P-selectin inhibition therapeutically promotes thrombus resolution and prevents vein wall fibrosis better than enoxaparin and an inhibitor to von Willebrand factor.
ABSTRACT: Aptamers are oligonucleotides targeting protein-protein interactions with pharmacokinetic profiles and activity reversal options. Although P-selectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF) have been implicated in the development of venous thrombosis (VT), no studies have directly compared aptamer efficacy with standard of care in VT. In this study, ARC5692, an anti-P-selectin aptamer, and ARC15105, an anti-vWF aptamer, were compared with low-molecular-weight heparin, enoxaparin, to test the efficacy of P-selectin or vWF inhibition in promoting thrombus resolution and preventing vein wall fibrosis, in a baboon model of VT.Groups were as follows: treatment arm: animals received P-selectin or vWF aptamer inhibitors or enoxaparin (n=3 per group). Controls received no treatment (n=3). Prophylactic arm: animals received P-selectin inhibitor (n=4) or vWF inhibitor (n=3). Treatment arm: P-selectin-inhibitor demonstrated a significant improvement in vein recanalization by magnetic resonance venography (73% at day 21), and significantly decreased vein wall collagen, compared with all groups. Anti-P-selectin equaled enoxaparin in maintaining valve competency by ultrasound. All control animals had compromised valve competency post thrombosis. Prophylactic arm: animals receiving P-selectin and vWF inhibitors demonstrated improved vein recanalization by magnetic resonance venography versus controls (80% and 85%, respectively, at day 21). Anti-P-selectin protected iliac valve function better than anti-vWF, and both improved valve function versus controls. No adverse bleeding events were observed.The P-selectin inhibitor aptamer promoted iliac vein recanalization, preserved valve competency, and decreased vein wall fibrosis. The results of this work suggest that P-selectin inhibition maybe an ideal target in the treatment and prophylaxis of deep VT, warranting clinical trials.
Project description:Pneumonia is a significant risk factor for the development of venous thrombosis (VT). Cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs) are linked to the pathogenesis of both pneumonia and VT. We hypothesized that remote infection would confer a prothrombogenic milieu via systemic elevation of CAMs.Lung injury was induced in wild-type (C57BL/6) mice by lung contusion or intratracheal inoculation with Klebsiella pneumoniae or saline controls. K. pneumoniae-treated mice and controls additionally underwent inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation to generate VT.Lung-contusion mice demonstrated no increase in E-selectin or P-selectin whereas mice infected with K. pneumoniae demonstrated increased circulating P-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complexes. Mice with pneumonia formed VT 3 times larger than controls, demonstrated significantly more upregulation of vein-wall and systemic CAMs, and formed erythrocyte-rich thrombi.Elevated CAM expression was identified in mice with pneumonia, but not lung contusion, indicating that the type of inflammatory stimulus and the presence of infection drive the vein-wall response. Elevation of CAMs was associated with amplified VT and may represent an alternate mechanism by which to target the prevention of VT.
Project description:Acutely secreted von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers adhere to endothelial cells, support platelet adhesion, and may induce microvascular thrombosis. Immunofluorescence microscopy of live human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed that VWF multimers rapidly formed strings several hundred micrometers long on the cell surface after stimulation with histamine. Unexpectedly, only a subset of VWF strings supported platelet binding, which depended on platelet glycoprotein Ib. Electron microscopy showed that VWF strings often consisted of bundles and networks of VWF multimers, and each string was tethered to the cell surface by a limited number of sites. Several approaches implicated P-selectin and integrin alpha(v)beta(3) in anchoring VWF strings. An RGDS peptide or a function-blocking antibody to integrin alpha(v)beta(3) reduced the number of VWF strings formed. In addition, integrin alpha(v) decorated the VWF strings by immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, lentiviral transduction of shRNA against the alpha(v) subunit reduced the expression of cell-surface integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and impaired the ability of endothelial cells to retain VWF strings. Soluble P-selectin reduced the number of platelet-decorated VWF strings in the absence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) but had no effect in the presence of these cations. These results indicate that VWF strings bind specifically to integrin alpha(v)beta(3) on human endothelial cells.
Project description:Background:In chronic haemodialysis patients central veins occlusion occur very often. In such patients, permanent pacemaker placement implantation can be challenging and alternative approaches should be used. Case summary:This is a case of 66-year-old male patient with complete atrioventricular block after a mitral valve (MV) surgery for endocarditis. The patient has a permanent surgically inserted haemodialysis catheter in right heart atrium after several unsuccessful attempts of endovascular recanalization of superior vena cava. A lead was implanted in the right ventricle after successful endovascular revascularization of the right iliac vein. The pacemaker was placed in a pouch on the right lower abdominal wall. Discussion:To our knowledge, this is the first reported case where a permanent single-chamber pacemaker was implanted through the right iliac vein after successful endovascular recanalization in chronic haemodialysis patient post-MV replacement.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation (CA) of atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with inflammatory response, endothelial damage and with increased risk of thrombosis. However, whether these processes differ in peripheral and cardiac circulation is unknown. METHODS: Plasma markers (von Willebrand factor (vWf), soluble P-selectin (sPsel) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) were measured by ELISA at three time points in 80 patients (62±10 years, 63% males, 41% paroxysmal AF) undergoing CA. These were at baseline--from femoral vein (FV) and left atrium (LA) before ablation; directly after ablation--from the pulmonary vein (PV), LA and FV; and 24 hours after procedure--from a cubital vein (CV). RESULTS: The levels of vWF and IL6--but not sP-sel--increased significantly 24 h after procedure (p<0.001). Baseline vWF was significantly associated with persistent AF (Beta?=?.303, p?=?0.006 and Beta?=?.300, p?=?0.006 for peripheral and cardiac levels, respectively), while persistent AF (Beta?=?.250, p?=?0.031) and LAA flow pattern (Beta?=?.386, p<0.001) remained associated with vWF in cardiac blood after ablation. Advanced age was significantly associated with IL6 levels at baseline and after ablation in peripheral and cardiac blood. There were no clinical, procedural or anti-coagulation characteristics associated with sP-sel levels in cardiac blood, while peripheral sP-sel levels were associated with hypertension before (Beta?=?-.307, p?=?0.007) and with persistent AF after ablation (Beta?=?-.262, p?=?0.020). CONCLUSIONS: vWF levels are higher in persistent AF and are associated with LAA rheological pattern after AF ablation. Increase of peripheral vWF and IL6 levels after procedure supports current AF ablation management with careful control of post-procedural anticoagulation to avoid ablation-related thromboembolism.
Project description:Deep venous valves are frequent sites of deep venous thrombosis initiation. However, the possible contribution of the valvular sinus endothelium has received little attention in studies of thrombosis risk. We hypothesized that the endothelium of valve sinus differs from that of vein lumen with up-regulation of anticoagulant and down-regulation of procoagulant activities in response to the local environment. In pursuit of this hypothesis, we quantified endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), thrombomodulin (TM), and von Willebrand factor (VWF) by immunofluorescence in great saphenous veins harvested at cardiac bypass surgery. We found significantly increased expression of EPCR and TM in the valvular sinus endothelium as opposed to the vein lumenal endothelium, and the opposite pattern with VWF (paired t test for TM and EPCR, each P < .001; for VWF, P = .01). These data support our hypothesis and suggest that variation in valvular sinus thromboresistance may be an important factor in venous thrombogenesis.
Project description:In a recent genome-wide association study, variants in 8 genes were associated with VWF level, a risk factor for venous thrombosis (VT). In an independent, population-based, case-control study of incident VT, we tested hypotheses that variants in these genes would be associated with risk. Cases were 656 women who experienced an incident VT, and controls comprised 710 women without a history of VT. DNA was obtained from whole blood. Logistic regression was used to test associations between incident VT and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 genes not previously shown to be associated with VT. Associations with P < .05 were candidates for replication in an independent case-control study of VT in both sexes. Two of the 7 SNPs tested yielded P < .05: rs1039084 (P = .005) in STXBP5, a novel candidate gene for VT, and rs1063856 (P = .04) in VWF, a gene whose protein level is associated with VT risk. Association results for the remaining 5 variants in SCARA5, STAB2, STX2, TC2N, and CLEC4M were not significant. Both STXBP5 and VWF findings were replicated successfully. Variation in genes associated with VWF levels in the genome-wide association study was found to be independently associated with incident VT.
Project description:Stimulation of endothelial cells by various inflammatory mediators leads to release of Weibel--Palade bodies and therefore to exocytosis of both P-selectin (adhesion receptor for leukocytes) and von Willebrand factor (vWf) (platelet ligand). The potential role of vWf in leukocyte recruitment was investigated with the use of vWf-deficient mice. We report a strong reduction of leukocyte rolling in venules of vWf-deficient mice. Similarly, vWf deficiency led to a decrease in neutrophil recruitment in a cytokine-induced meningitis model as well as in early skin wounds. In all instances with an antibody that preferentially recognizes plasma membrane P-selectin, we observed a dramatic reduction in P-selectin expression at the cell surface of vWf-deficient endothelium. With confocal microscopy, we found that the typical rodlike shape of the Weibel--Palade body is missing in vWf -/- endothelial cells and that part of the P-selectin content in the vWf -/- cells colocalized with LAMP-1, a lysosomal marker. However, intracellular P-selectin levels were similar in tumor necrosis factor alpha- and lipopolysaccharide-activated cells of both genotypes. We conclude that the absence of vWf, as found in severe von Willebrand disease, leads to a defect in Weibel--Palade body formation. This defect results in decreased P-selectin translocation to the cell surface and reduced leukocyte recruitment in early phases of inflammation.
Project description:Exocytosis of endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies, which contain von Willebrand factor (VWF), P-selectin and other modulators, plays an important role in both inflammation and thrombosis. The present study investigates whether genipin, an aglycon of geniposide, inhibits endothelial exocytosis.Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated from umbilical cords and cultured. The concentration of VWF in cell supernatants was measured using an ELISA Kit. P-selectin translocation on the cell surface was analyzed by cell surface ELISA. Cell viability was measured using a Cell Counting Kit-8. Mouse bleeding times were measured by amputating the tail tip. Western blot analysis was used to determine the amount of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and phospho-eNOS present. Nitric oxide (NO) was measured in the cell supernatants as nitrite using an NO Colorimetric Assay.Genipin inhibited thrombin-induced VWF release and P-selectin translocation in HUVECs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The drug had no cytotoxic effect on the cells at the same doses that were able to inhibit exocytosis. The functional study that demonstrated that genipin inhibited exocytosis in vivo also showed that genipin prolonged the mouse bleeding time. Furthermore, genipin activated eNOS phosphorylation, promoted enzyme activation and increased NO production. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NOS, reversed the inhibitory effects of genipin on endothelial exocytosis.Genipin inhibits endothelial exocytosis in HUVECs. The mechanism by which this compound inhibits exocytosis may be related to its ability to stimulate eNOS activation and NO production. Our findings suggest a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism for genipin. This compound may represent a new treatment for inflammation and/or thrombosis in which excess endothelial exocytosis plays a pathophysiological role.
Project description:Adhesive interactions between circulating sickle red blood cells (RBCs), leukocytes, and endothelial cells are major pathophysiologic events in sickle cell disease (SCD). To develop new therapeutics that efficiently inhibit adhesive interactions, we generated an anti-P-selectin aptamer and examined its effects on cell adhesion using knockout-transgenic SCD model mice. Aptamers, single-stranded oligonucleotides that bind molecular targets with high affinity and specificity, are emerging as new therapeutics for cardiovascular and hematologic disorders. In vitro studies found that the anti-P-selectin aptamer exhibits high specificity to mouse P-selectin but not other selectins. SCD mice were injected with the anti-P-selectin aptamer, and cell adhesion was observed under hypoxia. The anti-P-selectin aptamer inhibited the adhesion of sickle RBCs and leukocytes to endothelial cells by 90% and 80%, respectively. The anti-P-selectin aptamer also increased microvascular flow velocities and reduced the leukocyte rolling flux. SCD mice treated with the anti-P-selectin aptamer demonstrated a reduced mortality rate associated with the experimental procedures compared with control mice. These results demonstrate that anti-P-selectin aptamer efficiently inhibits the adhesion of both sickle RBCs and leukocytes to endothelial cells in SCD model mice, suggesting a critical role for P-selectin in cell adhesion. Anti-P-selectin aptamer may be useful as a novel therapeutic agent for SCD.
Project description:Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) we measured the mobilities of EGFP-tagged soluble secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in individual Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) at early (immature) and late (mature) stages in their biogenesis. Membrane proteins (P-selectin, CD63, Rab27a) were also studied in individual WPBs. In the ER, soluble secretory proteins were mobile; however, following insertion into immature WPBs larger molecules (VWF, Proregion, tPA) and P-selectin became immobilised, whereas small proteins (ssEGFP, eotaxin-3) became less mobile. WPB maturation led to further decreases in mobility of small proteins and CD63. Acute alkalinisation of mature WPBs selectively increased the mobilities of small soluble proteins without affecting larger molecules and the membrane proteins. Disruption of the Proregion-VWF paracrystalline core by prolonged incubation with NH(4)Cl rendered P-selectin mobile while VWF remained immobile. FRAP of P-selectin mutants revealed that immobilisation most probably involves steric entrapment of the P-selectin extracellular domain by the Proregion-VWF paracrystal. Significantly, immobilisation contributed to the enrichment of P-selectin in WPBs; a mutation of P-selectin preventing immobilisation led to a failure of enrichment. Together these data shed new light on the transitions that occur for soluble and membrane proteins following their entry and storage into post-Golgi-regulated secretory organelles.