Expression Profiling of Circulating MicroRNAs in Canine Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease.
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have shown promise as noninvasive biomarkers in cardiac disease. This study was undertaken to investigate the miRNA expression profile in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). 277 miRNAs were quantified using RT-qPCR from six normal dogs (American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Stage A), six dogs with MMVD mild to moderate cardiac enlargement (ACVIM Stage B1/B2) and six dogs with MMVD and congestive heart failure (ACVIM Stage C/D). Eleven miRNAs were differentially expressed (False Discovery Rate < 0.05). Dogs in Stage B1/B2 or C/D had four upregulated miRNAs, including three cfa-let-7/cfa-miR-98 family members, while seven others were downregulated, compared to Stage A. Expression of six of the 11 miRNAs also were significantly different between dogs in Stage C/D and those in Stage B1/B2. The expression changes were greater as disease severity increased. These miRNAs may be candidates for novel biomarkers and may provide insights into genetic regulatory pathways in canine MMVD.
Project description:Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is a serum biomarker of renal damage in dogs. Moreover, SDMA concentration is an independent predictor of development of severe heart failure (HF) in humans with cardiac disease. This study evaluates whether the serum concentration of SDMA in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is influenced by the severity of heart disease, pulmonary hypertension (PH) and treatment of HF. A total of 99 client-owned dogs were included in this retrospective case-control study; 78 dogs were affected by MMVD and classified according to the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) guidelines, and 21 were healthy controls. For each dog, history, physical examination, complete blood count, biochemical profile, thoracic radiography, 6-lead standard electrocardiogram and trans-thoracic echocardiography were available. Comparisons were performed between groups of dogs belonging to different ACVIM stages and between dogs with and without PH. The median SDMA concentration was neither significantly different among groups of dogs in different disease stages (overall P = 0.010), nor among dogs with MMVD, nor between those with [14.5 ?g/dl (10.5-18.8)] and without PH [13 ?g/dl (9-17.2)] (P = 0.295). The concentration of SDMA did not differ between dogs when considering the combined effect of the ACVIM group and cardiac treatment (overall P = 0.486). Furthermore, no correlation was found between SDMA concentration and radiographic and echocardiographic parameters associated with increased MMVD severity. In conclusion, this study failed to demonstrate the presence of renal impairment in dogs with MMVD, and the increase in renal parameters in some dogs in the more advanced stage of MMVD could be attributed to pre-renal azotemia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD), the most common naturally-occurring heart disease in dogs, is associated with alterations in energy metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation. Energy deprivation plays a causal role in the development of heart failure. This study was designed to determine if a cardiac protection blend (CPB) of nutrients containing medium-chain triglycerides as an alternative energy source, fish oil to reduce inflammation, antioxidants, and other key nutrients important to cardiac health and function could slow or prevent MMVD progression. Nineteen dogs with early stage MMVD and 17 breed-, age-, and sex-matched healthy dogs were enrolled for a 6-month blinded, placebo-controlled study. Dogs in each cardiac health group were randomly assigned to either control diet (CON) or CPB-supplemented diet. Echocardiography was performed at baseline, 3?months and 6?months. RESULTS:No changes were found in healthy dogs. While MMVD-CON dogs had an average 10% increase over baseline in left atrial diameter (LAD) and left atrial to aortic root ratio (LA/Ao) at 6?months, MMVD-CPB dogs showed 3% decreases, resulting significant diet by time interactions (P?=?0.037, P?=?0.005, respectively). More MMVD-CON dogs progressed from stage B1 to B2 during the study. A positive correlation was found between 6-month changes in LAD and blood pressures in MMVD-CPB dogs (systolic: P?=?0.050, diastolic: P?=?0.035) but not MMVD-CON dogs. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrated efficacy of CPB-based dietary intervention in reducing LA size and mitral regurgitation, and in slowing or preventing the progression of early MMVD in dogs.
Project description:The concentrations of circulating adipokines in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) have not been investigated in detail.To determine whether serum concentrations of adipokines differ between healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD and whether circulating concentrations depend on the severity of heart failure resulting from MMVD.In the preliminary study, 30 healthy dogs and 17 client-owned dogs with MMVD, and in the subsequent study, 30 healthy dogs and 46 client-owned dogs with MMVD.Prospective case-controlled observational study. In the preliminary study, serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor-? were measured. In the subsequent study, MMVD dogs were divided into three groups according to the International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) classification, and serum concentrations of leptin and adiponectin were measured.In the preliminary study, serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations differed significantly between dogs with MMVD and healthy dogs. Serum leptin (P = .0013) concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with MMVD than in healthy dogs, whereas adiponectin (P = .0009) concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with MMVD. However, we observed no significant differences in the other variables. In the subsequent study, dogs classified as ISACHC class 3 had higher serum concentrations of leptin (P = .0022) than healthy dogs but ISACHC class 1 or 2 dogs did not. Serum adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower in ISACHC class 1 (P < .0001) dogs than in healthy dogs, whereas adiponectin concentrations in ISACHC class 3 dogs were significantly higher than in ISACHC class 1 dogs (P = .0081).Circulating concentrations of leptin and adiponectin might be altered in dogs with MMVD.
Project description:Myocardial energy deprivation plays a causal role in the development of heart failure. A cardiac protection blend (CPB) of nutrients including medium chain triglycerides, fish oil and other key nutrients was developed to slow the progression of canine myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). A six-month dietary intervention demonstrated efficacy of CPB in slowing MMVD progression. Untargeted metabolomic analysis of serum from these dogs identified 102 differential metabolites (adjusted P < 0.05). The ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid (FA) changed from 2.41 and 1.46 in control and CPB groups at baseline to 4.30 and 0.46 at 6 months respectively. A 2.7-fold increase of ?-aminobutyrate, a myocardial modulator of glutathione homeostasis, was found in CPB dogs compared to 1.3-fold increase in control dogs. Arginine and citrulline, precursors of nitric oxide biosynthesis, were both increased 2-fold; caprate, a medium chain FA, was increased 3-fold; and deoxycarnitine, precursor of carnitine biosynthesis, was increased 2.5-fold in CPB dogs. Margarate and methylpalmitate decreased in response to CPB, a potential benefit in MMVD dogs as positive correlations were found between changes in both these FAs and left atrial diameter (r = 0.69, r = 0.87 respectively, adjusted P < 0.05). Sphingomyelins with very long chain saturated FAs associated with decreased risk of heart failure in humans were increased in MMVD dogs fed the CPB diet. Our data supports the hypothesis that CPB improves FA utilization and energetics, reduces oxidative stress and inflammation in MMVD dogs. More studies are needed to understand the roles of specific metabolites in MMVD.
Project description:Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is functionally and histologically identical to mitral valve prolapse (MVP) in humans. Currently, there are no medical treatments that can delay the progression of this valvular disease or associated cardiac remodelling. Therefore, there is a need to understand the molecular pathology associated with MMVD and MVP better, and thus identify potential therapeutic targets. Circulating exosomes contain small RNA, including miRNA, which reflect cell physiology and pathology. This study explored the association between circulating exosomal miRNA (ex-miRNA) content and MMVD, heart failure due to MMVD (MMVD-CHF) and ageing, which is strongly associated with MMVD. Ex-miRNA was isolated from old normal/healthy dogs (n = 6), young normal dogs (n = 7), dogs with MMVD (n = 7) and dogs with MMVD-CHF (n = 7). Separately, total plasma miRNA was isolated from normal dogs (n = 8), dogs with MMVD (n = 8) and dogs with MMVD-CHF (n = 11). Using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, exosomal miR-181c (p = 0.003) and miR-495 (p = 0.0001) significantly increased in dogs with MMVD-CHF compared to the other three groups. Exosomal miR-9 (p = 0.002) increased in dogs with MMVD and MMVD-CHF compared to age-matched (old) normal dogs. Exosomal miR-599 (p = 0.002) decreased in dogs with MMVD compared to old normal dogs. In total plasma, 58 miRNA were deemed significantly different (p < 0.04) between normal dogs, dogs with MMVD and dogs with MMVD-CHF. However, in contrast to ex-miRNA, none of the miRNA in total plasma remained statistically significant if the false discovery rate was <15%. Changes in ex-miRNA are observed in dogs as they age (miR-9, miR-495 and miR-599), develop MMVD (miR-9 and miR-599) and progress from MMVD to CHF (miR-181c and miR-495). Ex-miRNA expression-level changes appear to be more specific to disease states than total plasma miRNA. RESPONSIBLE EDITOR Elena Aikawa, Harvard Medical School, USA.
Project description:In this study, we aimed to demonstrate expression profiles of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in dogs with eccentric or concentric cardiac hypertrophy, and investigate whether there is a difference in miRNA expression according to the type of cardiac hypertrophy. Dogs with myxomatous mitral valve degeneration (MMVD) or pulmonic stenosis (PS) were included in this study, which are the two representative diseases of eccentric or concentric cardiac hypertrophy in dogs, respectively. Circulating miRNAs were isolated from the serum samples of five dogs with MMVD, five dogs with PS, and five healthy dogs. The circulating miRNA expression levels of dogs with MMVD or PS were compared with those of the healthy dogs by microarray analysis (Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 4.0), using two independent parameters, a fold change cut-off of > 1.5 (up or down regulation) and p-value of < 0.05.
Project description:Pimobendan is effective in treatment of dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Its effect on dogs before the onset of CHF is unknown.Administration of pimobendan (0.4-0.6 mg/kg/d in divided doses) to dogs with increased heart size secondary to preclinical MMVD, not receiving other cardiovascular medications, will delay the onset of signs of CHF, cardiac-related death, or euthanasia.360 client-owned dogs with MMVD with left atrial-to-aortic ratio ?1.6, normalized left ventricular internal diameter in diastole ?1.7, and vertebral heart sum >10.5.Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded, multicenter clinical trial. Primary outcome variable was time to a composite of the onset of CHF, cardiac-related death, or euthanasia.Median time to primary endpoint was 1228 days (95% CI: 856-NA) in the pimobendan group and 766 days (95% CI: 667-875) in the placebo group (P = .0038). Hazard ratio for the pimobendan group was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.47-0.87) compared with the placebo group. The benefit persisted after adjustment for other variables. Adverse events were not different between treatment groups. Dogs in the pimobendan group lived longer (median survival time was 1059 days (95% CI: 952-NA) in the pimobendan group and 902 days (95% CI: 747-1061) in the placebo group) (P = .012).Administration of pimobendan to dogs with MMVD and echocardiographic and radiographic evidence of cardiomegaly results in prolongation of preclinical period and is safe and well tolerated. Prolongation of preclinical period by approximately 15 months represents substantial clinical benefit.
Project description:Coenzyme Q10 (Q10) is a mitochondrial cofactor and an antioxidant with the potential to combat oxidative stress in heart failure. This study aims to determine the pharmacokinetics of repeated oral dosing of Q10 in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) with spontaneous myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and to evaluate echocardiographic parameters, circulating cardiac biomarkers, and quality of life (QoL) after treatment. The study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blinded crossover study. Nineteen CKCS with MMVD were randomized to receive 100 mg Q10 (ubiquinone) bi-daily for three weeks, then placebo (or in reverse order). Clinical examination, blood sampling, echocardiography, and QoL assessment were performed before and after each treatment phase. Q10 plasma concentrations were determined in plasma using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method using electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Eighteen CKCS were included in the analyses. Total plasma concentration of Q10 increased significantly (p < 0.0001) from baseline (median, 0.92 µg/mL; interquartile range (IQR), 0.70-1.26) to after treatment (median, 3.51 µg/mL; IQR, 2.30-6.88). Thirteen dogs reached the threshold of a total plasma Q10 concentration of ?2.0 µg/mL. The average half-life (T1/2) of Q10 was 2.95 days (IQR, 1.75-4.02). No significant differences were observed in clinical MMVD severity, and the owner perceived QoL between Q10 and placebo treatment. The solubilized Q10 formulation was well-tolerated in the dogs. Individual variation in plasma concentrations was observed following oral treatment. A long-term placebo-controlled trial is warranted in dogs with MMVD to determine long-term efficacy on the clinical severity of MMVD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Evaluation of pimobendan in dogs with cardiomegaly caused by preclinical myxomatous mitral valve disease (EPIC) study monitored dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) as they developed congestive heart failure (CHF). OBJECTIVES:To describe the changes in clinical and radiographic variables occurring as dogs with MMVD and cardiomegaly develop CHF, compared to similar dogs that do not develop CHF. ANIMALS:One hundred and thirty-five, and 73 dogs that did or did not develop CHF, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The following variables were evaluated in 2 groups of dogs (dogs that did or did not develop CHF): Heart rate (HR), clinic respiratory rate (RR), home-measured resting respiratory rate (RRR), rectal temperature (RT), body weight (BW), and vertebral heart sum (VHS). Absolute value and rate of change of each variable were calculated for each day a dog was in study. Daily means were calculated and plotted against time. The onset of CHF or last visit before leaving the study were set as reference time points. RESULTS:The most extreme values and rate of change occurred in variables immediately before onset of CHF. Vertebral heart sum increased earliest. Heart rate, RR, and RRR also increased. Rectal temperature and BW decreased. Increases in RR and RRR were most extreme and occurred immediately before CHF. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:Dogs with MMVD and cardiomegaly experience increases in HR, RR, RRR, and VHS, and decreases in BW and RT as they develop CHF. The variables with highest absolute change and rate of change were RR and RRR. These findings reinforce the value of RR and RRR as indicators of impending or incipient CHF.
Project description:The effect of seasonal variation on hospital admissions and outcomes in humans with cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure (CHF) has been described. This study evaluates the effect of temperature variation on admissions and outcomes in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and first onset CHF. Ninety-three client-owned dogs with MMVD and a first occurrence of pulmonary edema were included in this retrospective clinical cohort study. Recorded clinical and echocardiographic variables were accumulated and analyzed with dogs allocated into groups in a temperature-wise manner that considered the mean of the average (Tave) and maximum ambient temperature (Tmax) of the 14 days preceding hospital admission. A survival analysis was also performed. No difference was found in the percentage of dogs decompensating in three different temperature periods (i.e., cold, intermediate, and hot temperature) according to both Tave and Tmax. Dogs developing CHF during the intermediate temperatures according to Tmax died earlier from cardiac-related causes (median survival time 280 days, 95% CI = 147-486 days) compared to those decompensating during hot temperatures (median survival time 518 days, 95% CI = 344-819 days, P = 0.039). However, an effect of the ambient temperature on survival was not confirmed by Cox proportional hazard analysis. In conclusion, this study failed to show that ambient temperature has an effect on the first occurrence of CHF and outcomes in dogs with MMVD.