), P-selectin and other modulators, plays an important role in both inflammation and thrombosis. The present study investigates whether genipin, an aglycon of geniposide, inhibits endothelial exocytosis.Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated from umbilical cords and cultured. The concentration of VWF in cell supernatants was measured using an ELISA Kit. P-selectin translocation on the cell surface was analyzed by cell surface ELISA. Cell viability was measured using a Cell Counting Kit-8. Mouse bleeding times were measured by amputating the tail tip. Western blot analysis was used to determine the amount of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and phospho-eNOS present. Nitric oxide (NO) was measured in the cell supernatants as nitrite using an NO Colorimetric Assay.Genipin inhibited thrombin-induced VWF release and P-selectin translocation in HUVECs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The drug had no cytotoxic effect on the cells at the same doses that were able to inhibit exocytosis. The functional study that demonstrated that genipin inhibited exocytosis in vivo also showed that genipin prolonged the mouse bleeding time. Furthermore, genipin activated eNOS phosphorylation, promoted enzyme activation and increased NO production. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NOS, reversed the inhibitory effects of genipin on endothelial exocytosis.Genipin inhibits endothelial exocytosis in HUVECs. The mechanism by which this compound inhibits exocytosis may be related to its ability to stimulate eNOS activation and NO production. Our findings suggest a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism for genipin. This compound may represent a new treatment for inflammation and/or thrombosis in which excess endothelial exocytosis plays a pathophysiological role.